Special Issue "National Parks: Theories and Practices"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Qingwen Min
Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100101 Beijing, China
Interests: ecosystem and natural resources management; community-based conservation in national parks; multi-functionality of agriculture; agricultural heritage systems
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Linsheng Zhong
Website
Co-Guest Editor
Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Interests: planning and functional zoning in national parks; tourism geography; ecotourism
Prof. Dr. Dominique Vanneste
Website
Co-Guest Editor
Kathlic University of Leuven, Belgium
Interests: tourism geography; heritage tourism; urban tourism; ecotourism in national parks
Prof. Dr. Choong-hyeon OH

Co-Guest Editor
Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services, Dongguk University, South Korea
Interests: biodiversity and ecosystem services; ecosystem and natural resources management; ecological monitoring in national parks
Prof. Dr. Diqiang Li

Co-Guest Editor
Institute of Forest Ecology, Environment and Protection, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing, China
Interests: protected area policy; national park governance; wildlife management
Prof. Dr. Louise Gallagher
Website
Co-Guest Editor
University of Geneva, Switzerland
Interests: environmental governance; sustainability science; ecosystem services

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Since the first nature reserve was built in 1956, China has made remarkable achievements in biological conservation and ecosystem management. With more than 18% of the territory covered by protected areas, China is now entering an era of increasing the quality and efficiency of the conservation of protected areas. A national park system and the reform of protected areas were proposed in 2015, and an overall plan for the development of the national park system was released in 2017. Currently, ten national park pilots around the country are undergoing an experimental period through an institutional innovation in management unit, financial mechanism, natural resource management, and community participation. By 2020, these pilots will be under scrutiny, and the first batch of national parks will be established under a hierarchical and integrated management system.

Admittedly, many challenges have occurred in the reform of the protected area system and the establishment of national parks, such as the land tenure and community livelihood that remain the key issues for the developing country. The determination to harmonize the relationship between humans and nature has triggered a change in the top governance system as the new Ministry of Natural Resources was set up in 2018, aiming to enhance the integrated natural resources management. Correspondingly, the construction of national parks and a new protected area system follow the new governance idea and are frontiers of new environmental institutions and practices.

In this context, it is essential to review and summarize what has been done since the initiation of the national park idea in China, both in theoretical discussion and practical innovation. It is also important to learn from other countries where a great amount of experience has been accumulated on the construction and management of national parks. A total of 225 countries in the world have established national park systems, and some of them (e.g., the USA, Canada, the UK, Australia, and South Korea) have achieved robust methodologies and efficient practices. Such summarizing and sharing of the national park systems in China and other countries will contribute to our understanding of the next-phase institutional innovation and the further design and implementation of conservation policy.

This Special Issue aims to provide a forum for international/national scholars, researchers, policy makers, and administrators to review and report theories and practices at the levels of national policy design and pilot case study, which have been taken to fuel the national park construction in their countries, particularly new-emerging techniques, strategies and measures, and their case level effects.

The range of relevant topics include but are not limited to:

  • National park governance, regulation, and legislation
  • National park governance mechanisms
  • National park planning and distribution
  • National park functional zoning
  • National park laws
  • National park ecosystem and natural resource management
  • Ecosystem monitoring and indicators
  • Ecological assets accounting
  • Biodiversity and ecosystem services
  • Disaster risk management
  • Human–wildlife conflicts
  • Payment for ecosystem services
  • Institutional innovation for conservation in national parks
  • Community-based conservation
  • Franchising in national parks
  • Social participation in conservation
  • National parks for public welfare
  • Ecotourism
  • Environmental education

Prof. Dr. Qingwen Min
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Louise Gallagher
Prof. Dr. Diqiang Li
Prof. Dr. Choong-hyeon OH
Prof. Dr. Dominique Vanneste
Prof. Dr. Linsheng Zhong
Co-Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • National park governance
  • Ecosystem management
  • Natural resources management
  • Institutional innovation
  • Public welfare

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Edible Biological Resource Use in an Agricultural Heritage System and Its Driving Forces: A Case of the Shuangjiang Mengku Ancient Tea and Culture System
Sustainability 2020, 12(18), 7791; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12187791 - 21 Sep 2020
Abstract
An agricultural heritage system is a special type of protected area that is both culturally and ecologically important. Biological resources are an essential component of an agricultural heritage system. They are necessary to support human livelihood, and their usage is key to ensuring [...] Read more.
An agricultural heritage system is a special type of protected area that is both culturally and ecologically important. Biological resources are an essential component of an agricultural heritage system. They are necessary to support human livelihood, and their usage is key to ensuring biodiversity. This study used a survey questionnaire and key informant interviews to investigate the use of edible biological resources (EBRs) in the Shuangjiang Mengku ancient tea and culture system (SMATCS). We investigated similarities and differences in EBR use between four minority groups as well as the driving forces behind them. The four groups used 245 EBR species in 113 families, and diversity of EBR use was found in terms of species, edible parts, harvest season, and usage. EBR use within groups was driven by natural, cultural, social, and economic forces. Two social factors (infrastructure and communication), two economic factors (overall economic development and farmer income), and a biological resource (species diversity) drove EBR utilization in all the groups convergently, while three cultural factors drove EBR utilization divergently. To assure the long-term sustainability of EBRs, the preservation of cultural diversity should be combined with the conservation of biodiversity. Targets must be set to adjust the impacts of the driving factors, and more stakeholders must be involved in the conservation of EBRs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue National Parks: Theories and Practices)
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Open AccessArticle
Ecosystem Health Assessment of Shennongjia National Park, China
Sustainability 2020, 12(18), 7672; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12187672 - 17 Sep 2020
Abstract
Ecosystem health assessment is an important part of improving the management of national parks. In this paper, Shennongjia National Park is taken as the study region. By using satellite remote sensing data from 2000 to 2018, based on the Vitality Organization Resilience (VOR) [...] Read more.
Ecosystem health assessment is an important part of improving the management of national parks. In this paper, Shennongjia National Park is taken as the study region. By using satellite remote sensing data from 2000 to 2018, based on the Vitality Organization Resilience (VOR) model, an ecosystem health assessment is created and its spatiotemporal characteristics are analyzed. In the whole region, the ecosystem’s health level has gradually improved; the rate of improvement of the ecosystem’s health level from 2016 to 2018 has been 2.5-times that of the overall rate and the trend of improvement has been obvious. The rate of improvement of the ecosystem’s health level of non-nature protection areas has improved two-fold; the same is true of nature protection areas, and the stability change trend of the two areas has basically been the same. The establishment of national parks has played a significant role in promoting the health of the regional ecosystem. In future planning, relevant departments should pay attention to the ecological protection and restoration of the area and optimize the traditional area layout of Shennongjia National Park. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue National Parks: Theories and Practices)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of the Management Effectiveness of German National Parks—Experiences, Results, Lessons Learned and Future Prospects
Sustainability 2020, 12(17), 7135; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12177135 - 01 Sep 2020
Abstract
Since 2005 until today, experience has been gained in the preparation, implementation and impacts of the evaluation of the management effectiveness of German national parks. This process began with the development of a quality set containing fields of action, criteria, standards and a [...] Read more.
Since 2005 until today, experience has been gained in the preparation, implementation and impacts of the evaluation of the management effectiveness of German national parks. This process began with the development of a quality set containing fields of action, criteria, standards and a questionnaire to assess the state of national park management. This quality set was applied in the first voluntary full evaluation of German national parks, which took place from 2009 to 2012. An assessment of the full evaluation and the following interim evaluation (2015–2018) demonstrated the positive effects of the evaluation for the national parks, but also revealed some weaknesses of the quality set and the evaluation process. For this reason, work has been underway since 2019 to further improve the evaluation method; however, this has not yet been completed. The article provides an overview of the entire process. It concludes with considerations on the transferability of the evaluation method to other countries and gives some recommendations as to the most important aspects to be considered when evaluating the management effectiveness of national parks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue National Parks: Theories and Practices)
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Open AccessArticle
Spatiotemporal Variation and Climate Influence Factors of Vegetation Ecological Quality in the Sanjiangyuan National Park
Sustainability 2020, 12(16), 6634; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12166634 - 17 Aug 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The Sanjiangyuan National Park is the first Chinese national park system, and the ecological environment is inherently fragile and sensitive. Therefore, for environmental protection, it is imperative to understand the spatiotemporal variation characteristics of the ecological quality of vegetation and its climate influence [...] Read more.
The Sanjiangyuan National Park is the first Chinese national park system, and the ecological environment is inherently fragile and sensitive. Therefore, for environmental protection, it is imperative to understand the spatiotemporal variation characteristics of the ecological quality of vegetation and its climate influence factors. We used the MODIS normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) dataset, meteorological dataset, and Carnegie–Ames–Stanford Approach (CASA) model to investigate the spatiotemporal patterns and change trends of the NDVI and the net primary productivity (NPP) of the vegetation in the Sanjiangyuan National Park from 2000 to 2016. A linear regression model was used to explore the influence of the ecological quality of vegetation and climatic factors. The results showed that (1) the NDVI and NPP were high in the southeast area and low in the northwest area. The Yangtze River headwater region had the lowest NDVI (0–0.3) and NPP (0–100 gC/m2). The Lancang River had the highest NDVI (0.4–0.8) and NPP (100–250 gC/m2). (2) From 2000–2016, approximately 23.46% of the area showed a significant positive trend of the NDVI that was mainly distributed in the prairie areas in the midlands and the north of the Yangtze River headwater region, and was scattered in the midlands and the north of Yellow River headwater region. Furthermore, 24.32% of the NPP was determined to have increased significantly, which was mainly distributed in the midlands and the north of the Yangtze River headwater region, as well as the midlands and the east of the Yellow River headwater region. (3) The vegetation growth in the Sanjiangyuan National Park was regulated by both water and heat conditions. The NDVI was significantly affected by precipitation during the growing season and by the annual precipitation. In addition, the NPP was significantly affected by temperature during the growing season and by the annual average temperature of the study area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue National Parks: Theories and Practices)
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Open AccessArticle
Pastoralism Partnerships: Recognizing the Value of Local Involvement in China’s Snow Leopard Conservation Efforts
Sustainability 2020, 12(16), 6491; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12166491 - 12 Aug 2020
Abstract
Pastoralists are key stakeholders in environmental management decisions in China. Thus, their involvement in wildlife conservation and research is imperative for the success of long-term initiatives. Despite the many opportunities for herders to be included in these efforts, biases have hindered knowledge exchange [...] Read more.
Pastoralists are key stakeholders in environmental management decisions in China. Thus, their involvement in wildlife conservation and research is imperative for the success of long-term initiatives. Despite the many opportunities for herders to be included in these efforts, biases have hindered knowledge exchange and collaborative outcomes. This is detrimental for species living in quickly changing landscapes reliant on effective conservation, such as that of the snow leopard (Panthera uncia). Pastoralists living in snow leopard habitats on the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau of China possess a deep and intricate understanding of the environments in which they live, and can serve as strong conservation allies by playing direct roles in scientific endeavors via expert elicitation and engagement. Here, we draw on our own experiences as academically trained scientists to present a framework for broadening opportunities for local community member participation in research efforts on the species. Framework outcomes include better targeting of conservation concerns, increased integration of Western science and local ecological knowledge, additional income to the community, clearer communication and trust between conservation stakeholders, greater flexibility in research, and additional platforms for community-based conservation. We outline avenues of involvement and considerations when working with local community members in snow leopard habitat, and submit this as an example with wide-ranging applicability to other parts of the world where livelihoods are intrinsically tied to the environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue National Parks: Theories and Practices)
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Open AccessArticle
Challenges for Protected Areas Management in China
Sustainability 2020, 12(15), 5879; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12155879 - 22 Jul 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Protected areas are widely recognized as a cornerstone of biodiversity and natural resources management and sustainable development. Protected areas are a vital part of securing human prosperity and quality of life. In China, the legal framework for protected area management is scattered around [...] Read more.
Protected areas are widely recognized as a cornerstone of biodiversity and natural resources management and sustainable development. Protected areas are a vital part of securing human prosperity and quality of life. In China, the legal framework for protected area management is scattered around various regulations. In order to better manage protected areas in China, the Chinese government has issued and revised some laws, regulations and policies on protected areas conservation and management. However, protected areas management is still facing some challenges. There is little legal literature on this issue and this paper tries to fill this gap. Firstly, it will briefly introduce the most relevant laws, regulations and policy on protected areas management. Secondly, it will analyze the recent challenges of protected areas management. Thirdly, some possible suggestions on how to better solve the recent challenges on protected areas management in China will be proposed. These suggestions include improving the management system, improving the relevant legislation, promoting public participation and establishing a diversified funding guarantee system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue National Parks: Theories and Practices)
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Open AccessArticle
Diversification of Municipalities Located in the Impact Area of National Parks in Terms of Environmental Requirements of Sustainable Tourism
Sustainability 2020, 12(12), 4896; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12124896 - 16 Jun 2020
Abstract
The main objective of the paper was to show the diversification of Polish municipalities that have national parks within their boundaries in terms of implementing sustainable tourism priorities. The study focused on ecological and environmental aspects, primarily related to the shaping and maintenance [...] Read more.
The main objective of the paper was to show the diversification of Polish municipalities that have national parks within their boundaries in terms of implementing sustainable tourism priorities. The study focused on ecological and environmental aspects, primarily related to the shaping and maintenance of green areas, as well as waste and wastewater management. The assessment was based on statistical data taken from the Local Data Bank for the years 2012–2018. The authors determined their own set of indicators, describing green areas management, the environmental risk associated with waste and wastewater generation, and the reshaping of the forest and agricultural landscape. The obtained results were compared with the spatial diversification of the surveyed administrative units in terms of tourist attractiveness carried out by us in 2018. The study made it possible to indicate, among others, municipalities that are prime tourist destinations and have highly developed tourist facilities, but do not keep up with sustainable tourism activities. There are also units that carry out activities in the field of forest and agricultural land protection, invest in public green areas, properly manage sewage and wastewater, and, at the same time, are not attractive for tourists. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue National Parks: Theories and Practices)
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Open AccessArticle
Community Participation in Nature Conservation: The Chinese Experience and Its Implication to National Park Management
Sustainability 2020, 12(11), 4760; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12114760 - 11 Jun 2020
Abstract
Rural communities are taking active roles in conservation. However, the basic modes and content of community participatory approach are seldom summarised or reflected on in China, leaving the use of terms confused and their links to practice disconnected. By reviewing the literature, we [...] Read more.
Rural communities are taking active roles in conservation. However, the basic modes and content of community participatory approach are seldom summarised or reflected on in China, leaving the use of terms confused and their links to practice disconnected. By reviewing the literature, we traced back to the protected area-community relations from the perspective of features of rural communities, namely knowledge accumulation, social bond, collective actions, and risk-aversion, and reflected on changing roles of community conservation through recognition of these features. Combining case studies and our own research experience, we focused on the de facto practices behind the somewhat casual use of several terms and re-classified community participation in conservation to three modes of community participatory management, community co-management, and community dominant management, along a continuum in which, from low to high level, conservation is more a means rather than an end for the community to be empowered for their own resource management. We argued that the success of community participation must ensure stable and flexible land tenure so that the right to benefit can be guaranteed, and the collective action in managing resources can be achieved by empowerment. In practice, further institutional changes of improvement in the legislation and optimisation in benefit sharing and compensation are needed to promote community participation in a broader social participation context. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue National Parks: Theories and Practices)
Open AccessArticle
Meta-Understanding of Environmental Perception in Tourism: Implications for China’s Tourist Attractions
Sustainability 2020, 12(4), 1658; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12041658 - 22 Feb 2020
Abstract
Tourism is a global force in economic growth. To provide policy suggestions for advancing the tourism industry, we adopt a primary indicator, environmental perception, to examine tourism development. We conduct a nationwide meta-analysis to collect the environmental perceptions of residents and tourists in [...] Read more.
Tourism is a global force in economic growth. To provide policy suggestions for advancing the tourism industry, we adopt a primary indicator, environmental perception, to examine tourism development. We conduct a nationwide meta-analysis to collect the environmental perceptions of residents and tourists in China, i.e., the satisfaction of an attraction’s environment. We analyze the collected information about the environmental perceptions, score the information, either negative (0) or positive (1), and sort these scores according to four socioeconomic classes (administrative units, attraction rating, ticket price, and attraction type). Our results show that residents’ and tourists’ degrees of satisfaction with environmental perception vary significantly among different classes and that unsatisfactory environmental perception indicates potential problems in the environment, products, and services provided by tourist attractions. Accordingly, we propose suggestions to address unsatisfactory environmental perceptions in each class, aiming to improve the degrees of satisfaction with environmental perception and to promote sustainability in tourism development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue National Parks: Theories and Practices)
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Open AccessArticle
The Impacts of Human Activities on Ecosystems within China’s Nature Reserves
Sustainability 2019, 11(23), 6629; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11236629 - 23 Nov 2019
Abstract
Protected areas (PAs) provide refuges for threatened species and are considered to be the most important approach to biodiversity conservation. Besides climate change, increasing human population is the biggest threat to biodiversity and habitats in PAs. In this paper, the temporal and spatial [...] Read more.
Protected areas (PAs) provide refuges for threatened species and are considered to be the most important approach to biodiversity conservation. Besides climate change, increasing human population is the biggest threat to biodiversity and habitats in PAs. In this paper, the temporal and spatial variations of land cover changes (LCC), vegetation fraction (VFC), and net primary productivity (NPP) were studied to present the ecosystem dynamics of habitats in 6 different types of national nature reserves (NNRs) in 8 climate zones in China. Furthermore, we used Defense Meteorological Satellite Program/Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) nighttime light datasets and the human disturbance (HD) index estimated from LCC to quantify the living and developing human pressures within the NNRs in the period 2000–2013. The results showed that (1) the living human activities of NNRs increased apparently in the humid warm-temperate zone, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, mid-temperate semi-arid zone, and mid-temperate humid zone, with the highest increase of nighttime light observed in inland wetlands; (2) the developing human activities in NNRs indicated by the HD index were higher in the humid warm-temperate zone and mid-temperate semi-arid zone as a result of increasing areas of agricultural and built activities, and lower in the sub-tropics due to improved conservation of forest ecosystems; (3) the relationship between HD and VFC suggests that ecosystems in most NNRs of south-subtropics, mid-temperate arid zone and Qinghai-Tibet Plateau were predominantly impacted by climate change. However, HDs were the prevalent factor of ecosystem dynamics in most NNRs of north-subtropics, mid-temperate semi-arid and humid zones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue National Parks: Theories and Practices)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Ecosystem Services Value in a National Park Pilot
Sustainability 2019, 11(23), 6609; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11236609 - 22 Nov 2019
Abstract
Based on the pilot ecosystem analysis of Qianjiangyuan National Park, the ecosystem services function value index system was determined; multiple methods such as market value method and shadow engineering method were used to evaluate the four major categories in the years 2005, 2010, [...] Read more.
Based on the pilot ecosystem analysis of Qianjiangyuan National Park, the ecosystem services function value index system was determined; multiple methods such as market value method and shadow engineering method were used to evaluate the four major categories in the years 2005, 2010, 2015, and 2018 of the ecological services of Qianjiangyuan national park which are provision, regulation, culture, and support. Results show that the total value of the pilot ecosystem services in Qianjiangyuan national park had increased to 7430.11 × 106 yuan, 9128.41 × 106 yuan, 12,718.38 × 106 yuan, and 15,539.99 × 106 yuan for each category respectively. The regulation category has always been the core ecosystem services function in the national park, accounting for more than 40% of the value of the total services. The increase in the value of ecosystem services in the park was due to the implementation of ecological measures such as logging bans and people paying more attention to environmental protection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue National Parks: Theories and Practices)
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Open AccessArticle
Identifying Nature–Community Nexuses for Sustainably Managing Social and Ecological Systems: A Case Study of the Qianjiangyuan National Park Pilot Area
Sustainability 2019, 11(21), 6182; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11216182 - 05 Nov 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Designing policies for the sustainable development of social-ecological systems with complex human–land relations requires integrated management and nexus thinking; China’s national parks are typical social-ecological systems. Ecosystem services and community livelihood are two essential components of sustainable management in the nature–community nexus (NCN). [...] Read more.
Designing policies for the sustainable development of social-ecological systems with complex human–land relations requires integrated management and nexus thinking; China’s national parks are typical social-ecological systems. Ecosystem services and community livelihood are two essential components of sustainable management in the nature–community nexus (NCN). This study focuses on the Qianjiangyuan National Park Pilot Area in eastern China. Following a systems approach and integrating qualitative (causal analysis and systems but dynamic methods) and quantitative (InVEST model, Spearman’s correlation analysis, regression analysis, and multiple correspondence analysis) methods, we developed two causal mechanisms linking livelihood assets and ecosystem services, and verified them by exploring multi-dimensional linkages and revealing two types of NCNs. Results showed that the proportions of cropland and orchard areas have significant negative correlations with water and soil retention services, respectively, while forests significantly benefit both services. A positive NCN exists in areas where water and soil retention services perform well and the local community develops vibrantly with a considerable proportion of young, highly educated, or high-income (especially the income from secondary industries) residents. A negative NCN is seen in areas where the water and soil retention services values are low; a great many households do not have substantial income from secondary and tertiary industries, and few households have vast forest areas. These results can be used as scientific evidence for optimizing institutional arrangements and contributing to sustainable and harmonious development of national parks in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue National Parks: Theories and Practices)
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Open AccessArticle
Natural Disasters, Public Policies, Family Characteristics, or Livelihood Assets? The Driving Factors of Farmers’ Livelihood Strategy Choices in a Nature Reserve
Sustainability 2019, 11(19), 5423; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11195423 - 30 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Based on the summarization of previous studies, this paper constructed an analytical model on the driving factors on the choice of farmers’ livelihood strategies in nature reserves, covering the aspects of natural disasters, public policies, family characteristics, and livelihood assets, and this paper [...] Read more.
Based on the summarization of previous studies, this paper constructed an analytical model on the driving factors on the choice of farmers’ livelihood strategies in nature reserves, covering the aspects of natural disasters, public policies, family characteristics, and livelihood assets, and this paper took Zhagana Village in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau as an example to conduct an empirical study. The empirical results show that non-agricultural production strategies, especially a tourism-oriented strategy, are currently the primary livelihood preference for households in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. During the process of livelihood strategy selection, households are influenced by exogenous factors like public policies and natural disasters, as well as by endogenous factors like family characteristics and livelihood assets. Among these factors, the soil erosion as well as the tourism development policy would be the restrictive factors when choosing an agricultural production strategy, or the incentive factors if a non-agricultural production strategy were to be chosen. Meanwhile, anti-poverty development policy, location characteristic, and economic characteristic are the incentive factors for households who want to choose an agricultural production strategy, or the restrictive factors if they would like to select a non-agricultural production strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue National Parks: Theories and Practices)
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