Special Issue "Innovative Technologies for Wastewater and Water Treatment"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Wastewater Treatment and Reuse".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 October 2021) | Viewed by 12115

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Qilin Wang
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Centre for Technology in Water and Wastewater, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia
Interests: novel membrane process; environmental biotechnology; emerging contaminants; biological wastewater treatment; algae; energy and resource recovery; sludge treatment; greenhouse gas emission
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Dongbo Wang
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, China
Interests: biological wastewater treatment; energy and resource recovery; sludge treatment; emerging containments; anaerobic fermentation/digestion; visible light photocatalysis
Dr. Yingqun Ma
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China
Interests: solid waste management; wastewater treatment; biological processes; solid waste conversion and treatment; process integration
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Jing Sun
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200070, China
Interests: Biological treatment process; energy and resource recovery; biological and chemical sewer processes; emerging containments in water and wastewater; process modelling;
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Li Gao
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute for Sustainable Industries & Liveable Cities, Victoria University, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia
Interests: water resource management; water contamination management
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The decline in global water quality and the tightened wastewater discharge standards are posing a considerable challenge in the current global water industry. Thus, innovative technologies are urgently needed for wastewater and water treatment to ensure environmental and economic sustainability. This Special Issue aims to provide a platform for global researchers to disseminate recent technological developments and engineering solutions in the areas of wastewater and water treatment. Within this context, we would like to invite you to submit original research and review articles to disseminate and share the new findings on wastewater and/or water and treatment.

Potential topics include but are not limited to the following:

  • Novel membrane processes
  • Advances in the development of innovative water and wastewater treatment technologies such as microalgae, granular sludge, advanced oxidation, and ion exchange
  • New insights on sustainable nutrient removal and energy/resource recovery from wastewater
  • Emerging contaminants such as antibiotic resistance genes and microplastics

Dr. Qilin Wang
Dr. Dongbo Wang
Dr. Yingqun Ma
Dr. Jing Sun
Dr. Li Gao
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • novel membrane process
  • emerging containments control
  • energy/resource recovery from wastewater/sludge
  • nutrient removal
  • wastewater/sludge treatment
  • granular sludge
  • microalgae
  • advanced oxidation
  • ion exchange
  • drinking water and potable reuse

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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Article
Degradation of Azo Dyes with Different Functional Groups in Simulated Wastewater by Electrocoagulation
Water 2022, 14(1), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14010123 - 05 Jan 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 548
Abstract
Increasing attention has been paid to the widespread contamination of azo dyes in water bodies globally. These chemicals can present high toxicity, possibly causing severe irritation of the respiratory tract and even carcinogenic effects. The present study focuses on the periodically reverse electrocoagulation [...] Read more.
Increasing attention has been paid to the widespread contamination of azo dyes in water bodies globally. These chemicals can present high toxicity, possibly causing severe irritation of the respiratory tract and even carcinogenic effects. The present study focuses on the periodically reverse electrocoagulation (PREC) treatment of two typical azo dyes with different functional groups, involving methyl orange (MO) and alizarin yellow (AY), using Fe-Fe electrodes. Based upon the comparative analysis of three main parameters, including current intensity, pH, and electrolyte, the optimal color removal rates for MO and AY could be achieved at a rate of up to 98.7% and 98.6%, respectively, when the current intensity is set to 0.6 A, the pH is set at 6.0, and the electrolyte is selected as NaCl. An accurate predicted method of response surface methodology (RSM) was established to optimize the PREC process involving the three parameters above. The reaction time was the main influence for both azo dyes, while the condition of PREC treatment for AY simulated wastewater was time-saving and energy conserving. According to the further UV–Vis spectrophotometry analysis throughout the procedure of the PREC process, the removal efficiency for AY was better than that of MO, potentially because hydroxyl groups might donate electrons to iron flocs or electrolyze out hydroxyl free radicals. The present study revealed that the functional groups might pose a vital influence on the removal efficiencies of the PREC treatment for those two azo dyes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Technologies for Wastewater and Water Treatment)
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Article
The Impact of Bioaugmentation on the Performance and Microbial Community Dynamics of an Industrial-Scale Activated Sludge Sequencing Batch Reactor under Various Loading Shocks of Heavy Oil Refinery Wastewater
Water 2021, 13(20), 2822; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202822 - 11 Oct 2021
Viewed by 593
Abstract
The stable and efficient operation of the activated sludge sequencing batch reactor (ASSBR) in heavy oil refineries has become an urgent necessity in wastewater biotreatment. Hence, we constructed a green and efficient solid bioaugmentation agent (SBA) to enhance the resistance of the reactor [...] Read more.
The stable and efficient operation of the activated sludge sequencing batch reactor (ASSBR) in heavy oil refineries has become an urgent necessity in wastewater biotreatment. Hence, we constructed a green and efficient solid bioaugmentation agent (SBA) to enhance the resistance of the reactor to loading shock. The impact of bioaugmentation on the performance and microbial community dynamics under three patterns of heavy oil refinery wastewater (HORW) loading shock (higher COD, higher toxicity, and higher flow rate) was investigated on an industrial-scale ASSBR. Results showed that the optimal SBA formulation was a ratio and addition of mixed bacteria Bacillus subtillis and Brucella sp., of 3:1 and 3.0%, respectively, and a glucose concentration of 5.0 mg/L. The shock resistance of ASSBR was gradually enhanced and normal performance was restored within 6–7 days by the addition of 0.2% SBA. Additionally, the removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand and total nitrogen reached 86% and 55%, respectively. Furthermore, we found that Burkholderiaceae (12.9%) was replaced by Pseudomonadaceae (17.1%) in wastewater, and Lachnospiraceae (25.4%) in activated sludge was replaced by Prevotellaceae (35.3%), indicating that the impact of different shocks effectively accelerated the evolution of microbial communities and formed their own unique dominant bacterial families. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Technologies for Wastewater and Water Treatment)
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Article
Reactivation of Frozen Stored Microalgal-Bacterial Granular Sludge under Aeration and Non-Aeration Conditions
Water 2021, 13(14), 1974; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13141974 - 19 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 999
Abstract
In this paper, reactivation of microalgal-bacterial granular sludge (MBGS) stored at −20 °C for 6 months was investigated under respective aeration (R1) and non-aeration (R2) conditions. Results showed that the granular activity could be fully recovered within 21 days. The average removal efficiency [...] Read more.
In this paper, reactivation of microalgal-bacterial granular sludge (MBGS) stored at −20 °C for 6 months was investigated under respective aeration (R1) and non-aeration (R2) conditions. Results showed that the granular activity could be fully recovered within 21 days. The average removal efficiency of ammonia was higher in R1 (92.78%), while R2 showed higher average removal efficiencies of organics (84.97%) and phosphorus (85.28%). It was also found that eukaryotic microalgae growth was stimulated under aeration conditions, whereas prokaryotic microalgae growth and extracellular protein secretion were favored under non-aeration conditions. Sequencing results showed that the microbial community underwent subversive evolution, with Chlorophyta and Proteobacteria being dominant species under both conditions. Consequently, it was reasonable to conclude that the activity and structure of frozen stored MBGS could be recovered under both aeration and non-aeration conditions, of which aeration-free activation was more feasible on account of its energy-saving property. This study provides important information for the storage and transportation of MBGS in wastewater treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Technologies for Wastewater and Water Treatment)
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Article
Design and Evaluation of a Millifluidic Insulator-Based Dielectrophoresis (DEP) Retention Device to Separate Bacteria from Tap Water
Water 2021, 13(12), 1678; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121678 - 17 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 739
Abstract
Water is a basic necessity critical to the survival of all living beings. However, many people around the world do not have consistent access to uncontaminated drinking water. Traditional water treatment methods, such as filtration and disinfection, require physical or chemical disinfectants and [...] Read more.
Water is a basic necessity critical to the survival of all living beings. However, many people around the world do not have consistent access to uncontaminated drinking water. Traditional water treatment methods, such as filtration and disinfection, require physical or chemical disinfectants and are prone to fouling. Dielectrophoresis (DEP) enables a system whereby polarized bioparticles exhibit lateral movement under the influence of applied, non-uniform electric fields. A single-stage, continuous flow, millimeter-sized DEP device was designed and fabricated to remove Escherichia coli K12 from contaminated tap water. Glass beads were used to alter the electric field distribution and create zones of high electric field to trap bacterial cells. The effect of varied voltages, flow rates and bead sizes on the removal efficiency was studied. The highest removal efficiency of E. coli K12 was 99.9%, with the device set at 60 V, a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and a 200 µm bead size. Higher applied voltages, slower flow rates, and smaller bead sizes led to an increased reduction in bacteria. An optimized macro-scale system—with multiple stages of DEP—could be suitable for commercial use and would be an effective method of removing pathogens from polluted tap water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Technologies for Wastewater and Water Treatment)
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Article
Microalgal-Bacterial Granular Sludge Process in Non-Aerated Municipal Wastewater Treatment under Natural Day-Night Conditions: Performance and Microbial Community
Water 2021, 13(11), 1479; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111479 - 25 May 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 955
Abstract
The microalgal-bacterial granular sludge (MBGS) process is expected to meet the future requirements of municipal wastewater treatment technology for decontamination, energy consumption, carbon emission and resource recovery. However, little research on the performance of the MBGS process in outdoor treatment was reported. This [...] Read more.
The microalgal-bacterial granular sludge (MBGS) process is expected to meet the future requirements of municipal wastewater treatment technology for decontamination, energy consumption, carbon emission and resource recovery. However, little research on the performance of the MBGS process in outdoor treatment was reported. This study investigated the performance of the MBGS system in treating municipal wastewater under natural alternate day and night conditions in late autumn. The results showed that the average removal efficiencies of Chemical oxygen demand (COD), NH4+-N and PO43−-P on daytime before cooling (stage I, day 1−4) could reach 59.9% ± 6.8%, 78.1% ± 7.9% and 61.5% ± 4.5%, respectively, while the corresponding average removal efficiencies at night were 47.6% ± 8.0%, 56.5% ± 17.9% and 74.2% ± 7.6%, respectively. Due to the dramatic changes in environmental temperature and light intensity, the microbial biomass and system stability was affected with fluctuation in COD and PO43−-P removal. In addition, the relative abundance of filamentous microorganisms (i.e., Clostridia and Anaerolineae) decreased, while Chlorella maintained a dominant position in the eukaryotic community (i.e., relative abundance > 99%). This study can provide a theoretical basis and technical support for the further engineering application of the MBGS process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Technologies for Wastewater and Water Treatment)
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Article
Influent with Particulate Substrate, Clean, Innocuous and Sustainable Solution for Bulking Control and Mitigation in Activated Sludge Process
Water 2021, 13(7), 984; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13070984 - 02 Apr 2021
Viewed by 803
Abstract
This research studies the incidence of the type of substrate, soluble or particulate, in the emergence, development, and inhibition of bulking in activated sludge systems. It was evaluated using the sludge volume index (SVI), mixing liquor-suspended solids (MLSS), microscopic analysis of biomass, and [...] Read more.
This research studies the incidence of the type of substrate, soluble or particulate, in the emergence, development, and inhibition of bulking in activated sludge systems. It was evaluated using the sludge volume index (SVI), mixing liquor-suspended solids (MLSS), microscopic analysis of biomass, and effluent suspended solids (ESS). In the first experiment, four sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were fed with soluble substrate at a fixed mass, while the mass of the particulate substrate varied, as those (saccharose mass/flour mass) ratios were 3:1, 3:2, 3:3 and 3:4., with a deficit ranging from 20 to 30% compared to the ratio recommended. The four SBRs have similar MLSS, IVL, and ESS. From day 30, with a deficit from 80 to 90%, the influents have ratios 1/1 and 1/2 until 48 days. The SBRs present IVL between 600 and 730 mL/g and ESS from 370 to 440 mg/L; unlike influents with ratios 1/3 and 1/4, they present IVL between 170 and 185 mL/g, and ESS from 260 to 270 mg/L. The favorable effect of particulate matter is categorical. In the second set of experiments, two SBRs were studied: SBR 1 fed with saccharose, and SBR 2 with flour; there is a lack of nutrients causing bulking in SBRs. Once the nutrient deficiency condition is changed in day 11 to excess, after 22 days, the SVI was 190 mL/g, ESS was 360 mg/L, and MLSS was 2000 mg/L for influents with saccharose; the influent with flour, with an SVI of 80 mL/g, ESS of 100 mg/L, and MLSS of 4000 mg/L, shows faster and more consistent recovery with the particulate substrate. Therefore, the proposal is to add particulate substrate-like flour to active sludge plants facing bulking. It is a clean, innocuous and sustainable alternative to processes that use chemical reagents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Technologies for Wastewater and Water Treatment)
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Article
Prospects in Cadmium-Contaminated Water Management Using Free-Living Cyanobacteria (Oscillatoria sp.)
Water 2021, 13(4), 542; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040542 - 20 Feb 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 916
Abstract
In this study, the removal of cadmium (Cd) by free-living Oscillatoria sp. was studied. Our results showed that maximal Cd removal efficiency (~60%) by the cyanobacterial culture was achieved within 12–24 h in the presence of 5.0 or 25.0 mg/L of Cd. The [...] Read more.
In this study, the removal of cadmium (Cd) by free-living Oscillatoria sp. was studied. Our results showed that maximal Cd removal efficiency (~60%) by the cyanobacterial culture was achieved within 12–24 h in the presence of 5.0 or 25.0 mg/L of Cd. The mechanisms underlying this phenomenon were explored by elemental analysis and FTIR-ATR spectroscopy. It was found that metal adsorption by negatively charged functional groups in the cyanobacterial biomass was the main mechanism used by Oscillatoria sp. to remove metal from the aqueous medium, followed by Cd bioaccumulation into living cells. Additionally, Cd-exposed microalgae showed increased oxidative stress (MDA formation), a decreased dehydrogenase activity, a higher amount of soluble carbohydrates and a decreased total carotenoid concentration, as compared to the control cells. These results suggest that Oscillatoria sp. improved its antioxidative defense system under stressful conditions, through carotenoid-mediated ROS quenching and induction of carbohydrate catabolism, in order to counteract the oxidative damage and preserve the photosynthetic machinery and cellular energetics. In fact, no significant reduction in Oscillatoria sp. cell density, total protein amount, and chlorophyll a content was observed after 24-h Cd exposure, even at the highest metal concentration tested (i.e., 25.0 mg/L). Hence, the presented results are the first to describe some new insights about the metabolic and physiological behavior of living Oscillatoria sp. during Cd remediation, and open up the possibility of finding an equilibrium that maximizes metal removal performance with an active cyanobacterial metabolism, to achieve a rewarding and sustainable management of industrial metal-polluted wastewater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Technologies for Wastewater and Water Treatment)
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Article
Achieving Partial Nitrification via Intermittent Aeration in SBR and Short-Term Effects of Different C/N Ratios on Reactor Performance and Microbial Community Structure
Water 2020, 12(12), 3485; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123485 - 11 Dec 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 873
Abstract
A sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with an intermittent aeration mode was established to achieve partial nitrification (PN) and the short-term effects of C/N ratios were investigated. Stable nitrite accumulation was achieved after 107 cycles, about 56d, with the average ammonia nitrogen removal efficiency [...] Read more.
A sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with an intermittent aeration mode was established to achieve partial nitrification (PN) and the short-term effects of C/N ratios were investigated. Stable nitrite accumulation was achieved after 107 cycles, about 56d, with the average ammonia nitrogen removal efficiency (ARE) and nitrite accumulation rate (NAR) of 96.92% and 82.49%, respectively. When the C/N ratios decreased from 4.64 to 3.87 and 2.32, ARE and NAR still kept a stable and high level. However, when the C/N ratio further decreased to 0.77, nitrite accumulation became fluctuation, and ARE, total nitrogen (TN), and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal performance declined obviously. Except for four common phyla (Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, and Actinobacteria) in the wastewater treatment system, Patescibacteria, the newly defined superphylum, was found and became the most dominant phylum in the PN sludge for their ultra-small cell size. The only ammonia oxidation bacteria (AOB), Nitrosomonas, and nitrite oxidation bacteria (NOB), Nitrospira, were detected. The relative abundance of NOB was low at different C/N ratios, showing the stable and effective inhibition effects of intermittent aeration on NOB growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Technologies for Wastewater and Water Treatment)
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Article
Operational Performances and Enzymatic Activities for Eutrophic Water Treatment by Vertical-Flow and Horizontal-Flow Constructed Wetlands
Water 2020, 12(7), 2007; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12072007 - 15 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 764
Abstract
In this study, pilot-scale vertical-flow constructed wetland (VFCW) and horizontal-flow constructed wetland (HFCW) were constructed to treat eutrophic water, and dissolved oxygen (DO) distributions, decontamination performances and key enzymes activities were compared under different influent loads. The influent load increase caused reductions of [...] Read more.
In this study, pilot-scale vertical-flow constructed wetland (VFCW) and horizontal-flow constructed wetland (HFCW) were constructed to treat eutrophic water, and dissolved oxygen (DO) distributions, decontamination performances and key enzymes activities were compared under different influent loads. The influent load increase caused reductions of DO levels and removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), NH4+−N and organic nitrogen, but it had no remarkable effect on the removal of NO3−N and total phosphorus (TP). The interior DO concentrations of VFCW were higher than those of HFCW, indicating a vertical hydraulic flow pattern was more conducive to atmospheric reoxygenation. The VFCW and HFCW ecosystems possessed comparable removal capacities for TN, NO3−N and TP. VFCW had a remarkable superiority for COD and organic nitrogen degradation, but its effluent NH4+−N concentration was higher, indicating the NH4+−N produced from organic nitrogen degradation was not effectively further removed in the VFCW system. The activities of protease, urease and phosphatase declined with the increasing depth of substrate layers, and they were positively correlated with DO concentrations. The enzymatic activities of VFCW were significantly higher than that of HFCW in the upper layers. Taken together, VFCW and HFCW presented a certain difference in operational properties due to the different hydraulic flow patterns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Technologies for Wastewater and Water Treatment)
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Article
Establishing a Smart Farm-Scale Piggery Wastewater Treatment System with the Internet of Things (IoT) Applications
Water 2020, 12(6), 1654; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12061654 - 09 Jun 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2073
Abstract
The conventional piggery wastewater treatment system is mainly a manual operation system which may be well managed by experienced technicians. However, the pig farmers must simultaneously manage their pig production as well as their on-farm wastewater treatment facility. For this study, Internet of [...] Read more.
The conventional piggery wastewater treatment system is mainly a manual operation system which may be well managed by experienced technicians. However, the pig farmers must simultaneously manage their pig production as well as their on-farm wastewater treatment facility. For this study, Internet of Things (IoT) applications were introduced on a 1000-pig farm to establish a smart piggery wastewater treatment system, which was upgraded from a self-developed fully automatic wastewater treatment system. Results showed that the removal efficiency of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and suspended solids (SS) of the piggery wastewater based on the sensor data before and after water quality sensor calibration were 89%, 94%, and 93%, and 94%, 86%, and 96%, respectively. Moreover, the removal efficiency of BOD, COD, and SS of the piggery wastewater based on the analytical chemical data before and after water quality sensor calibration were 93%, 89%, and 97%, and 94%, 86%, and 96%, respectively. Experimental results showed that overall removal efficiency of BOD, COD, and SS of the piggery wastewater after water quality sensor calibration were 94%, 86–87%, and 96%, respectively. Results revealed that the farm-scale smart piggery wastewater treatment system was feasible to be applied and extended to more commercial pig farms for establishing sustainable pig farming. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Technologies for Wastewater and Water Treatment)
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Technical Note
Real-Time Determination of Total Solids in UASB Reactors Using a Single Emitter Ultrasonic Sensor
Water 2021, 13(11), 1437; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111437 - 21 May 2021
Viewed by 810
Abstract
The lack of proper sludge withdrawal routines has been one of the main causes of solids washout and consequent deterioration of effluent quality from up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors treating sewage in developing countries. The establishment of an adequate sludge withdrawal routine [...] Read more.
The lack of proper sludge withdrawal routines has been one of the main causes of solids washout and consequent deterioration of effluent quality from up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors treating sewage in developing countries. The establishment of an adequate sludge withdrawal routine depends on the knowledge of the sludge mass inside the reactor, but for this, it is necessary to continuously monitor the solid’s profile along the height of the digestion compartment of such reactors. Knowing the sludge concentration at the highest point of this compartment, immediately before the passage of the liquid to the settling compartment, allows the definition of more robust strategies for sludge discharge, in order to not exceed the retention capacity (storage) of solids in the reactor. To couple with that, a low-cost ultrasound sensor was developed and tested with the aim of monitoring total solids concentration inside UASB reactors. Bench and demo-scale tests were performed to validate the developed technology. Results have shown that the sensor can provide real-time values of total solids inside the reactor with 0.1% accuracy up to 1% total solids content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Technologies for Wastewater and Water Treatment)
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