Special Issue "Towards Resilient Entrepreneurship and Technological Development in Self-Sustainable Economies"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2018).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Elvira Nica
Website
Guest Editor
Bucharest University of Economic Studies, Romania
Interests: smart sustainable data-driven manufacturing; cyber-physical connected environments; Industrial Internet of Things systems
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Teodor Sedlarski
Website
Guest Editor
Dean, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, St Kliment Ohridski University of Sofia, Bulgaria
Interests: sustainable growth, green economics, investments, employment, macroeconomics
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Gheorghe H. Popescu
Website
Guest Editor
1. Dimitrie Cantemir Christian University, Splaiul Unirii 176, Bucharest, Romania
2. Center for Applied Macroeconomic Analysis at the American Association for Economic Research, 30-18 50th Street, Woodside, New York City, NY, 11377, USA
Interests: macroeconomics; labor economics and policies; economic governance; sustainable development
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Ignacio De los Ríos Carmenado
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Guest Editor
School of Agriculture, Food and Bio-systems Engineering, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain
Interests: sustainable rural development; sustainability competencies; sustainability and project management; sustainability through cooperation; business-society-university nexus
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Prof. Dr. Demetri Kantarelis
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Guest Editor
Professor of Economics Department of Economics & Global Studies, Assumption College, 500 Salisbury Street, Worcester, MA 01609-1296, USA
Interests: managerial economics; investment analysis and portfolio management; industrial organization

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Resilient entrepreneurship and technological development represent a dual, main research topic, with a wider impact on self-sustainable economies. In this context, resilient entrepreneurship is increasingly relying on new generation of economic growth stimulus, whilst still stimulating sustainable economic development. Such a growth is usually driven by green and smart entrepreneurs who are not only using green factors, such as comparative and competitive advantages in highly functional sustainable economies with open markets. They consider all the economic resources available, and use the most optimal combination in the production process and sustainable consumption, offering entrepreneurial solutions for achieving the best economic outcome in a highly competitive economy.

In this context, resilient entrepreneurship and technological development in self-sustainable economies are valuable research fields, and the need for finding proper solutions and pertinent conclusions is more than necessary.

However, research in resilient entrepreneurship and technological development in self-sustainable economies, to date, has been on entrepreneurial ventures, neglecting wider economic and social contexts within which they operate. This Special Issue addresses these wider networks of support and answers to such concerning subjects as how to ensure sustainable development of green entrepreneurship, attract investments, succeed on high-competitive markets and consider climate changes, resource paradigms, sustainable consumption, rural communities and environmental constraints for more environmentally-friendly products and services.

The main aim of this special issue is to provide relevant theoretical frameworks and the latest empirical research findings in area of resilient entrepreneurship and technological development in self-sustainable economies and its impacts on competitive markets.

The target audience of this Special Issue will be composed of professionals and researchers working in the fields of green economics, investments and entrepreneurship. The inputs will be shared with an international network of stakeholders, including research institutions, universities, and individual researches in such spheres as: Green development strategies, economic models and patterns, market economy, investments portfolio, administrative sciences and management, managerial techniques, sociology, and business theory.

We invite contributors to submit manuscripts with a high degree of novelty as full-length articles, reviews and conceptual papers, both theoretical and practical contributions, which focus on the influences of resilience on assuring regional sustainable economic growth. All submissions will be subjected to a rigorous peer-review procedure before publication with the aim of fast dissemination of the results.

Prof. Dr. Nica Elvira
Assoc. Prof. Teodor Sedlarski
Prof. Dr. Popescu H. Gheorghe
Prof. Dr. Ignacio de los Ríos Carmenado
Prof. Dr. Demetri Kantarelis
Assoc. Prof. Andrei Jean Vasile
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • resilient entrepreneurship
  • green economics and management
  • technological development
  • sustainability development
  • technological endeavor
  • relative and ecological economics
  • sustainable economies
  • integrative economic systems
  • resources productivity
  • multifunctional economic systems
  • capital investments
  • human resources

Published Papers (20 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Entrepreneurial Orientation of Public Universities in Republic of Serbia-Empirical Study
Sustainability 2019, 11(6), 1509; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11061509 - 13 Mar 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
This study explores the impact of entrepreneurial orientation on the activities of state universities in the Republic of Serbia. Using the ENTRE-U scale, the researchers have graded the entrepreneurial orientation (EO) of the employees at state universities in the Republic of Serbia. In [...] Read more.
This study explores the impact of entrepreneurial orientation on the activities of state universities in the Republic of Serbia. Using the ENTRE-U scale, the researchers have graded the entrepreneurial orientation (EO) of the employees at state universities in the Republic of Serbia. In the theoretical part, the detailed literature review is provided, which contributes to a better understanding of terms like entrepreneurial orientation and entrepreneurial university. Using data from 282 respondents who work at the state universities in the Republic of Serbia, the researchers validate the ENTRE-U questionnaire in a specific context. With this, it is proven that the ENTRE-U scale is applicable not only for developed countries but also for the developing countries, such as the Republic of Serbia. The general conclusion is that with using the ENTRE-U scale, it is possible to predict the level of innovativeness, as well as the nature of innovative activities that are conducted at state universities in the Republic of Serbia. The entrepreneurially oriented universities differ from those which lack entrepreneurial orientation by the extent of their research mobilization, unconventional approaches, the level of cooperation with industries, and the way university policies are implemented. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Rural Entrepreneurship Strategies: Empirical Experience in the Northern Sub-Plateau of Spain
Sustainability 2019, 11(5), 1243; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11051243 - 26 Feb 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Entrepreneurship initiatives that could have an impact in rural areas are embedded in broader agricultural, rural development or structural policies at the European Union level. Nevertheless, there is a prevailing lack of rural strategies focused on entrepreneurship, especially in aging and depopulated EU [...] Read more.
Entrepreneurship initiatives that could have an impact in rural areas are embedded in broader agricultural, rural development or structural policies at the European Union level. Nevertheless, there is a prevailing lack of rural strategies focused on entrepreneurship, especially in aging and depopulated EU rural regions. In this context, the need to have real experiences as an empirical contribution to the academic, political and professional spheres is identified. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the current empirical research throughout a real experience and its capitalization. The paper portrays the design and implementation of a rural entrepreneurship strategy, in a very depopulated area, engaging civil society participation by adapting the ‘Working With People’ model to the idiosyncratic conditions of the context. The study then considers the main factors of this strategy by analyzing its application in a wider area in the province of Ávila, Spain. We find that rural entrepreneurship can be enriched by strategies designed and assessed by the beneficiaries from the early stages of formulation. This experience is supported by the ‘Fundación Tatiana Pérez de Guzmán el Bueno’, a non-profit institution that manages its legacy to achieve social goals in youth training, scientific research and environmental fields. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Serbian Agriculture Policy: Economic Analysis Using the PSE Approach
Sustainability 2019, 11(2), 309; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11020309 - 09 Jan 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The purpose of the research is to identify the level of Government support to farmers’ income in the Republic of Serbia. This support is based on market measures and budgetary transfers directed towards producers. As budgetary transfers are defined in the agricultural policy, [...] Read more.
The purpose of the research is to identify the level of Government support to farmers’ income in the Republic of Serbia. This support is based on market measures and budgetary transfers directed towards producers. As budgetary transfers are defined in the agricultural policy, by applying the producer support estimate (PSE) methodology, it is indirectly evaluated whether agricultural policies have a positive or negative impact on farmers’ income and their economic status and the economic sustainability of farms. Producers of more significant agricultural commodities covered by the analysis in the period between 2012 and 2016 did not get any significant support from the state. Namely, most of the analyzed commodities had negative values of single commodity transfer (SCT) indicators, which means that agricultural producers received more taxes than incentives. In addition to the modest budgetary transfers, variations in their forms further negatively affect producers’ income. Low share of budgetary transfers in the support structure to farmers leads to the conclusion that the support to farmers’ income through higher prices on the domestic market is paid by consumers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A New Method for Agricultural Market Share Assessment
Sustainability 2019, 11(1), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11010088 - 24 Dec 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
The Romanian market for plant protection products (PPP) is fragmented, dispersed, and very competitive. In recent years, there has been a constant decrease of farmers’ profitability, which has cascaded into the distribution of pesticides, fertilizers, and seeds. Since the structure of any market [...] Read more.
The Romanian market for plant protection products (PPP) is fragmented, dispersed, and very competitive. In recent years, there has been a constant decrease of farmers’ profitability, which has cascaded into the distribution of pesticides, fertilizers, and seeds. Since the structure of any market is dynamic over time, companies can determine the effectiveness of their different marketing strategies using analytical tools. As an alternative to econometric tools for predicting the market share in the farming industry, we propose the analytic network process (ANP) model, in which the market share is described as a network of nodes and clusters. Domain experts validate the ANP structure with respect to criteria and alternatives. The model allows the quantification of qualitative judgments provided by either experts or customers, through the highest eigenvalues. The eigenvalues are then further aggregated to deliver conclusive scores for the distribution of a particular market among competitors. The purpose of this research is twofold: (1) to develop an ANP-based tool for analyzing the competitive position (market share) of a company and (2) to help companies use the new tool in order to improve their business. The paper is of interest to PPP distributors, PPP manufacturers, customers, and policy-makers. The first two categories of stakeholders can use the analysis to better direct their marketing efforts, the customers can use it to select their providers, and the policy-makers can use it to evaluate and improve the control of PPP. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Serbian Organic Food Consumer Research and Bioeconomy Development
Sustainability 2018, 10(12), 4820; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10124820 - 17 Dec 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
The bioeconomy has been introduced as a potential answer to some of the issues that modern mankind is confronted with: Climate change, industrial restructuring, food security, health, and energy security. In its goal to establish sustainable green growth, the bioeconomy relies heavily on [...] Read more.
The bioeconomy has been introduced as a potential answer to some of the issues that modern mankind is confronted with: Climate change, industrial restructuring, food security, health, and energy security. In its goal to establish sustainable green growth, the bioeconomy relies heavily on the agriculture and food sector, whereas a special place belongs to organic food. Increasing organic food consumption depends on understanding organic food consumers. Research of their profile, both worldwide and in Serbia, has failed to find their common characteristics. In this paper, results of research with the first application of a logit model in defining domestic organic food consumers are presented. The results showed they were urban, highly educated, and with higher income. The greatest obstacle for increasing their future consumption of organic food was its insufficient availability. The paper provides managerial implications as well. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Reduced Inequalities as Factor of Sustainable Development: The Analysis Under Econometric Models
Sustainability 2018, 10(10), 3523; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10103523 - 30 Sep 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
The paper proposes a different approach for the analysis of the sustainable development in the context of 2030 Agenda. The authors defined and used a cumulative model. For the beginning, the authors compare the dependent variable with the regressors of the four reporting [...] Read more.
The paper proposes a different approach for the analysis of the sustainable development in the context of 2030 Agenda. The authors defined and used a cumulative model. For the beginning, the authors compare the dependent variable with the regressors of the four reporting entities: EU28, Romania, Turkey and Switzerland. These entities cover EU, the country of the authors, a candidate country and non-EU country, as well. The analysis is focused on the Goal 10 from the 2030 Agenda Sustainable Development, covers 2000–2017 and is based on the latest official data from Eurostat. The model used by the authors generated high statistical representativeness. The statistical tests demonstrate the model’s homogeneity. A distinct part of the paper is focused on the risk analysis. The authors basically propose a distinct approach which is usefully for the central and regional decision makers. The statistical period took into consideration is good enough to support pertinent conclusions. The analysis leads to the conclusion that Romania can decrease the disparities regarding the sustainable development. On the other hand, the Romania’s progress in achieving sustainable development’s targets is lowest than the EU average. The model proposed in the paper supports the decision makers in achieving a more performant management regarding sustainable development goals. The paper represents a theoretical approach with great applicability to economic development. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Financial Sector Development, Openness, and Entrepreneurship: Panel Regression Analysis
Sustainability 2018, 10(10), 3493; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10103493 - 29 Sep 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Entrepreneurship plays a major role in all countries’ economies through generating new jobs and innovation, and in turn making a contribution to the economic growth. Therefore, the determinants underlying entrepreneurship have become important for designing an environment that increases entrepreneurial activity. In this [...] Read more.
Entrepreneurship plays a major role in all countries’ economies through generating new jobs and innovation, and in turn making a contribution to the economic growth. Therefore, the determinants underlying entrepreneurship have become important for designing an environment that increases entrepreneurial activity. In this study, we considered it important to investigate the influence of factors such as financial sector development, foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows, and trade and financial openness on entrepreneurship, using information from 15 upper middle income and high-income countries over the 2001–2015 period. The findings reveal that the banking sector and capital market development, FDI inflows, and trade openness affect the total early-stage entrepreneurial activity positively. Furthermore, the crises had a negative impact on the entrepreneurship. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Regional Disparities in Romania from an Entrepreneurial Perspective
Sustainability 2018, 10(10), 3450; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10103450 - 27 Sep 2018
Cited by 11
Abstract
This article proposes a synthetic analysis of the development level of regions in Romania with the concentration/diversification model, using Gini coefficients and Lorenz curve, based on the current statistical indicators. Knowing the degree of concentration and also the influence factors is useful in [...] Read more.
This article proposes a synthetic analysis of the development level of regions in Romania with the concentration/diversification model, using Gini coefficients and Lorenz curve, based on the current statistical indicators. Knowing the degree of concentration and also the influence factors is useful in making decisions and setting regional policy measures. The analysis of regional disparities based on a series of data and indicators provided by The Romanian National Institute of Statistics for 2007–2016. The main findings highlight a deepening of the regional disparities in Romania in 2016 compared with 2007 explained mainly by the fact that the Bucharest–Ilfov region registered an economic development much above the other regions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Fiscal Adjustment Programs versus Socially Sustainable Competitiveness in EU Countries
Sustainability 2018, 10(10), 3390; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10103390 - 23 Sep 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
After implementing harsh austerity measures during 2008–2011, in the period 2012–2014 the fiscal adjustment programs also involved social equity measures, the quantitative fiscal consolidation being changed into a qualitative one—a reduction of the structural budget deficit accompanied by an improvement of social sustainability [...] Read more.
After implementing harsh austerity measures during 2008–2011, in the period 2012–2014 the fiscal adjustment programs also involved social equity measures, the quantitative fiscal consolidation being changed into a qualitative one—a reduction of the structural budget deficit accompanied by an improvement of social sustainability indicators. The 2015–2017 period shows mixed evolutions in terms of social progress brought by the recovery of the economic potential lost during the crisis. This research analyzes the sustainability of economic competitiveness dynamics from a social viewpoint during 2012–2014. In this paper, we analyze the way in which the economic and social components of fiscal adjustment programs are dynamically balanced in 24 EU member states. We identify four clusters of countries depending on the relationship between fiscal consolidation/fiscal stimulation and the social dynamics of the sustainability adjusted global competitiveness index. We found that under the pressure of “fiscal adjustment fatigue” caused by tough austerity programs in the period 2008–2011, most of the European countries completed the fiscal adjustment packages with measures to improve the social situation between 2012 and 2017. The fiscal consolidation programs have become more balanced from the perspective of the combination of budgetary austerity—social equity measures. Furthermore, we analyze how some countries on the EU periphery (Central and Eastern Europe, Baltic countries and Portugal, Ireland and Greece, countries that have joined the EU with a lower level of development) are experiencing or not an improvement in the social sustainability generated by the measures aimed at stimulating the economic growth implemented during 2012–2017. To conclude, we proposed a few pillars that could be integrated if an “ideal adjustment program” is to be achieved. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Resilient Entrepreneurship among European Higher Education Graduates
Sustainability 2018, 10(8), 2594; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10082594 - 24 Jul 2018
Cited by 9
Abstract
Resilience represents the ability of systems and individuals to adapt and overcome the difficulties and challenges they face. Resilient entrepreneurs are those who cope with stressful or adverse situations by relying on both internal and external factors. This article examines the way higher [...] Read more.
Resilience represents the ability of systems and individuals to adapt and overcome the difficulties and challenges they face. Resilient entrepreneurs are those who cope with stressful or adverse situations by relying on both internal and external factors. This article examines the way higher education graduates express entrepreneurial resilience in various national contexts. We analyze the Research into Employment and professional Flexibility (REFLEX) data set that provides information on early career of higher education graduates leaving education in the academic year 1999/2000 in 13 European countries. We study resilience in entrepreneurship by considering both how long higher education graduates succeed to remain in self-employment and the extent to which they re-entry in entrepreneurship after exiting. Survival analyses, logistic and cox regressions indicate important differences in patterns of starting, remaining and returning in self-employment and in factors influencing the retention in entrepreneurship among higher education graduates. It is argued that structural factors, personal characteristics and educational background explain a large amount of variation in resilient entrepreneurship. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Corporate Entrepreneurship in Public R&D Institutions
Sustainability 2018, 10(7), 2297; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10072297 - 03 Jul 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
This paper aimed at establishing a Corporate Entrepreneurship diagnosis model within public R&D institutions. We based our analysis on empirical identification of a generalized set of organizational factors, perceived as intrapreneurship vectors. The quantitative research targeted 50 experienced public entities and was based [...] Read more.
This paper aimed at establishing a Corporate Entrepreneurship diagnosis model within public R&D institutions. We based our analysis on empirical identification of a generalized set of organizational factors, perceived as intrapreneurship vectors. The quantitative research targeted 50 experienced public entities and was based on validating one of the most popular psychometric instruments in the entrepreneurial literature: the Corporate Entrepreneurship Assessment Instrument (CEAI)—originally intended for the North American economic environment. As recent literature questioned the cross-cultural portability of psychometric instruments, this study intended to validate the five-factor intrinsic structure of CEAI. The five factors deduced by our statistical analysis were: support for opportunity investigations and reinforcement; dynamic environment and recognition; decreased formalization; knowledge sharing; time availability and strategic awareness. Next, the factor scores were used as input variables for a logistic regression procedure, with the output variable being the intrapreneurial value of the respondents’ institutions. Two factors contribute considerably to the predicted intrapreneurial value: support for opportunity investigations and reinforcement and decreased formalization. The validity of the whole approach is supported by the relevance of the original CEAI questionnaire, able to reveal intrapreneurial characteristics, and by the prediction power of the logistic regression model over the intrapreneurial propensity of public institutions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Relationship between the Knowledge Economy and Global Competitiveness in the European Union
Sustainability 2018, 10(6), 1706; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10061706 - 23 May 2018
Cited by 26
Abstract
The main purpose of this paper is to study the influence of various indicators related to the knowledge economy on country competitiveness in the European Union (EU). Based on the Pearson coefficient and panel-data regression models, we analyzed the Global Competitiveness Index (GCI) [...] Read more.
The main purpose of this paper is to study the influence of various indicators related to the knowledge economy on country competitiveness in the European Union (EU). Based on the Pearson coefficient and panel-data regression models, we analyzed the Global Competitiveness Index (GCI) in relation to research and development (R&D) expenditure (as a % of gross domestic product (GDP)), percentage of population with tertiary education, lifelong learning, GDP per capita, and debt to equity. The findings highlighted the crucial role of both innovation and education as determinants of EU competitiveness and economic convergence. The development of EU policies regarding the lifelong learning possibilities of the European workforce and the focus on research and development activities can significantly contribute to the competiveness of EU member states. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
From Uncertainties to Successful Start Ups: A Data Analytic Approach to Predict Success in Technological Entrepreneurship
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 602; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030602 - 26 Feb 2018
Cited by 7
Abstract
Understanding uncertainties and assessing the risks surrounding business opportunities is essential to support the success of sustainable entrepreneurial initiatives launched on a daily basis. The contribution of this study is the identification of uncertainties surrounding opportunities in the opportunity evaluation stage of the [...] Read more.
Understanding uncertainties and assessing the risks surrounding business opportunities is essential to support the success of sustainable entrepreneurial initiatives launched on a daily basis. The contribution of this study is the identification of uncertainties surrounding opportunities in the opportunity evaluation stage of the entrepreneurial process and the examination of how the analysis and evaluation of uncertainty factors, with the help of data, can predict the future success of an organization. In the first phase, the uncertainty factors are classified based on their sources and we discuss the likely implications towards new venture success with the help of existing literatures. In the second phase, a success prediction model is implemented using machine learning techniques and strategic analysis. The model is trained in such a way that, when new data emerges, the qualitative data is transformed into quantitative data and the probability of success or failure is calculated as the result output in the pre-start-up phase. The method and findings would be relevant for nascent entrepreneurs and researchers focusing on sustainable technology entrepreneurship. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Sustainability, Transformational Leadership, and Social Entrepreneurship
Sustainability 2018, 10(2), 567; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10020567 - 24 Feb 2018
Cited by 25
Abstract
This article examines the extent to which culturally endorsed transformational leadership theories (CLTs) and the sustainability of society, both considered societal level institutional indicators, impact the emergence of social entrepreneurship. Using 107,738 individual-level responses from 27 countries for the year 2009 obtained from [...] Read more.
This article examines the extent to which culturally endorsed transformational leadership theories (CLTs) and the sustainability of society, both considered societal level institutional indicators, impact the emergence of social entrepreneurship. Using 107,738 individual-level responses from 27 countries for the year 2009 obtained from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) survey, and supplementing with country-level data obtained from Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE) and Sustainability Society Foundation (SSF), our findings from multilevel analysis show that transformational CLTs and sustainability conditions of society positively influence the likelihood of individuals becoming social entrepreneurs. Further, the effectiveness of transformational CLTs matters more for social entrepreneurship when the sustainability of society is low, which suggests the interaction between cultural leadership styles and societal sustainability. This article contributes to comparative entrepreneurship research by introducing strong cultural antecedents of social entrepreneurship in transformational CLTs and societal sustainability. We discuss various implications and limitations of our study, and we suggest directions for future research. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Europe 2020 Implementation as Driver of Economic Performance and Competitiveness. Panel Analysis of CEE Countries
Sustainability 2018, 10(2), 566; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10020566 - 24 Feb 2018
Cited by 14
Abstract
The Europe 2020 strategy is the EU strategy for sustainable and inclusive growth, for fighting the structural weaknesses of the European economies, and for improving their competitiveness. In this paper, we determined the most important ratios of the Europe 2020 Strategy impacting on [...] Read more.
The Europe 2020 strategy is the EU strategy for sustainable and inclusive growth, for fighting the structural weaknesses of the European economies, and for improving their competitiveness. In this paper, we determined the most important ratios of the Europe 2020 Strategy impacting on economic performance expressed as the growth of the GDP per capita, and on economic competitiveness expressed as the share of the countries’ exports in total world exports for some selected Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries (Poland, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Hungary, the Czech Republic, and Romania) using co-integration tests and OLS panel estimations with a dataset between 2004 (after four of these selected countries acceded to EU) and 2015 (the latest available data for all the ratios we used in our analysis). Our findings show that the tertiary level of education is the most important factor, positively correlated with both endogenous variables mentioned above. Other important factors for achieving the economic performance and competitiveness goals are the school dropout ratio, the share of renewable energy in final energy consumption, and the employment rate. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Market Intelligence Precursors for the Entrepreneurial Resilience Approach: The Case of the Romanian Eco-Label Product Retailers
Sustainability 2018, 10(1), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10010190 - 22 Jan 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
The entrepreneurial resilience of eco-label product retailers emphasises their adaptive capability for renewal after the economic crisis. This paper explores the resilience of the market intelligence techniques adopted by the eco-label product retailers in order to contribute to sustainable development of this market [...] Read more.
The entrepreneurial resilience of eco-label product retailers emphasises their adaptive capability for renewal after the economic crisis. This paper explores the resilience of the market intelligence techniques adopted by the eco-label product retailers in order to contribute to sustainable development of this market in Romania. The research, conducted on a sample of Romanian retailers of eco-label products, analyses the main sources for gathering data about their competitors, the reasons for monitoring the strategic options of their competitors and the specific market intelligence techniques employed within the entrepreneurial resilience approach, aiming to overcome the negative crisis effects. The research outlines, from an entrepreneurial resilience perspective, several positioning opportunities of the eco-label product retailers after the crisis, which have affected the Romanian economy in the period 2008–2009 and have implicitly affected the eco-label market. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Empirical Study towards the Drivers of Sustainable Economic Growth in EU-28 Countries
Sustainability 2018, 10(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10010004 - 21 Dec 2017
Cited by 24
Abstract
This study aims at empirically investigating the drivers of sustainable economic growth in EU-28 countries. By means of panel data regression models, in the form of fixed and random effects models, alongside system generalized method of moments, we examine several drivers of real [...] Read more.
This study aims at empirically investigating the drivers of sustainable economic growth in EU-28 countries. By means of panel data regression models, in the form of fixed and random effects models, alongside system generalized method of moments, we examine several drivers of real gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate, as follows: higher education, business environment, infrastructure, technology, communications, and media, population lifestyle, and demographic changes. As regards higher education, the empirical results show that expenditure per student in higher education and traditional 18–22 year-old students are positively linked with sustainable economic growth, whereas science and technology graduates negatively influence real GDP growth. In terms of business environment, total expenditure on research and development and employment rates of recent graduates contributes to sustainable development, but corruption perceptions index revealed a negative association with economic growth. As well, the results provide support for a negative influence of infrastructure abreast technological measures on economic growth. Besides, we found a negative connection between old-age dependency ratio and sustainable economic growth. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Incentives for Developing Resilient Agritourism Entrepreneurship in Rural Communities in Romania in a European Context
Sustainability 2017, 9(12), 2205; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9122205 - 29 Nov 2017
Cited by 8
Abstract
In a global setting where the requirements for development equally address the economic viability but also social and environmental sustainability, the healthy and efficient growth of rural communities poses substantial challenges. Our paper focuses on specific conditions and constraints that influence the progress [...] Read more.
In a global setting where the requirements for development equally address the economic viability but also social and environmental sustainability, the healthy and efficient growth of rural communities poses substantial challenges. Our paper focuses on specific conditions and constraints that influence the progress of agritourism business initiatives as viable entrepreneurial solutions for self-sustainable rural communities in Romania. To assess the impact of economic, social and tourism-related factors on agritourism entrepreneurship for Romanian counties during 2010–2015 periods, we conducted several Ordinary Least Square regression models. The results emphasize that economic indicators like regional GDP and kilometers of national roads have a positive influence on the number of agritourism business units; also, a positive impact on agritourism entrepreneurship was identified for tourism-related factors like: number of employees and corresponding salaries in tourism, total tourists, share of tourism firms and their turnover in total firms and turnover of the region, as well as preference of tourists for agritourism. The conclusions highlight the direct link between resilient agritourism entrepreneurship and sustainable development of the region and open further research directions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Environmental Tax Policy in Romania in the Context of the EU: Double Dividend Theory
Sustainability 2017, 9(11), 1986; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9111986 - 31 Oct 2017
Cited by 9
Abstract
In the last decade, environment protection gained much more significance in designing the economic policies in the European Union (EU) countries. There are many economic and policy differences between the European countries, despite of the harmonization process inside the EU area. The path [...] Read more.
In the last decade, environment protection gained much more significance in designing the economic policies in the European Union (EU) countries. There are many economic and policy differences between the European countries, despite of the harmonization process inside the EU area. The path of implementation of the environmental tax reforms in the EU countries differs greatly from one country to another and the effects of such taxation in the economic and environmental areas are manifold. The authors of this paper have agreed to undertake the task of testing the double dividend hypothesis of the environmental taxation in Romania (an energy-intensive country) versus the EU area as a whole, using Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) techniques and Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) estimations. Our findings show that this hypothesis is validated neither in Romania (in the economic growth area) nor in the EU area as a whole (in the unemployment area). Therefore, Romania cannot increase the level of the environmental tax for supporting economic growth, but it can grant environmental subsidies for decreasing the emissions and supporting the economic growth. This could be achieved by expanding the tax labor base and by collecting higher budgetary revenues to sustain such environmental subsidies. As far as the EU area is concerned, it is a necessary measure to continue the descending trend for the labor taxation to achieve the goal of improving the employment rate. Full article

Review

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Open AccessReview
A Chaos Theory Perspective on International Migration
Sustainability 2017, 9(12), 2355; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9122355 - 17 Dec 2017
Cited by 4
Abstract
This paper aims at providing a different approach to international migration analysis, beyond classical models previously proposed by specialized literature. Chaos theory is getting more and more applied into macroeconomics once traditional linear models or even previous dynamic analysis become less suitable. Modern [...] Read more.
This paper aims at providing a different approach to international migration analysis, beyond classical models previously proposed by specialized literature. Chaos theory is getting more and more applied into macroeconomics once traditional linear models or even previous dynamic analysis become less suitable. Modern science sees chaos as unpredictable evolution, maybe even disorder. Still, chaos has got its own rules and can describe many dynamic phenomena within our world. Thus, we test whether international migration data falls under the rules of chaos and whether recent developments within the “European migration crisis” (the total daily migration inflows towards the coasts of Italy, by sea, from January 2014 to April 2017) could be described as chaotic. Full article
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