Symmetry: Recent Developments in Engineering Science and Applications

A special issue of Symmetry (ISSN 2073-8994). This special issue belongs to the section "Engineering and Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2024 | Viewed by 13327

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
Interests: cosmology; inflationary cosmology; modified theories of gravity; physics of the early universe; dark energy; dark matter; supersymmetry; mathematical physics; high energy physics; theoretical physics; epistemic game theory; game theory
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are pleased to announce that Symmetry will feature a Special Issue on “Symmetry: Recent Developments in Engineering Science and Applications”. We aim to introduce new insights into science development or cutting-edge technology related to mathematical modeling in engineering science and applications, which are expected to make a great contribution to the community. The Special Issue will feature original research articles with top-level mathematical modeling or experimental outcomes and a strong substantiation of conclusions and results, as well as relevant analytical reviews, on all aspects of symmetry or asymmetry in engineering, materials, energy sciences, and other interdisciplinary areas. The Special Issue is part of the multidisciplinary Section “Engineering Science and Symmetry/Asymmetry” of the Symmetry journal.

Our aim is to provide a concrete encyclopedia of recent advances in mathematical modeling in engineering science and applications and database for experts, publishing papers with engineering significance that are dedicated to the most up-to-date issues and mainstream topics. Emphasis on review or original research articles will be given, related to cutting-edge technologies and contemporary technology applications. Research articles are expected to have original content and demonstrate clear scientific novelty.

The topics covered in this Special Issue of the Section “Engineering Science and Symmetry/Asymmetry” include but are not limited to the following:

  • Materials engineering;
  • Nanotechnology;
  • Power systems and thermal engineering;
  • Mechanical engineering, mechatronics, and robotics;
  • Automation and control engineering;
  • Electronic engineering;
  • Communication engineering;
  • Chemical and molecular engineering;
  • Optical engineering and technology;
  • Other areas of interest associated with engineering and materials science where a multidisciplinary approach is required.

In general, this Special Issue will serve as a platform for researchers to publish their scientific work, helping them to influence the scientific community as well as the general public.

Prof. Dr. Vasilis K. Oikonomou
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Symmetry is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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20 pages, 2799 KiB  
Article
Towards Modelling Mechanical Shaking Using Potential Energy Surfaces: A Toy Model Analysis
by Sergei D. Odintsov and Vasilis K. Oikonomou
Symmetry 2024, 16(5), 572; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym16050572 - 7 May 2024
Viewed by 393
Abstract
In this work, we formalize the effect of mechanical shaking by using various forms of an externally exerted force, which may be constant or may be position-dependent, and we examine the changes in the potential energy surfaces that quantify the chemical reaction. We [...] Read more.
In this work, we formalize the effect of mechanical shaking by using various forms of an externally exerted force, which may be constant or may be position-dependent, and we examine the changes in the potential energy surfaces that quantify the chemical reaction. We use a simple toy model to model the potential energy surfaces of a chemical reaction, and we study the effect of a constant or position-dependent externally exerted force for various forms of the force. As we demonstrate, the effect of the force can be quite dramatic on the potential energy surfaces, which acquire new stationary points and new Newton trajectories that are distinct from the original ones that were obtained in the absence of mechanochemical effects. We also introduce a new approach to mechanochemical interactions, using a dynamical systems approach for the Newton trajectories. As we show, the dynamical system attractor properties of the trajectories in the phase space are identical to the stationary points of the potential energy surfaces, but the phase space contains much more information regarding the possible evolution of the chemical reaction—information that is quantified by the existence of unstable or saddle fixed points in the phase space. We also discuss how an experimental method for a suitable symmetric liquid solution substance might formalize the effect of shaking via various forms of external force, even in the form of an extended coordinate-dependent force matrix. This approach may experimentally quantify the Epstein effect of shaking in chemical solutions via mechanochemistry methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry: Recent Developments in Engineering Science and Applications)
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12 pages, 5578 KiB  
Article
Nitrogen and Phosphorus Co-Doped Carbon Dots for the Growth Promotion of Water Spinach
by Fan Yu, Mengqi She, Xia Cai, Xiaoyan Li, Yuan Huang, Hongwei Lei and Zuojun Tan
Symmetry 2023, 15(8), 1532; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym15081532 - 3 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1337
Abstract
Carbon dots have received much attention due to their unique physicochemical properties and diverse applications in bioimaging, optoelectronic devices, catalysis, and agriculture. Here, in this work, we report a simple hydrothermal synthesis of nitrogen and phosphorus−doped carbon dots (N, P−CDs). The optical and [...] Read more.
Carbon dots have received much attention due to their unique physicochemical properties and diverse applications in bioimaging, optoelectronic devices, catalysis, and agriculture. Here, in this work, we report a simple hydrothermal synthesis of nitrogen and phosphorus−doped carbon dots (N, P−CDs). The optical and physical properties of the synthesized N, P−CDs are analyzed using systematical spectroscopy and electrical characterization. The synthesized N, P−CDs show strong photoluminescence at 626 nm and demonstrate high stability under UV light and other conditions. Moreover, we incorporate the synthesized N, P−CDs into water spinach by root spraying and leaf spraying. It is found that N, P−CDs could effectively promote the growth of water spinach by accelerating the photosynthetic rate, and increasing the content of total phenols, anthocyanins, and flavonoids in water spinach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry: Recent Developments in Engineering Science and Applications)
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16 pages, 18731 KiB  
Article
Optimal Design of a Canopy Using Parametric Structural Design and a Genetic Algorithm
by Saaranya Kumar Dasari, Nicholas Fantuzzi, Patrizia Trovalusci, Roberto Panei and Marco Pingaro
Symmetry 2023, 15(1), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym15010142 - 3 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2768
Abstract
The structural performance of any building design is often dependent on the geometrical shape, which affects its behavior and stability. Structural consideration and optimization in the conceptual stage of the design process can lead to better solutions and design exploration. In this paper, [...] Read more.
The structural performance of any building design is often dependent on the geometrical shape, which affects its behavior and stability. Structural consideration and optimization in the conceptual stage of the design process can lead to better solutions and design exploration. In this paper, a design approach for generating and structurally optimizing the geometrical form in the conceptual design phase is presented. The method is applied to a canopy of an ecological island (waste collection center in Rome, Italy). We demonstrate how parametric structural design can facilitate the decision-maker to generate and analyze the optimal design solutions rapidly in the conceptual stage of the design process. Fully parametric models are created in a Rhinoceros3D® environment and interfaced with in-house built algorithms, and Finite Element simulations are performed in DubalRFEM. An ecological island’s canopy has been completely redesigned with a Genetic Algorithm and a Dynamic Relaxation Algorithm, resulting in a free-form shape-resistant structure. Finally, the shape-optimized canopy meets various requirements (structural, functional, formal) that improve structural efficiency and design collaboration, such as in the role of the architect and engineer in the design process and in the relationship between the designer and design tools. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry: Recent Developments in Engineering Science and Applications)
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19 pages, 2913 KiB  
Article
Hidden Homogeneous Extreme Multistability of a Fractional-Order Hyperchaotic Discrete-Time System: Chaos, Initial Offset Boosting, Amplitude Control, Control, and Synchronization
by Amina-Aicha Khennaoui, Adel Ouannas, Stelios Bekiros, Ayman A. Aly, Ahmed Alotaibi, Hadi Jahanshahi and Hajid Alsubaie
Symmetry 2023, 15(1), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym15010139 - 3 Jan 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1552
Abstract
Fractional order maps are a hot research topic; many new mathematical models are suitable for developing new applications in different areas of science and engineering. In this paper, a new class of a 2D fractional hyperchaotic map is introduced using the Caputo-like difference [...] Read more.
Fractional order maps are a hot research topic; many new mathematical models are suitable for developing new applications in different areas of science and engineering. In this paper, a new class of a 2D fractional hyperchaotic map is introduced using the Caputo-like difference operator. The hyperchaotic map has no equilibrium and lines of equilibrium points, depending on the values of the system parameters. All of the chaotic attractors generated by the proposed fractional map are hidden. The system dynamics are analyzed via bifurcation diagrams, Lyapunov exponents, and phase portraits for different values of the fractional order. The results show that the fractional map has rich dynamical behavior, including hidden homogeneous multistability and offset boosting. The paper also illustrates a novel theorem, which assures that two hyperchaotic fractional discrete systems achieve synchronized dynamics using very simple linear control laws. Finally, the chaotic dynamics of the proposed system are stabilized at the origin via a suitable controller. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry: Recent Developments in Engineering Science and Applications)
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13 pages, 5441 KiB  
Article
Convective Heat Transfer of a Pseudoplastic Nanosuspension within a Chamber with Two Heated Wall Sections of Various Heat Fluxes
by Darya S. Loenko and Mikhail A. Sheremet
Symmetry 2022, 14(12), 2688; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym14122688 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1149
Abstract
Cooling of heat-generating elements in different engineering fields is a very important and crucial topic. The present research is devoted to numerical analysis of thermogravitational convection of a pseudoplastic nanosuspension in a chamber with two heated bottom wall sections of various heat fluxes [...] Read more.
Cooling of heat-generating elements in different engineering fields is a very important and crucial topic. The present research is devoted to numerical analysis of thermogravitational convection of a pseudoplastic nanosuspension in a chamber with two heated bottom wall sections of various heat fluxes and isothermally cooling vertical walls. A mathematical model formulated employing the time-dependent Oberbeck–Boussinesq equations with non-primitive variables has been worked out by the finite difference technique. It has been revealed that a mixture of 1% carboxymethylcellulose with water can be the most effective medium to cool the heat-generating elements. At the same time, aluminum oxide nano-sized solid particles have a more essential cooling impact on the heated sections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry: Recent Developments in Engineering Science and Applications)
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16 pages, 7925 KiB  
Article
Solution of Water and Sodium Alginate-Based Casson Type Hybrid Nanofluid with Slip and Sinusoidal Heat Conditions: A Prabhakar Fractional Derivative Approach
by Ali Raza, Musawa Y. Almusawa, Qasim Ali, Absar Ul Haq, Kamel Al-Khaled and Ioannis E. Sarris
Symmetry 2022, 14(12), 2658; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym14122658 - 15 Dec 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1481
Abstract
This paper aims to investigate free convection heat transmission in hybrid nanofluids across an inclined pours plate, which characterizes an asymmetrical hybrid nanofluid flow and heat transfer behavior. With an angled magnetic field applied, sliding on the border of walls is also considered [...] Read more.
This paper aims to investigate free convection heat transmission in hybrid nanofluids across an inclined pours plate, which characterizes an asymmetrical hybrid nanofluid flow and heat transfer behavior. With an angled magnetic field applied, sliding on the border of walls is also considered with sinusoidal heat transfer boundary conditions. The non-dimensional leading equations are converted into a fractional model using an effective mathematical fractional approach known as the Prabhakar time fractional derivative. Silver (Ag) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) are both considered nanoparticles, with water (H2O) and sodium alginate (C6H9NaO7) serving as the base fluids. The solution of the momentum, concentration, and energy equation is found by utilizing the Laplace scheme, and different numerical algorithms are considered for the inverse of Laplace, i.e., Stehfest and Tzou’s. The graphical analysis investigates the impact and symmetry of significant physical and fractional parameters. Consequently, we surmise that water-based hybrid nanofluid has a somewhat higher velocity than sodium alginate-based hybrid nanofluid. Furthermore, the Casson parameter has a dual effect on the momentum profile. Furthermore, the memory effect reduces as fractional restriction increases for both the velocity and temperature layers. The results demonstrate that increasing the heat transmission in the solid nanoparticle volume fractions enhanced the heat transmission. In addition, the numerical assessment examined the increase in mass and heat transmission, while shear stress was increased with an increase in the Prabhakar fractional parameter α. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry: Recent Developments in Engineering Science and Applications)
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12 pages, 2419 KiB  
Article
Thermal Conductivity Study of an Orthotropic Medium Containing a Cylindrical Cavity
by Ibrahim Abbas, Marin Marin, Aatef Hobiny and Sorin Vlase
Symmetry 2022, 14(11), 2387; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym14112387 - 11 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1021
Abstract
An interesting feature that appears in the thermoelastic interaction in an orthotropic material containing cylindrical cavities is addressed in this study. For this purpose, the Finite Element Method is applied to analyze a generalized thermoelasticity theory with a relaxation time. For the development [...] Read more.
An interesting feature that appears in the thermoelastic interaction in an orthotropic material containing cylindrical cavities is addressed in this study. For this purpose, the Finite Element Method is applied to analyze a generalized thermoelasticity theory with a relaxation time. For the development of the model, a thermal conductivity that is dependent on the temperature of the orthotropic medium was considered. The boundary condition for the internal surface of a cylindrical hollow is defined by the thermal shocks and the traction on the free surface. The nonlinear formulations of thermoelastic based on thermal relaxation time in orthotropic mediums are abbreviated using the Finite Element Method. The nonlinear equations without Kirchhoff’s transformations are presented. The results are graphically represented to demonstrate how changing thermal conductivity affects all physical values. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry: Recent Developments in Engineering Science and Applications)
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20 pages, 7651 KiB  
Article
Heat Transfer in an Inclined Rectangular Cavity Filled with Hybrid Nanofluid Attached to a Vertical Heated Wall Integrated with PCM: An Experimental Study
by Muqdad Al-Maliki, Khaled Al-Farhany and Ioannis E. Sarris
Symmetry 2022, 14(10), 2181; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym14102181 - 17 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1527
Abstract
In this paper, natural convective heat transfer in a rectangular cavity filled with (50% CuO-50% Al2O3)/water hybrid nanofluids connected to a wall containing a phase change material (PCM) has been experimentally investigated. The vertical walls were heated at varying [...] Read more.
In this paper, natural convective heat transfer in a rectangular cavity filled with (50% CuO-50% Al2O3)/water hybrid nanofluids connected to a wall containing a phase change material (PCM) has been experimentally investigated. The vertical walls were heated at varying temperatures while the horizontal walls were kept adiabatic. The considered parameters were the concentration of hybrid nanomaterial (Φ = 0.03, 0.05), the cavity inclination angle (θ = 0°, 30°, 45°), and the temperature difference between the hot and cold sides (∆T = 10, 15, 20 °C). The results have been validated and agree well with previously published papers. Furthermore, the main results stated that when the nanomaterial concentration increased, the heat transfer rate by free convection also increased. By increasing the natural convection flows via high temperature, symmetrical vortexes may appear near the heated wall. It also found that the PCM can potentially reduce the temperature of the hot side by up to 22% due to its high absorbability and heat storage. Furthermore, the inclusion of hybrid nanofluids in addition to the PCM enhanced its efficiency in heat storage and, therefore, its capacity to cool the hot side. Moreover, the influence of the inclination cavity enhanced the heat transfer, where θ = 30° was the optimal angle in terms of thermal conductivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry: Recent Developments in Engineering Science and Applications)
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Review

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14 pages, 419 KiB  
Review
Principal Stress Trajectories in Plasticity under Plane Strain and Axial Symmetry
by Sergei Alexandrov, Marina Rynkovskaya and Yong Li
Symmetry 2023, 15(5), 981; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym15050981 - 25 Apr 2023
Viewed by 973
Abstract
The two families of principal stress trajectories can be regarded as an orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system under plane strain and axial symmetry. Under plane strain, the equilibrium equations in conjunction with a yield criterion comprise a statically determinate system. Under axial symmetry, a [...] Read more.
The two families of principal stress trajectories can be regarded as an orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system under plane strain and axial symmetry. Under plane strain, the equilibrium equations in conjunction with a yield criterion comprise a statically determinate system. Under axial symmetry, a statically determinate system results from the above equations supplemented with the hypothesis of Haar von Karman. In both cases, the compatibility equations for mapping the principal line coordinate system to a given coordinate system show that the scale factors of the former satisfy a simple algebraic or transcendental equation for many yield criteria. Using this equation, one can develop a method for reducing boundary value problems in plasticity to purely geometric problems. The method is independent of any flow rule that can be chosen to calculate displacement or velocity fields, as well as independent whether elastic strains are included. The present paper summarizes available results related to using principal stress trajectories in plasticity and emphasizes the advantages of the method above. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry: Recent Developments in Engineering Science and Applications)
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