ijerph-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Prevention, Rehabilitation and Performance of Athletes

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Exercise and Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2022) | Viewed by 46376

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biomolecular Sciences, Section on Exercise and Health Sciences, University of Urbino Carlo Bo, 61029 Urbino, Italy
Interests: exercise; functional evaluation; hormonal aspects; puberty; training; soccer
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Assistant Guest Editor
Department of Biomolecular Sciences, Section of Exercise and Health Sciences, University of Urbino "Carlo Bo", Via dell'Annunziata 4, 61029 Urbino, Italy
Interests: childhood and adolescence; affective response to exercise; clinical population and disability; exercise equipment; user-centred approach
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Scientific literature has reported that sport performance highly depends on the technique, tactics, and fitness conditioning of athletes. Coaches should be prepared to administer specifically adapted training stimuli in order to improve athletic performance. Considering that excessive or incorrect training stimuli can, on the contrary, worsen performance results, lead to athlete stress, and increase injury risk, it is fundamental to enrich scientific knowledge regarding injury prevention, performance, and rehabilitation in athletes. Understanding the acute and chronic dose responses to training in different phases (pre-, during, and post-competition) of the performance of an athlete and/or in a particular moment of an athlete’s life (injury, injury prevention, rehabilitation, and return to play) can be useful to optimize training programs. This Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health aims to create a multidisciplinary discussion on up-to-date scientific data in this area, and for these reasons, we invite authors to submit original research and/or specific reviews that improve the understanding of “Prevention, Performance, and Rehabilitation in Athletes”.

We look forward to receiving your submissions for this Special Issue.

Prof. Dr. Fabrizio Perroni
Dr. Erica Gobbi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Strength and conditioning
  • Biomechanics of movement
  • Sport medicine
  • Injuries, prevention and rehabilitation
  • Fatigue
  • Return to play
  • Youth athletes
  • Female athletes
  • Functional evaluation
  • Recovery strategies
  • Affective response

Published Papers (11 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

9 pages, 1523 KiB  
Article
Arch-Support Insoles Benefit the Archery Performance and Stability of Compound Archers
by Ting-Ting Wu, Shin-Liang Lo, Hui Chen, Jeng-Sheng Yang and Hsien-Te Peng
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(14), 8424; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19148424 - 10 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1830
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of the use of arch-support insoles on the archery performance and center of plantar pressure (CoP) excursion in compound archers. Fifteen highly skilled compound archers were the subjects. A pressure plate was used [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of the use of arch-support insoles on the archery performance and center of plantar pressure (CoP) excursion in compound archers. Fifteen highly skilled compound archers were the subjects. A pressure plate was used to measure the CoP excursion and percentage distribution of plantar pressure. The parameters were compared between archers wearing flat and arch-support insoles using a paired-sample t-test. The results demonstrated that the shooting score in archers wearing the arch-support insole was significantly greater than in those wearing the flat insoles. The CoP excursion of the left foot, right foot, and both feet in archers wearing the arch-support insole were significantly smaller than in those wearing the flat insole. The distributed percentage of the plantar pressure showed that the arch-support insole significantly reduced the plantar pressure in the left posterior zone by 3.54% compared with the flat insole, and increased the plantar pressure in the right anterior zone by 2.54%. The principal conclusion was that compound archers wearing arch-support insoles during the arrow-release process can reduce the CoP excursion of the foot and increase their shooting score. The plantar pressure was distributed evenly in arch-support insoles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prevention, Rehabilitation and Performance of Athletes)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 2477 KiB  
Article
Effect of Vibration Massage and Passive Rest on Recovery of Muscle Strength after Short-Term Exercise
by Wiesław Chwała, Paweł Pogwizd, Łukasz Rydzik and Tadeusz Ambroży
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(21), 11680; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111680 - 7 Nov 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3976
Abstract
Background: The aim of the study was to compare the effect of vibration massage and passive rest on accelerating the process of muscle recovery after short-term intense exercise. Methods: Eighty-four healthy men aged 20 to 25 years participated in the study. Study participants [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of the study was to compare the effect of vibration massage and passive rest on accelerating the process of muscle recovery after short-term intense exercise. Methods: Eighty-four healthy men aged 20 to 25 years participated in the study. Study participants performed isometric (ISO-M Group) and auxotonic (AUX-M group) contraction exercise in the lower limbs. Vibration massage was administered after exercise in the first recovery period. In the same period, controls rested passively, without the support of vibration massage. To assess the effectiveness of the applied vibration, a 4-fold measurement of the maximum force of the muscles involved in the exercise was performed under conditions of isometric contractions on a leg press machine set at an angle of 45° degrees upwards. Results: Differences in maximum strength during isometric contraction were found compared to baseline in favor of the groups subjected to the experimental vibration massage. Differences were demonstrated in muscle strength between the study groups (p < 0.005). The second period of passive rest in all groups did not bring significant changes in the values of maximal lower limb strength. Conclusions: Properly selected characteristics of the vibration effect can be an effective method in accelerating recovery and regaining lost motor capabilities of muscle groups fatigued by exercise. This offers the potential to shorten rest periods between sets of repetitions in training or between training units. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prevention, Rehabilitation and Performance of Athletes)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 641 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Kinesio Tape and an Ankle Brace on the Lower Extremity Joint Motion in Fatigued, Unstable Ankles during a Lateral Drop Landing
by Cheng-Chieh Lin, Wan-Chin Lee, Jih-Ching Chen, Shing-Jye Chen and Cheng-Feng Lin
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(11), 6081; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18116081 - 4 Jun 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3222
Abstract
Background: An unstable ankle along with plantar flexor muscle fatigue may exacerbate landing performance. External support may be an option to control the ankle motion and protect joints from injuries. Research goal: To investigate the immediate changes in the joint motion of a [...] Read more.
Background: An unstable ankle along with plantar flexor muscle fatigue may exacerbate landing performance. External support may be an option to control the ankle motion and protect joints from injuries. Research goal: To investigate the immediate changes in the joint motion of a lower extremity under ankle plantar flexors fatigue conditions in athletes with unstable ankles using different external supports. Methods: A total of 44 participants were allocated to a control (Cn) group, an ankle brace (AB) group, and a kinesio tape (KT) group, and were asked to perform a lateral drop landing before and after a fatigue protocol. The outcome measures were fatigue-induced changes in the maximal joint angle and changes in the angle ranges of the hip, knee, and ankle. Results: Smaller changes in the maximal hip abduction were found in the AB group (p = 0.025), and the KT group exhibited smaller changes in the maximal ankle dorsiflexion (p = 0.009). The AB group landed with a smaller change in the range of hip flexion and knee flexion (p = 0.008 and 0.006). The Cn group had greater fatigue-induced changes in the COM range than AB and KT group (p = 0.002 and 0.028). Significance: Despite the beneficial effect in the postural control in the frontal plane, the use of AB might constrain the distal joint motion which might lead to an extended knee landing posture resulting in secondary injuries to the knee joint. Therefore, the use of AB in conjunction with an additional training of landing strategy might be recommended from the injury prevention perspective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prevention, Rehabilitation and Performance of Athletes)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 1364 KiB  
Article
Sagittal Integral Morphotype of Female Classical Ballet Dancers and Predictors of Sciatica and Low Back Pain
by Antonio Cejudo, Sebastián Gómez-Lozano, Pilar Sainz de Baranda, Alfonso Vargas-Macías and Fernando Santonja-Medina
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 5039; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18095039 - 10 May 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2979
Abstract
The aims of this study were to describe the sagittal integral morphotype (SIM) of classical ballet (CB) dancers, and to establish predictor factors and their cut off values for high risk of experiencing sciatica or low back pain (LBP). This retrospective cohort study [...] Read more.
The aims of this study were to describe the sagittal integral morphotype (SIM) of classical ballet (CB) dancers, and to establish predictor factors and their cut off values for high risk of experiencing sciatica or low back pain (LBP). This retrospective cohort study was performed in 33 female professional CB dancers. Data related to anthropometric parameters, CB dance experience, sciatica or LBP history, and sagittal spine curvatures were collected. A binary logistic regression and receiver-operating characteristic analysis were performed. The main spine misalignments observed in the SIM of CB dancers were thoracic functional hyperkyphosis, hypomobile kyphosis, and hypokyphosis, and those for the lumbar curvature were hyperlordotic attitude and functional hyperkyphosis. The lumbar curvature in slump sitting and trunk forward bending positions, together with the stature, were significant predictor factors of sciatica history, while the years of dance experience was a significant predictor factor of LBP history. The cut off values analysis revealed that dancers with a stature of 161 cm or less, and those with 14 years of experience or more, have a greater probability of experiencing sciatica or LBP history, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prevention, Rehabilitation and Performance of Athletes)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 1208 KiB  
Article
Are the Parameters of Novel Two-Point Force-Velocity Model Generalizable in Leg Muscles?
by Saša Đurić, Vladimir Grbić, Milena Živković, Nikola Majstorović and Vedrana Sember
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(3), 1032; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18031032 - 25 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2094
Abstract
The two-point force-velocity model allows the assessment of the muscle mechanical capacities in fast, almost fatigue-free conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the concurrent validity of the two-point parameters with directly measured force and power and to examine the generalization [...] Read more.
The two-point force-velocity model allows the assessment of the muscle mechanical capacities in fast, almost fatigue-free conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the concurrent validity of the two-point parameters with directly measured force and power and to examine the generalization of the two-point parameters across the different functional movement tests of leg muscles. Twelve physically active participants were tested performing three functional lower limb maximal tests under two different magnitudes of loads: countermovement jumps, maximal cycling sprint, and maximal force under isokinetic conditions of the knee extensors. The results showed that all values from the two-point model were higher than the values from the standard tests (p < 0.05). We also found strong correlations between the same variables from different tests (r ≥ 0.84; p < 0.01), except for force in maximal cycling sprint, where it was low and negligible (r = −0.24). The results regarding our second aim showed that the correlation coefficients between the same two-point parameters of different lower limb tests ranged from moderate to strong (r −0.47 to 0.72). In particular, the relationships were stronger between power variables than between force variables and somewhat stronger between standard tests and two-point parameters. We can conclude that mechanical capacities of the leg muscles can be partially generalized between different functional tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prevention, Rehabilitation and Performance of Athletes)
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 976 KiB  
Article
Can the Functional Movement Screen Method Identify Previously Injured Wushu Athletes?
by Di Wang, Xiao-Mei Lin, Juha-Pekka Kulmala, Arto J. Pesola and Ying Gao
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(2), 721; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020721 - 15 Jan 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3436
Abstract
The functional movement screen (FMS) is commonly used to evaluate sports injury risks, but no study has been reported for Wushu athletes. The aim of this study was to identify optimal FMS cut-off points for previously injured Wushu athletes and to examine the [...] Read more.
The functional movement screen (FMS) is commonly used to evaluate sports injury risks, but no study has been reported for Wushu athletes. The aim of this study was to identify optimal FMS cut-off points for previously injured Wushu athletes and to examine the associations with other possible factors. In this study, a total of 84 Chinese Wushu athletes (15.1 ± 4.5 years old, 51% male) with a minimum of two years of professional training background in either Taiji, Changquan, or Nanquan were assessed by the FMS. Video recordings were used to confirm the scoring criteria, and previous injuries were assessed based on face-to-face interviews. An optimal cut-off of the FMS score was investigated by receiver operating characteristic curves with sensitivity and specificity. We found that FMS score of less than 16 (sensitivity = 80%, specificity = 56%) was related to an increased occurrence of injuries (odds ratio = 5.096, 95%CI: 1.679–15.465) for the current study sample. The training type and training levels were related with FMS scores. More than half of the athletes (58%) had FMS asymmetry and 21% of athletes reported pain while performing the FMS protocol. Future prospective studies are recommended to use FMS with cut-off of 16 points in Wushu athletes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prevention, Rehabilitation and Performance of Athletes)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 1764 KiB  
Article
Factors Influencing Weight Loss Practices in Italian Boxers: A Cluster Analysis
by Stefano Amatori, Oliver R. Barley, Erica Gobbi, Diego Vergoni, Attilio Carraro, Carlo Baldari, Laura Guidetti, Marco B. L. Rocchi, Fabrizio Perroni and Davide Sisti
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(23), 8727; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17238727 - 24 Nov 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3050
Abstract
It is common practice in combat sports that athletes rapidly lose body weight before a match, by applying different practices—some safer and others possibly dangerous. The factors behind the choice of practices utilised have not been fully studied. This study aimed to investigate [...] Read more.
It is common practice in combat sports that athletes rapidly lose body weight before a match, by applying different practices—some safer and others possibly dangerous. The factors behind the choice of practices utilised have not been fully studied. This study aimed to investigate the weight loss strategies used by Italian boxers and to look at the difference between higher and lower risk practice adaptors. A modified version of a validated questionnaire has been sent to 164 amateur (88%) and professional (12%) boxers by email. A heatmap with hierarchical clustering was used to explore the presence of subgroups. Weight loss strategies were used by 88% of the athletes. Two clusters were found, defined by the severity of weight loss behaviours. Professional fighters, high-level athletes and females were more represented in Cluster 2, the one with more severe weight-loss practices. These athletes were characterised by a higher weight loss magnitude and frequency throughout the season and reported being more influenced by physicians and nutritionists, compared with the boxers in Cluster 1. Not all the weight loss practices are used with the same frequency by all boxers. The level of the athlete and the boxing style have an influence on the weight-cutting practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prevention, Rehabilitation and Performance of Athletes)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 309 KiB  
Article
Significant Predictors of Sports Performance in Elite Men Judo Athletes Based on Multidimensional Regression Models
by Maciej Kostrzewa, Radosław Laskowski, Michal Wilk, Wiesław Błach, Angelina Ignatjeva and Magdalena Nitychoruk
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 8192; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218192 - 6 Nov 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2634
Abstract
Background: This research aimed to identify the most significant predictors of sports level using regression modeling. Methods: This study examined 16 judokas (aged 23 (±2.5)) from four weight categories, with four athletes in each category (66 kg, 73 kg, 81 kg and 90 [...] Read more.
Background: This research aimed to identify the most significant predictors of sports level using regression modeling. Methods: This study examined 16 judokas (aged 23 (±2.5)) from four weight categories, with four athletes in each category (66 kg, 73 kg, 81 kg and 90 kg). Each athlete was a member of the Polish National Team, an international master class (IM) or national master class (M). The tests were carried out twice (every two weeks) during the pre-competitive season in the morning, after a 10-min warm-up. The tests were performed according to the following protocol: Explosive Strength Lower Limbs (ExSLL) [W], Strength Endurance Lower Limbs (SELL) [%], Explosive Strength Upper Limbs (ExSUL) [W], Strength Endurance Upper Limbs (SEUL) [%]. The relationships between the dependent variable (ranking score) and the other analyzed variables (predictors) were estimated using the one-factor ridge regression analysis. Results: There were significant intergroup and intragroup differences in the results of explosive strength and strength endurance of the lower and upper limbs. The best predictors were identified using regression modeling: ExSLL, SELL, and SEUL. Conclusions: Increasing the value of these predictors by a unit should significantly affect the scores in the ranking table. Correlation analysis showed that all variables that are strongly correlated with the Polish Judo Association (PJA) ranking table scores may have an effect on the sports performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prevention, Rehabilitation and Performance of Athletes)
8 pages, 597 KiB  
Article
The Use of Different Modes of Post-Activation Potentiation (PAP) for Enhancing Speed of the Slide-Step in Basketball Players
by Mariola Gepfert, Artur Golas, Tomasz Zajac and Michal Krzysztofik
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(14), 5057; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17145057 - 14 Jul 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3323
Abstract
Background: This study aimed to determine whether 5% of body mass-resisted or assisted conditioning activity (CA) can enhance 5 m slide-step movement performance. Methods: Sixteen division I basketball players participated in this study (23.6 ± 4.4 years; 86.3 ± 5.9 kg; [...] Read more.
Background: This study aimed to determine whether 5% of body mass-resisted or assisted conditioning activity (CA) can enhance 5 m slide-step movement performance. Methods: Sixteen division I basketball players participated in this study (23.6 ± 4.4 years; 86.3 ± 5.9 kg; 192.3 ± 6.2 cm; training experience 6.7 ± 2.6 years). The experiment was performed following a randomized crossover design, where each participant performed two different exercise protocols—assisted and resisted CA each consisting of four sets of 10 m slide-step movement with 5% of body mass external load and 1 min rest intervals between. To assess the differences between baseline and post-assisted, as well as post-resisted CA, the participants performed a 2 × 5 m slide-step movement 6 min after each CA protocol. The differences in time between baseline, post-assisted and post-resisted CA were examined using repeated-measures ANOVA. Results: ANOVA indicated a statistically significant difference between baseline and post-assisted postactivation performance enhancement (PAPE) (p = 0.011). There were no significant intragroup differences between baseline and post-resisted CA (p = 0.230). Conclusion: Findings of the study show that a light load assisted CA (5% of body mass) effectively elicits a potentiation response among basketball players. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prevention, Rehabilitation and Performance of Athletes)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 526 KiB  
Article
The Acute Impact of External Compression on Back Squat Performance in Competitive Athletes
by Mariola Gepfert, Michal Krzysztofik, Maciej Kostrzewa, Jakub Jarosz, Robert Trybulski, Adam Zajac and Michal Wilk
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(13), 4674; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17134674 - 29 Jun 2020
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 3520
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of external compression with blood flow restriction on power output and bar velocity changes during the back-squat exercise (SQ). The study included 10 judo athletes (age = 28.4 ± 5.8 years; body [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of external compression with blood flow restriction on power output and bar velocity changes during the back-squat exercise (SQ). The study included 10 judo athletes (age = 28.4 ± 5.8 years; body mass = 81.3 ± 13.1 kg; SQ one-repetition maximum (1-RM) 152 ± 34 kg; training experience 10.7 ± 2.3 years). Methods: The experiment was performed following a randomized crossover design, where each participant performed three different exercise protocols: (1) control, without external compression (CONT); (2) intermittent external compression with pressure of 100% arterial occlusion pressure (AOP) (EC-100); and (3) intermittent external compression with pressure of 150% AOP (EC-150). To assess the differences between conditions, the participants performed 3 sets of 3 repetitions of the SQ at 70% 1-RM. The differences in peak power output (PP), mean power output (MP), peak bar velocity (PV), and mean bar velocity (MV) between the three conditions were examined using repeated measures two-way ANOVA. Results: The post hoc analysis for the main effect of conditions showed a significant increase in PP (p = 0.03), PV (p = 0.02), MP (p = 0.04), and MV (p = 0.03), for the EC-150, compared to the CONT. Furthermore, a statistically significant increase in PP (p = 0.04), PV (p = 0.03), MP (p = 0.02), and MV (p = 0.01) were observed for the EC-150 compared to EC-100. There were no significant changes in PP, PV, MP, and MV, between EC-100 and CONT conditions. Conclusion: The results indicate that the use of extremely high-pressure external compression (150% AOP) during high-loaded (70% 1-RM) lower limb resistance exercise elicits an acute increase in power output and bar velocity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prevention, Rehabilitation and Performance of Athletes)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

15 pages, 1175 KiB  
Review
Hamstring Strain Injury (HSI) Prevention in Professional and Semi-Professional Football Teams: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Carlo Biz, Pietro Nicoletti, Giovanni Baldin, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Alberto Crimì and Pietro Ruggieri
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(16), 8272; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18168272 - 4 Aug 2021
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 14521
Abstract
Hamstring Strain Injuries (HSIs) are the most common type of lesion in professional footballers and the leading cause of absence days from sports. However, recent studies have shown that high-level football teams apparently do not apply any HSI prevention protocol. The aim of [...] Read more.
Hamstring Strain Injuries (HSIs) are the most common type of lesion in professional footballers and the leading cause of absence days from sports. However, recent studies have shown that high-level football teams apparently do not apply any HSI prevention protocol. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of preventive strategies and protocols in reducing the incidence of hamstring muscle injuries in professional and semi-professional football teams. A literature search of PubMed/MEDLINE, ISI/Web of Science and Scopus databases was conducted with the keywords “hamstring* and (injury* or strain) and prevent* and (soccer or football)”. Quality and bias assessment was completed through the Kennelly modified scale. The Injury Incidence Rate (IIR) and the Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR) were assessed in the statistical analysis. In the meta-analysis, data were extracted, pooled and analysed with “Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Version 3.3.070” software. In total, 8 of the 1017 original search studies met the inclusion criteria of this review. The total exposure of the studies was 170,221.8 h, while the number of HSIs recorded was 165 in the intervention groups and 224 in the control groups. The average score of the quality assessment was 23.6/34. The meta-analysis of six of the eight included studies provided strong evidence that interventions are effective in reducing hamstring injuries. The IRR of the effect size was 0.443, with p-value = 0.001. The studies analysed applied different preventive strategies: the Nordic hamstring exercise, the FIFA 11+ programme and exercises for core stability or balance training. All these interventions proved to have a successful effect on prevention of hamstring injuries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prevention, Rehabilitation and Performance of Athletes)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop