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GIS in Water Resource Management: Allocation, Contamination, and Ecosystem

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Sustainable Water Management".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2023) | Viewed by 14327

Special Issue Editors

College of Management and Economics, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China
Interests: management science and systems engineering; ecosystem and public resources management

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Guest Editor
Business School, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, China
Interests: supply chain management; resources economics and management; public governance and operations management
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Institute for Sustainable Industries & Liveable Cities, Victoria University, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia
Interests: water resource management; water contamination management
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Business school, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou 215009, China
Interests: water-related ecosystem services; GIS application in water ecosyetem management

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In this Special Issue, original research articles and reviews are welcome. Research areas may include (but not limited to) the following: 

In the context of global climate change, rapid population increase and fast development of modern industries, water resources are becoming increasingly scarce and the problem of water security is becoming increasingly prominent. World Water Resources Development Report pointed out that global water abuse in recent years has been very serious, and the global water shortage is estimated to be as high as 40% by 2030 based on current water use ratio (WWAP, 2015). Meanwhile, Global Environment Outlook issued a strong warning that intense human activities around the world are degrading the earth's ecosystems and thus endangering the ecological foundation of the whole society (GEO 6, 2019). In many developing countries, the extensive development mode has brought about serious water pollution, water disasters and degradation of water ecosystem, which is definitely not a sustainable development way. Geographic Information System (GIS) is a powerful tool to monitor and evaluate the real-time state, change trend and pollution status of water resources, and prevent and dispose water ecosystem risks timely and effectively. It has been widely used in hydrology and water resources research, and has achieved good application effect, but also provides valuable decision-making basis for water ecosystem management. Therefore, it is necessary and timely to conduct the research of the applications of GIS for water resources management.

To discuss and disseminate recent advances and frontiers in the development of theories, methods and techniques of GIS application in water resources management area, a special issue named “GIS in water resource management: allocation, contamination, and ecosystem” is being furnished and organized. The aim of this special issue is to integrate the latest progress and achievements of theories, methods and techniques of GIS that is applied in water resource management.

We invite you to submit your latest research works on subjects including, but not limited to, the following:

  • GIS-based monitoring and disposal of water resources management
  • GIS based innovation of water pollution treatment technology 
  • GIS-based temporal and spatial evolution of water resources management
  • GIS-based resources & environmental impact assessment of water resources management
  • GIS-based socio-economic impact analysis of water resources management
  • GIS-based conflict analysis of water resources management
  • GIS-based non-/cooperative governance  policies of water resources management
  • GIS-based non-/cooperative management mechanisms of water resources management
  • GIS-based assessment and optimization of water ecosystem services
  • GIS-based planning and governance of ecological spatial pattern
  • GIS-based construction and operation of ecological compensation mechanism
  • Various GIS-based case studies

We look forward to receiving your contributions.

Dr. Gang Liu
Prof. Dr. Zhisong Chen
Dr. Li Gao
Dr. Junyu Chen
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • GIS
  • water resource management
  • water ecosystem services
  • water contamination
  • water resources allocation
  • water treatment technology
  • conflict analysis
  • non/cooperative governance
  • ecological spatial pattern
  • ecological compensation

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 17273 KiB  
Article
A Study on Identification of Urban Waterlogging Risk Factors Based on Satellite Image Semantic Segmentation and XGBoost
by Jinping Tong, Fei Gao, Hui Liu, Jing Huang, Gaofeng Liu, Hanyue Zhang and Qiong Duan
Sustainability 2023, 15(8), 6434; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15086434 - 10 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1278
Abstract
As global warming exacerbates and urbanization accelerates, extreme climatic events occur frequently. Urban waterlogging is seriously spreading in China, resulting in a high level of vulnerability in urban societies and economies. It has been urgent for regional sustainable development to effectively identify and [...] Read more.
As global warming exacerbates and urbanization accelerates, extreme climatic events occur frequently. Urban waterlogging is seriously spreading in China, resulting in a high level of vulnerability in urban societies and economies. It has been urgent for regional sustainable development to effectively identify and analyze the risk factors behind urban waterlogging. A novel model incorporating satellite image semantic segmentation into extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) is employed for identifying and forecasting the urban waterlogging risk factors. Ground object features of waterlogging points are extracted by the satellite image semantic segmentation, and XGBoost is employed to predict waterlogging points and identify the primary factors affecting urban waterlogging. This paper selects the coastal cities of Haikou, Xiamen, Shanghai, and Qingdao as research areas, and obtains data from social media. According to the comprehensive performance evaluation of the semantic segmentation and XGBoost models, the semantic segmentation model could effectively identify and extract water bodies, roads, and green spaces in satellite images, and the XGBoost model is more accurate and reliable than other common machine learning methods in prediction performance and precision. Among all waterlogging risk factors, elevation is the main factor affecting waterlogging in the research areas. For Shanghai and Qingdao, the secondary factor affecting waterlogging is roads. Water bodies are the secondary factor affecting urban waterlogging in Haikou. For Xiamen, the four indicators other than the elevation are equally significant, which could all be regarded as secondary factors affecting urban waterlogging. Full article
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26 pages, 2641 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Agricultural Eco-Efficiency and Its Spatiotemporal Differentiation in China, Considering Green Water Consumption and Carbon Emissions Based on Undesired Dynamic SBM-DEA
by Yunfei Feng, Yi Zhang, Zhaodan Wu, Quanliang Ye and Xinchun Cao
Sustainability 2023, 15(4), 3361; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15043361 - 12 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1321
Abstract
Both agricultural output and environmental pollution in China show certain characteristics of spatiotemporal variation due to the evolution and inter-provincial disparities of resource endowment, economic development level, and production mode. This paper considered the green water consumption, carbon emissions in agricultural production, and [...] Read more.
Both agricultural output and environmental pollution in China show certain characteristics of spatiotemporal variation due to the evolution and inter-provincial disparities of resource endowment, economic development level, and production mode. This paper considered the green water consumption, carbon emissions in agricultural production, and the persistent role of fixed asset investment, constructed an undesired dynamic SBM-DEA model, and evaluated the agricultural eco-efficiency (AEE) of 31 provinces in China from 2007 to 2018, analyzing the spatiotemporal differentiation. The results show that, during 2007–2018, the following can be concluded: (1) The AEE of 31 provinces in China showed the characteristics of an overall stable rise from 0.64 to 0.70 but uneven development among regions from 2007 to 2018. (2) The averages of either the agricultural resource consumption efficiency index or pollution emission efficiency index in 31 provinces slightly increased over time, while the average value of the agricultural fixed asset investment efficiency index showed a decline in volatility. The spatial discrepancy of any index mainly stems from the index disparity between groups with a high AEE and groups with a low one, with contribution rates of more than 85%. (3) It is recommended to emphasize strengthening communication and cooperation between provinces with high and low AEE and implement distinct regional strategies to improve AEE. Full article
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18 pages, 1813 KiB  
Article
Relationship between Water Use and per Capita Income with Environmental Kuznets Curve of Developing Countries: A Case Study in Jiangsu Province, China
by Hai He, Lu Zhang, Shenbei Zhou, Jiaping Hou and Shengcai Ji
Sustainability 2022, 14(24), 16851; https://doi.org/10.3390/su142416851 - 15 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1285
Abstract
The relationship between economic growth and environmental variation is an important issue of sustainable development for human beings, especially in developing countries. However, developing countries usually use the standards of developed countries when dealing with environmental issues, which makes the relationship exhibit different [...] Read more.
The relationship between economic growth and environmental variation is an important issue of sustainable development for human beings, especially in developing countries. However, developing countries usually use the standards of developed countries when dealing with environmental issues, which makes the relationship exhibit different characteristics than it does in developed countries. In order to realize a balance relationship between water use and income per capita in developing countries, a multivariable environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) simulation model based on the grey absolute correlation method was modified to improve the description of the balance relationship between water use and per capita income in the Jiangsu Province of China from 2005 to 2017. The results showed that the industrial and agricultural water uses first increased and then decreased, which agreed with an inverted “U” characteristic. The industrial water use was in the declining stage of the inverted “U” characteristic, while the agricultural water use was in a transition phase of the inverted “U” characteristic. However, the domestic water use showed an increasing trend, and it is difficult to estimate whether it showed an inverted “U” characteristic. Simultaneously, different watershed partitions in Jiangsu Province presented different EKC characteristics. In the three different watershed zoning regions of Jiangsu Province, the total water use of the Tai Lake Basin and the Yangtze River Basin exhibited the typical inverted “U” characteristic, while the Huai River Basin was just in the increasing stage. Moreover, the improved multivariable EKC model was suitable to describe the inverted U-shaped variation characteristics of water use, and the developed model outperformed the univariate EKC model in the study area. Based on the characteristics of the EKC, policy ideas for enhancing the coordination among water resources, the economy, and the ecological environment were proposed in order to achieve sustainable development. Full article
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19 pages, 1964 KiB  
Article
Research Regarding the Coupling and Coordination Relationship between New Urbanization and Ecosystem Services in Nanchang
by Yangcheng Hu, Yi Liu and Zhongyue Yan
Sustainability 2022, 14(22), 15041; https://doi.org/10.3390/su142215041 - 14 Nov 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1123
Abstract
The new urbanization (NU) will lead to changed land use types, affecting the ecological environment and ecosystem service value (ESV). The NU is affected by the ecological environment because of resource scarcity when the ecological environment is damaged. NU levels and ESV were [...] Read more.
The new urbanization (NU) will lead to changed land use types, affecting the ecological environment and ecosystem service value (ESV). The NU is affected by the ecological environment because of resource scarcity when the ecological environment is damaged. NU levels and ESV were used to evaluate the degree of urbanization development and value provided by ecosystem services (ES), respectively, and to analyze their coupling and coordination relationships. This study shows that (1) the Nanchang city NU increases annually, at an accelerated rate, while the city scale continuously expands. Among the various NU subsystems, economy and spatial urbanization are primary, and the remaining subsystems are secondary. (2) In terms of the area of each land use in Nanchang, arable land is the most widely distributed, followed by forest land, and water. The land type with the greatest change was development land, followed by arable land. (3) ESV declined during the study period, with water and forest land being the main ESV components. Hydrological regulation had the greatest contribution among the individual services, while maintaining the nutrient cycle had the minimal contribution. The high-value areas of Nanchang ecology were mainly located in the northeast corner and the water location in the southeast, while the low-value areas were mainly located in the central Nanchang county area. (4) The coupling degree (CD) of Nanchang’s NU and ES showed an inverted U-shaped development trend, first increasing and then decreasing. The coupling coordination degree also showed the same trend and exhibited fluctuation in the evolution process. Full article
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16 pages, 7613 KiB  
Article
Influence of Hydraulic Model Complexity on Results of Water Age and Quality Simulation in Municipal Water Supply Systems
by Artur Zajkowski, Wojciech Kruszyński, Izabela Bartkowska, Łukasz Wysocki and Anna Krysztopik
Sustainability 2022, 14(21), 13701; https://doi.org/10.3390/su142113701 - 22 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1168
Abstract
The age of water in the municipal water supply system is one of the main factors influencing water quality. To create a good quality hydraulic model, one must achieve a high level of calibration accuracy with real life measurement data. Before we start [...] Read more.
The age of water in the municipal water supply system is one of the main factors influencing water quality. To create a good quality hydraulic model, one must achieve a high level of calibration accuracy with real life measurement data. Before we start building our model, we must decide on the model’s level of detail, that is, its complexity. We must know if skeletonization of the network graph and different hydraulic timesteps have an influence on simulation results. This study strives to prove that this decision can lead to unforeseen problems during the calibration process, thus making it impossible to achieve the required calibration precision. In order to prove this, two different model variants were created with different levels of graph detail, and simulation data results were used to determine which model variant is best suited to achieve the highest fidelity simulation results. Following this, the chosen model was run with different hydraulic timestep settings, which made it possible to showcase the large influence this setting has on achieved results. Full article
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19 pages, 2579 KiB  
Article
Analysis on Management Policies on Water Quantity Conflict in Transboundary Rivers Embedded with Virtual Water—Using Ili River as the Case
by Xia Xu, Fengping Wu, Qianwen Yu, Xiangnan Chen and Yue Zhao
Sustainability 2022, 14(15), 9406; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14159406 - 01 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1271
Abstract
Current studies neglect how virtual water transfer (VWT) between countries within a drainage basin affects water stress and then yields an invisible effect on the water quantity conflict in transboundary rivers, which would further make management policies on water quantity conflict less fair [...] Read more.
Current studies neglect how virtual water transfer (VWT) between countries within a drainage basin affects water stress and then yields an invisible effect on the water quantity conflict in transboundary rivers, which would further make management policies on water quantity conflict less fair and reasonable. Therefore, this study first constructs the Inequality Index of VWT and water stress index (WSI) to assess water stress. Next, different types are set according to the Inequality Index and WSI to analyze management policies, with Ili River as the case. Results show: (1) Within the study period, from 1996, the Inequality Index of VWT between China and Kazakhstan stayed at 0.368 (0.368 < 0.5), indicating a relatively high inequality of VWT between the two countries—China at a disadvantage, while Kazakhstan having the upper hand. (2) According to the remotely sensed data, WSI in the riparian zones of the Ili River rose from 0.288 to 0421 in China, and 0214 to 0.402 in Kazakhstan, showing intermediate scarcity. (3) China and Kazakhstan both fall into Type 2, and Kazakhstan has the advantageous position. Therefore, while allocating the water resources of the Ili River, Kazakhstan should lower its expectation and proactively ask to exchange benefits in other aspects to reverse the outward transfer of its physical water. In addition, the two countries should find suitable ways to go about water rights trading to reduce the possibility of potential water quantity conflict. Full article
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18 pages, 2377 KiB  
Article
Allocation and Utilization of Coal Mine Water for Ecological Protection of Lakes in Semi-Arid Area of China
by Changshun Liu, Lili Liang, Lin Wang and Shuai Zheng
Sustainability 2022, 14(15), 9042; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14159042 - 23 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1099
Abstract
In the background of water ecological protection, how to utilize the superfluous coal mine water efficiently has become an urgent problem, especially in northwest China, where the fragile ecological environment needs to be protected but lacks water. To solve this problem, this study [...] Read more.
In the background of water ecological protection, how to utilize the superfluous coal mine water efficiently has become an urgent problem, especially in northwest China, where the fragile ecological environment needs to be protected but lacks water. To solve this problem, this study proposes a new procedure for the allocation and utilization of mine water aimed at the ecological protection of lakes in an arid and semi-arid area. Based on the water balance method, the ecological water supplement of regional lakes is first estimated according to their different protection goals. Next, a trend analysis of water demand and supply is carried out, and the mine water inflow and available quantity are calculated. Meanwhile, the water resource allocation plan is evaluated systematically. In this study, the procedure is applied to the mine water and lakes in Wushen Banner, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China. The results show that: (1) the lakes can be divided into three classifications according to their ecological protection goals, (2) the available amount of mine water will reach 57.17–81.97 million m3 in 2030, and there are about 46.7 million m3 of water that can be adjusted to reach the optimal utilization in 2020, and (3) the mine water after advanced treatment could meet the requirement of lakes. Finally, it outputs the water supplement path and the water quantity, as well as the water transmission pipelines to each lake, which makes up a new water resources allocation plan and a utilization mode of regional mine water. This utilization mode can provide solutions and ideas for improving the ecological environment of regional lakes and promote the construction of regional ecological safety barriers. Moreover, it can be very helpful for optimizing the allocation of regional water resources, and for improving the reasonable utilization of coal mine water. Full article
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22 pages, 8729 KiB  
Article
Measuring the Relationship between Physical Geographic Features and the Constraints on Ecosystem Services from Urbanization Development
by Yongzheng Wang, Yiwen Ji, Haoran Yu and Xiaoying Lai
Sustainability 2022, 14(13), 8149; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14138149 - 04 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1487
Abstract
Exploring the constraint relationship between physical geographic features and urbanization on ecosystem services is important for managing and optimizing regional ecosystem services. Taking Anhui Province as an example, we assessed the spatial and temporal evolution characteristics of five types of ecosystem services (habitat [...] Read more.
Exploring the constraint relationship between physical geographic features and urbanization on ecosystem services is important for managing and optimizing regional ecosystem services. Taking Anhui Province as an example, we assessed the spatial and temporal evolution characteristics of five types of ecosystem services (habitat support, water production services, soil conservation, NPP, and carbon fixation) and five types of urbanization levels (population, economic, social, ecological, and spatial) in 2000, 2010, and 2020, and integrated the constraint line method, bivariate spatial autocorrelation model, and spatial regression model to measure the relationship between ecosystem services. The spatial constraints between ecosystem services and urbanization level and natural topography in Anhui Province were measured using the constraint line method, bivariate spatial autocorrelation model and the spatial regression model. The results show that: (1) the spatial distribution of the five types of ecosystem services in Anhui Province is characterized as “low in the north and high in the south”. At the provincial level, the five ecosystem services in southern and central Anhui Province are synergistic, while the five ecosystem services in northern Anhui Province show a trade-off; (2) topography has different effects on the five ecosystem services with “exponential” effects on water production services and NPP, “positive convex” effects on habitat support, and “positive convex” effects on habitat support”; (3) the bivariate global autocorrelation Moran’s I index between ecosystem services and urbanization level in Anhui Province is significant, confirming that ecosystem services and urbanization are spatially related, where the development of population urbanization, spatial urbanization, economic urbanization, and social urbanization leads to the decrease in ecosystem services, and ecological urbanization promotes the increase in ecosystem services. In the spatial regression model, the Spatial Lag Model passed the significance test, indicating that there is a spatial spillover effect between ecosystem services and urbanization. That is, changes in ecosystem services are influenced not only by their own urbanization elements, but also by urbanization elements in neighboring units or more distant units. Exploring the constraints of ecosystem services and identifying their interaction with urbanization can provide a scientific basis for land-use optimization, adjusting management measures and achieving regional sustainability. Full article
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20 pages, 47387 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Resilience of the Socio-Hydrological System of the Tarim River Basin in China and Analysis of the Degree of Barriers
by Ning Pang, Xiaoya Deng, Aihua Long, Lili Zhang and Xinchen Gu
Sustainability 2022, 14(13), 7571; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14137571 - 21 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1184
Abstract
The study of changes in the resilience of socio-hydrological systems in arid zones is of great significance to ensure the sustainable development of socio-economic and water resources in arid zones. In order to fully understand the level of resilience development of the Tarim [...] Read more.
The study of changes in the resilience of socio-hydrological systems in arid zones is of great significance to ensure the sustainable development of socio-economic and water resources in arid zones. In order to fully understand the level of resilience development of the Tarim River Basin socio-hydrological system and the main impediments to its development, we constructed a resilience evaluation model of the Tarim River Basin socio-hydrological system from two aspects, vulnerability and adaptability, which is what makes this paper different from other studies. The evaluation index weights were determined using a comprehensive assignment, and the barrier factors and evolutionary characteristics of the system resilience were revealed based on the TOPSIS algorithm and barrier degree model. The results show that (1) during the period 2001–2020, the resilience of the socio-hydrological system in the Tarim River Basin showed a fluctuating upward trend, with the calculated values mainly in the range of 0.8–1.5, and the overall resilience level was mainly at the medium or good level; (2) from the changes in each criterion layer, the vulnerability and adaptability of the Tarim River Basin showed a fluctuating upward trend from 2001 to 2020, with an increase in vulnerability and adaptability; and (3) the main barriers to the resilience of the socio-hydrological system in the Tarim River Basin are the degree of pollution of surface water sources and the amount of water consumption per 10,000 yuan of GDP. We believe that we should continue to change the economic development model, vigorously develop water-saving irrigation technology, improve water resource utilisation and economic benefits, and improve the overall resilience of the socio-hydrological system. A full understanding of the evolutionary characteristics of the resilience of socio-hydrological systems and the main influencing factors can provide a theoretical basis for future water resources development and utilisation, socio-economic development, and related policy formulation. Full article
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12 pages, 573 KiB  
Article
Does Rapid Urbanization Improve Green Water-Use Efficiency? Based on the Investigation of Guangdong Province, China
by Qiuxia Zhou and Changfeng Tong
Sustainability 2022, 14(12), 7481; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14127481 - 19 Jun 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1662
Abstract
The green water-use efficiency considers the undesired output of water pollution discharge as well as desirable output, pursuing the unification of economic and ecological benefit. In recent years, China has been undergoing a process of rapid urbanization and a dramatic change in the [...] Read more.
The green water-use efficiency considers the undesired output of water pollution discharge as well as desirable output, pursuing the unification of economic and ecological benefit. In recent years, China has been undergoing a process of rapid urbanization and a dramatic change in the water utilization pattern, while the water pollution discharge is becoming more obvious. Taking Guangdong Province as an example, the largest economy and urbanization pilot area, exploring the impact of different aspects of rapid urbanization on green water-use efficiency is of great significance for promoting new-type urbanization and green development. This study adopts the super efficiency slack-based model (SE-SBM) considering undesirable output to measure the green water-use efficiency of each city in Guangdong Province. On this basis, mixed panel, random panel, and fixed panel models are used to explore the relationship between industrial urbanization, population urbanization, land urbanization, social urbanization, and urban-rural integration on green water-use efficiency. The results reveal that Guangdong’s green water-use efficiency follows a low upward trend. The green water-use efficiency of the Pearl River Delta has improved rapidly, while other regions are maintained at a low level, so regional disparities are also widening. Industrial urbanization and land urbanization have a significant positive effect on green water-use efficiency, while social urbanization and urban-rural integration have a significant negative effect. The effect of population urbanization on the efficiency is not significant. The construction of new-type urbanization should be accelerated, the green transformation and upgrading of industries should be guided, and the urbanization of agricultural migrants should be promoted. It is necessary to rationally plan and utilize urban land resources and comprehensively improve urban functions and livability. Full article
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