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Special Issue "Sustainable Assessment and Modelling in Seismic Risk Mitigation"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Sustainable Engineering and Science".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2022 | Viewed by 6497

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Fatemeh Jalayer
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Department of Structures for Engineering and Architecture, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy
Interests: probabilistic methods in civil engineering; structural reliability; safety-checking of structures; performance-based earthquake engineering; time-dependent seismic hazard and risk assessment; life-cycle cost assessment; seismic ground motion representation and intensity measures; progressive structural collapse; impact of rainfall-induced hydrogeological phenomena on the built environment
Dr. Hossein Ebrahimian
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Structures for Engineering and Architecture, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy
Interests: time-dependent seismic hazard and risk assessment; structural reliability; probabilistic methods in civil engineering; performance-based earthquake engineering; ground-motion intensity measure; safety-checking of structures

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is our pleasure to invite you to contribute to this Special Issue, titled “Sustainable Assessment and Modelling in Seismic Risk Mitigation.”

Almost a couple of decades have passed since the seismic design and retrofit paradigm undertook a major shift from prescriptive procedures to quantified “performance-based” objectives. To this effect, modern performance-based seismic design and retrofit strives to satisfy quantified performance objectives. The design and retrofit process, in this context, is nothing but an optimization problem, in which the expected utility/loss of the structure needs to be maximized/minimized. The quantified performance objectives adopted in the codes, which play as constraints to this optimization problem, are usually articulated in terms of safety and functionality criteria. The social dimension of such criteria is evident. The utility function is almost ubiquitously expressed in terms of the expected life-cycle cost. Although the life-cycle cost is measured in economic terms, it encompasses sustainability-related notions such as (residual) lifetime duration and the indirect costs related to downtime. Evaluation of the life span duration for an infrastructure in a seismically active zone is not a trivial task. It involves tracing the structural performance profile in time considering potential major treats (e.g., strong earthquakes, aftershocks, and other), slowly deteriorating phenomena such as ageing, the undesirable effect of drivers such as climate change, given prescribed repair and maintenance pathways. Along the same lines, the evaluation of the costs associated to downtime also involves consideration of the complex socio-economic consequences of functionality interruption due to physical damage. To this end, seismic design and retrofit schemes and repair/maintenance pathways satisfying objectives such as maximizing the (residual) lifetime and minimizing downtime of an infrastructure can be perceived as sustainability-enhancing measures. The sustainability principles can be considered even more explicitly by quantifying utility as a function of both socioeconomic and environmental “costs” associated to design, retrofit, and repair/maintenance planning decisions.

 This Special Issue welcomes contributions towards filling the complex mosaic of sustainable design and retrofit decision-making and repair/maintenance planning for infrastructure in seismically active regions:

  • Performance-based seismic design and retrofit
  • Estimation of down-time and residual lifetime
  • Multi-risk analysis methods
  • Time-dependent seismic risk assessment for deteriorating systems (considering aftershocks, and/or ageing)
  • Retrofit, repair/maintenance decision-making based on sustainable criteria

Prof. Fatemeh Jalayer
Dr. Hossein Ebrahimian
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • sustainable decision-making
  • life cycle cost assessment
  • performance-based design
  • earthquake engineering
  • seismic retrofit decision-making
  • time-dependent seismic risk assessment
  • multi-risk analysis
  • residual lifetime
  • downtime
  • uncertainty quantification

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Article
Calibration of Load and Resistance Factors for Breakwater Foundations under the Earthquake Loading
Sustainability 2021, 13(4), 1730; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13041730 - 05 Feb 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1422
Abstract
This study investigates the system stability of breakwater foundations subjected to earthquakes from a probabilistic point of view. A fully probabilistic approach, i.e., a combination of the Monte Carlo simulation and Bishop’s simplified method, has been developed to evaluate the system failure probability [...] Read more.
This study investigates the system stability of breakwater foundations subjected to earthquakes from a probabilistic point of view. A fully probabilistic approach, i.e., a combination of the Monte Carlo simulation and Bishop’s simplified method, has been developed to evaluate the system failure probability of foundation damage, one of the prevailing failures encountered during earthquakes. Twelve sections of perforated caisson breakwaters located around Korea were chosen as case studies. First, the reliability analysis was performed for all the breakwaters at existing conditions; then, the calibration process involving the estimation of load and resistance factors was conducted for 12 breakwaters at three levels of the target reliability index. As the performance function, used in the stability analysis of breakwater foundations, is defined based on an implicit shape with a high-dimensional space of variables, the calibration process of load and resistance factors becomes cumbersome and complicated. Therefore, this study has proposed a sensitivity analysis to be implemented prior to the calibration process to elicit the effects of variables on the stability of each breakwater, which, thereafter, effectively directs the calibration process. The results of this study indicate that the failures in the foundation of breakwaters frequently occur in different modes. Therefore, the failure probability should be estimated considering all possible failure modes of the foundation. The sensitivity results elucidate that the soil strength parameters are the dominant variables, contributing to the stability of foundations, whereas the seismic coefficient presents the negative effect, causing the insecurity of breakwaters. In particular, the deadweights, though directly contributing to the seismic forces, show a small effect on the stability of foundations. The calibration shows that the load factors slightly vary with an increase in the target reliability index and set 1.10 for three safety levels. In contrast, the resistance factor exhibits an inverse relationship with the specified reliability index. Especially when the load factor equals 1.10, the resistance factors are 0.90, 0.85, and 0.80, corresponding to the reliability index of 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0, respectively. Eventually, it is proved that the sensitivity analysis prior to the calibration process makes the procedure more efficient. Accordingly, the iteration of simulation execution is diminished, and the convergence is quickly accomplished. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Assessment and Modelling in Seismic Risk Mitigation)
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Article
Fault-Source-Based Probabilistic Seismic Hazard and Risk Analysis for Victoria, British Columbia, Canada: A Case of the Leech River Valley Fault and Devil’s Mountain Fault System
Sustainability 2021, 13(3), 1440; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13031440 - 29 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1288
Abstract
This study develops a fault-source-based seismic hazard model for the Leech River Valley Fault (LRVF) and the Devil’s Mountain Fault (DMF) in southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. These faults pose significant risks to the provincial capital, Victoria, due to their proximity and [...] Read more.
This study develops a fault-source-based seismic hazard model for the Leech River Valley Fault (LRVF) and the Devil’s Mountain Fault (DMF) in southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. These faults pose significant risks to the provincial capital, Victoria, due to their proximity and potentially large earthquake magnitudes. To evaluate the effects of including these faults in probabilistic seismic hazard analysis and city-wide seismic loss estimation for Victoria, a comprehensive sensitivity analysis is conducted by considering different fault rupture patterns and different earthquake magnitude models, as well as variations in their parameters. The aim is to assess the relative contributions of the LRVF-DMF system to the overall seismic hazard and risk in Victoria at different return periods. The consideration of the LRVF-DMF system as a potential seismic source increases the seismic risk assessment results by 10 to 30%, especially at the high return period levels. The sensitivity analysis results highlight the importance of determining the slip rate for the fault deformation zone and of specifying the earthquake magnitude models (e.g., characteristic versus truncated exponential models). From urban seismic risk management perspectives, these nearby faults should be considered critical earthquake scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Assessment and Modelling in Seismic Risk Mitigation)
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Article
Fragility Analysis of RC Frame Structures Subjected to Obliquely Incident Seismic Waves
Sustainability 2021, 13(3), 1108; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13031108 - 21 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1018
Abstract
Obliquely incident seismic waves have been habitually overlooked in fragility analysis. In this paper, a new approach to solving the equivalent loads on the infinite element boundary due to obliquely incident seismic waves is proposed. Based on the site conditions and structural characteristics [...] Read more.
Obliquely incident seismic waves have been habitually overlooked in fragility analysis. In this paper, a new approach to solving the equivalent loads on the infinite element boundary due to obliquely incident seismic waves is proposed. Based on the site conditions and structural characteristics in the Jiaxing area, the seismic response of a multi-story reinforced concrete (RC) frame structure has been fully investigated through the finite element method. Under obliquely incident SV waves (shear wave in the vertical x-z plane), the distribution of internal forces on the structure in the case of homogeneous foundation soil is significantly asymmetrical. Among the 3 obliquely incident angles investigated in this paper, the maximum inter-story displacement is smallest when the incident angle is 20° and largest when the angle equals 30°. For the structural fragility, the exceedance probability at each structural damage level is smallest when the incident reflection angle is 20° and largest when the angle equals 30°. When the structure is located in the silty valley, the influence of oblique incidence is attenuated and there is no obvious stress asymmetry on the structure due to the refraction of seismic waves on the interface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Assessment and Modelling in Seismic Risk Mitigation)
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Article
Vibration-Based Seismic Damage States Evaluation for Regional Concrete Beam Bridges Using Random Forest Method
Sustainability 2020, 12(12), 5106; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12125106 - 23 Jun 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 1976
Abstract
Transportation networks play an important role in urban areas, and bridges are the most vulnerable structures to earthquakes. The seismic damage evaluation of bridges provides an effective tool to assess the potential damage, and guides the post-earthquake recovery operations. With the help of [...] Read more.
Transportation networks play an important role in urban areas, and bridges are the most vulnerable structures to earthquakes. The seismic damage evaluation of bridges provides an effective tool to assess the potential damage, and guides the post-earthquake recovery operations. With the help of structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques, the structural condition could be accurately evaluated through continuous monitoring of structural responses, and evaluating vibration-based features, which could reflect the deterioration of materials and boundary conditions, and are extensively used to reflect the structural conditions. This study proposes a vibration-based seismic damage state evaluation method for regional bridges. The proposed method contains the measured structural dynamic parameters and bridge configuration parameters. In addition, several intensity measures are also included in the model, to represent the different characteristics and the regional diversity of ground motions. The prediction models are trained with a random forest algorithm, and their confusion matrices and receiver operation curves reveal a good prediction performance, with over 90% accuracy. The significant parameter identification of bridge systems and components reveals the critical parameters for seismic design, disaster prevention and structure retrofit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Assessment and Modelling in Seismic Risk Mitigation)
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