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Special Issue "Smart Vehicular Mobile Sensing"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Sensor Networks".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 March 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Pietro Manzoni

Department of Computer Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera, s/n 46022, Valencia, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +34-96.387.7007 Ext. 75726
Fax: +34-96.387.7579
Interests: Smart Mobile Systems; Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Opportunistic Networking; Smart Cities; Internet of Things

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Vehicular Sensor Networks (VSN) have become a popular research area focusing on offering a variety of services on road networks. Vehicles do not have strong energy constraints and can easily be equipped with high performing processing units, wireless communication devices (like 4G, Wi-Fi, LoRa), global navigation satellite system' (GNSS), and a large variety of sensing devices like accelerometer, gyroscope, and magnetometer, obstacle detection sensors (e.g., ultrasonic and laser sensors), and cameras.

This high variety of sensing devices and the advances in inter-vehicular communication technologies (VANETs), including the adoption of techniques like opportunistic networks, or disruption tolerant networks, provide a powerful, distributed and mobile infrastructure in the wider Smart City context. Novel and powerful applications are being designed and tested, like traffic congestion information, cooperative vehicle routing, casual carpooling, parking lot information, parking meter information and reservations, car-to-car messaging or voice, tolls, vehicle population diagnostics, and many more.

Moreover, the merging of fog computing with these improved vehicles opens an exceptionally wide variety of new possibilities for applications and services on the edge of the cloud computing. Fog computing deploys highly virtualized computing and communication facilities at the proximity of mobile vehicles in VANET. Mobile vehicles in VANET can also demand services of low-latency and short-distance local connections via fog computing.

This Special Issue aims to attract novel contributions demonstrating the latest research results related with experiences with the design, implementation, deployment, operation and evaluation of novel approaches and systems for smart vehicular mobile sensing.

Topics of interest include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Addressing transport-layer issues for mobile sensing
  • Adoption of peer-to-peer and publish/subscriber communication paradigms
  • Algorithms and protocols for VSN mobile sensing
  • Applications, business and social issues
  • Autonomic computing for Smart City
  • Case studies of mobile sensing applications over wide-scale urban environments
  • Crowdsensing and opportunistic participation
  • Cyber-physical systems and society
  • Data dissemination solutions for VSN mobile sensing applications
  • Delay-tolerant and real-time supports for VSN mobile sensing
  • Emulation and testbeds for large-scale VSNs
  • Fog computing support
  • Integration in Smart City architectures and infrastructures
  • Intra-vehicular sensor network and integration with embedded systems
  • Middleware and platforms for the support of VSN applications
  • Mobile cloud computing and edge computing
  • Mobility models and vehicle traffic models
  • Network architectures and protocols for mobile sensing
  • Performance, scalability, reliability, and efficiency of VSN supports and applications
  • Practical experience with novel wireless standards (LoRa, Sigfox, etc.)
  • Reliability, security, privacy and trust
  • Safety, enhanced navigation, and car alert supports/services
  • Simulation and modelling
  • Smart devices and services
  • System design, modeling and evaluation
  • Ubiquitous sensing

Prof. Dr. Pietro Manzoni
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • intelligent transportation system
  • fog computing networking support
  • internet of things
  • opportunistic networks

Published Papers (19 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Managing Emergency Situations in VANET Through Heterogeneous Technologies Cooperation
Sensors 2018, 18(5), 1461; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18051461
Received: 13 March 2018 / Revised: 30 April 2018 / Accepted: 3 May 2018 / Published: 8 May 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2732 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nowadays, the research on vehicular computing enhanced a very huge amount of services and protocols, aimed to vehicles security and comfort. The investigation of the IEEE802.11p, Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE) and Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) standards gave to the scientific
[...] Read more.
Nowadays, the research on vehicular computing enhanced a very huge amount of services and protocols, aimed to vehicles security and comfort. The investigation of the IEEE802.11p, Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE) and Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) standards gave to the scientific world the chance to integrate new services, protocols, algorithms and devices inside vehicles. This opportunity attracted the attention of private/public organizations, which spent lot of resources and money to promote vehicular technologies. In this paper, the attention is focused on the design of a new approach for vehicular environments able to gather information during mobile node trips, for advising dangerous or emergency situations by exploiting on-board sensors. It is assumed that each vehicle has an integrated on-board unit composed of several sensors and Global Position System (GPS) device, able to spread alerting messages around the network, regarding warning and dangerous situations/conditions. On-board units, based on the standard communication protocols, share the collected information with the surrounding road-side units, while the sensing platform is able to recognize the environment that vehicles are passing through (obstacles, accidents, emergencies, dangerous situations, etc.). Finally, through the use of the GPS receiver, the exact location of the caught event is determined and spread along the network. In this way, if an accident occurs, the arriving cars will, probably, avoid delay and danger situations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Vehicular Mobile Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle Deep Kalman Filter: Simultaneous Multi-Sensor Integration and Modelling; A GNSS/IMU Case Study
Sensors 2018, 18(5), 1316; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18051316
Received: 15 March 2018 / Revised: 11 April 2018 / Accepted: 16 April 2018 / Published: 24 April 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1805 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bayes filters, such as the Kalman and particle filters, have been used in sensor fusion to integrate two sources of information and obtain the best estimate of unknowns. The efficient integration of multiple sensors requires deep knowledge of their error sources. Some sensors,
[...] Read more.
Bayes filters, such as the Kalman and particle filters, have been used in sensor fusion to integrate two sources of information and obtain the best estimate of unknowns. The efficient integration of multiple sensors requires deep knowledge of their error sources. Some sensors, such as Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), have complicated error sources. Therefore, IMU error modelling and the efficient integration of IMU and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) observations has remained a challenge. In this paper, we developed deep Kalman filter to model and remove IMU errors and, consequently, improve the accuracy of IMU positioning. To achieve this, we added a modelling step to the prediction and update steps of the Kalman filter, so that the IMU error model is learned during integration. The results showed our deep Kalman filter outperformed the conventional Kalman filter and reached a higher level of accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Vehicular Mobile Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle Practical 3-D Beam Pattern Based Channel Modeling for Multi-Polarized Massive MIMO Systems
Sensors 2018, 18(4), 1186; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18041186
Received: 15 March 2018 / Revised: 7 April 2018 / Accepted: 7 April 2018 / Published: 12 April 2018
PDF Full-text (5363 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, a practical non-stationary three-dimensional (3-D) channel models for massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems, considering beam patterns for different antenna elements, is proposed. The beam patterns using dipole antenna elements with different phase excitation toward the different direction of travels (DoTs)
[...] Read more.
In this paper, a practical non-stationary three-dimensional (3-D) channel models for massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems, considering beam patterns for different antenna elements, is proposed. The beam patterns using dipole antenna elements with different phase excitation toward the different direction of travels (DoTs) contributes various correlation weights for rays related towards/from the cluster, thus providing different elevation angle of arrivals (EAoAs) and elevation angle of departures (EAoDs) for each antenna element. These include the movements of the user that makes our channel to be a non-stationary model of clusters at the receiver (RX) on both the time and array axes. In addition, their impacts on 3-D massive MIMO channels are investigated via statistical properties including received spatial correlation. Additionally, the impact of elevation/azimuth angles of arrival on received spatial correlation is discussed. Furthermore, experimental validation of the proposed 3-D channel models on azimuth and elevation angles of the polarized antenna are specifically evaluated and compared through simulations. The proposed 3-D generic models are verified using relevant measurement data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Vehicular Mobile Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle A Multi-Technology Communication Platform for Urban Mobile Sensing
Sensors 2018, 18(4), 1184; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18041184
Received: 15 March 2018 / Revised: 4 April 2018 / Accepted: 10 April 2018 / Published: 12 April 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (13796 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A common concern in smart cities is the focus on sensing procedures to provide city-wide information to city managers and citizens. To meet the growing demands of smart cities, the network must provide the ability to handle a large number of mobile sensors/devices,
[...] Read more.
A common concern in smart cities is the focus on sensing procedures to provide city-wide information to city managers and citizens. To meet the growing demands of smart cities, the network must provide the ability to handle a large number of mobile sensors/devices, with high heterogeneity and unpredictable mobility, by collecting and delivering the sensed information for future treatment. This work proposes a multi-wireless technology communication platform for opportunistic data gathering and data exchange with respect to smart cities. Through the implementation of a proprietary long-range (LoRa) network and an urban sensor network, our platform addresses the heterogeneity of Internet of Things (IoT) devices while conferring communications in an opportunistic manner, increasing the interoperability of our platform. It implements and evaluates a medium access communication (MAC) protocol for LoRa networks with multiple gateways. It also implements mobile Opportunistic VEhicular (mOVE), a delay-tolerant network (DTN)-based architecture to address the mobility dimension. The platform provides vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communication with support for highly reliable and actionable information flows. Moreover, taking into account the high mobility pattern that a smart city scenario presents, we propose and evaluate two forwarding strategies for the opportunistic sensor network. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Vehicular Mobile Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle Crowdsourcing-Assisted Radio Environment Database for V2V Communication
Sensors 2018, 18(4), 1183; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18041183
Received: 28 February 2018 / Revised: 9 April 2018 / Accepted: 9 April 2018 / Published: 12 April 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4641 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In order to realize reliable Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communication systems for autonomous driving, the recognition of radio propagation becomes an important technology. However, in the current wireless distributed network systems, it is difficult to accurately estimate the radio propagation characteristics because of the locality
[...] Read more.
In order to realize reliable Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communication systems for autonomous driving, the recognition of radio propagation becomes an important technology. However, in the current wireless distributed network systems, it is difficult to accurately estimate the radio propagation characteristics because of the locality of the radio propagation caused by surrounding buildings and geographical features. In this paper, we propose a measurement-based radio environment database for improving the accuracy of the radio environment estimation in the V2V communication systems. The database first gathers measurement datasets of the received signal strength indicator (RSSI) related to the transmission/reception locations from V2V systems. By using the datasets, the average received power maps linked with transmitter and receiver locations are generated. We have performed measurement campaigns of V2V communications in the real environment to observe RSSI for the database construction. Our results show that the proposed method has higher accuracy of the radio propagation estimation than the conventional path loss model-based estimation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Vehicular Mobile Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle Vehicular Visible Light Networks for Urban Mobile Crowd Sensing
Sensors 2018, 18(4), 1177; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18041177
Received: 19 March 2018 / Revised: 6 April 2018 / Accepted: 10 April 2018 / Published: 12 April 2018
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1269 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Crowd sensing is a powerful tool to map and predict interests and events. In the future, it could be boosted by an increasing number of connected vehicles sharing information and intentions. This will be made available by on board wireless connected devices able
[...] Read more.
Crowd sensing is a powerful tool to map and predict interests and events. In the future, it could be boosted by an increasing number of connected vehicles sharing information and intentions. This will be made available by on board wireless connected devices able to continuously communicate with other vehicles and with the environment. Among the enabling technologies, visible light communication (VLC) represents a low cost solution in the short term. In spite of the fact that vehicular communications cannot rely on the sole VLC due to the limitation provided by the light which allows communications in visibility only, VLC can however be considered to complement other wireless communication technologies which could be overloaded in dense scenarios. In this paper we evaluate the performance of VLC connected vehicles when urban crowd sensing is addressed and we compare the performance of sole vehicular visible light networks with that of VLC as a complementary technology of IEEE 802.11p. Results, obtained through a realistic simulation tool taking into account both the roadmap constraints and the technologies protocols, help to understand when VLC provides the major improvement in terms of delivered data varying the number and position of RSUs and the FOV of the receiver. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Vehicular Mobile Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle A Vehicular Mobile Standard Instrument for Field Verification of Traffic Speed Meters Based on Dual-Antenna Doppler Radar Sensor
Sensors 2018, 18(4), 1099; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18041099
Received: 25 February 2018 / Revised: 24 March 2018 / Accepted: 3 April 2018 / Published: 5 April 2018
PDF Full-text (23081 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Traffic speed meters are important legal measuring instruments specially used for traffic speed enforcement and must be tested and verified in the field every year using a vehicular mobile standard speed-measuring instrument to ensure speed-measuring performances. The non-contact optical speed sensor and the
[...] Read more.
Traffic speed meters are important legal measuring instruments specially used for traffic speed enforcement and must be tested and verified in the field every year using a vehicular mobile standard speed-measuring instrument to ensure speed-measuring performances. The non-contact optical speed sensor and the GPS speed sensor are the two most common types of standard speed-measuring instruments. The non-contact optical speed sensor requires extremely high installation accuracy, and its speed-measuring error is nonlinear and uncorrectable. The speed-measuring accuracy of the GPS speed sensor is rapidly reduced if the amount of received satellites is insufficient enough, which often occurs in urban high-rise regions, tunnels, and mountainous regions. In this paper, a new standard speed-measuring instrument using a dual-antenna Doppler radar sensor is proposed based on a tradeoff between the installation accuracy requirement and the usage region limitation, which has no specified requirements for its mounting distance and no limitation on usage regions and can automatically compensate for the effect of an inclined installation angle on its speed-measuring accuracy. Theoretical model analysis, simulated speed measurement results, and field experimental results compared with a GPS speed sensor with high accuracy showed that the dual-antenna Doppler radar sensor is effective and reliable as a new standard speed-measuring instrument. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Vehicular Mobile Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle Spatiotemporal Local-Remote Senor Fusion (ST-LRSF) for Cooperative Vehicle Positioning
Sensors 2018, 18(4), 1092; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18041092
Received: 7 February 2018 / Revised: 27 March 2018 / Accepted: 30 March 2018 / Published: 4 April 2018
PDF Full-text (1741 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vehicle positioning plays an important role in the design of protocols, algorithms, and applications in the intelligent transport systems. In this paper, we present a new framework of spatiotemporal local-remote sensor fusion (ST-LRSF) that cooperatively improves the accuracy of absolute vehicle positioning based
[...] Read more.
Vehicle positioning plays an important role in the design of protocols, algorithms, and applications in the intelligent transport systems. In this paper, we present a new framework of spatiotemporal local-remote sensor fusion (ST-LRSF) that cooperatively improves the accuracy of absolute vehicle positioning based on two state estimates of a vehicle in the vicinity: a local sensing estimate, measured by the on-board exteroceptive sensors, and a remote sensing estimate, received from neighbor vehicles via vehicle-to-everything communications. Given both estimates of vehicle state, the ST-LRSF scheme identifies the set of vehicles in the vicinity, determines the reference vehicle state, proposes a spatiotemporal dissimilarity metric between two reference vehicle states, and presents a greedy algorithm to compute a minimal weighted matching (MWM) between them. Given the outcome of MWM, the theoretical position uncertainty of the proposed refinement algorithm is proven to be inversely proportional to the square root of matching size. To further reduce the positioning uncertainty, we also develop an extended Kalman filter model with the refined position of ST-LRSF as one of the measurement inputs. The numerical results demonstrate that the proposed ST-LRSF framework can achieve high positioning accuracy for many different scenarios of cooperative vehicle positioning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Vehicular Mobile Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle An Improved Positioning Method for Two Base Stations in AIS
Sensors 2018, 18(4), 991; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18040991
Received: 25 February 2018 / Revised: 16 March 2018 / Accepted: 22 March 2018 / Published: 27 March 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (20945 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Resilient position, navigation, and timing (PNT) data is indispensable information in the field of e-navigation. An automatic identification system (AIS) based ranging mode (R-Mode) is put forward to develop a terrestrial backup system in order to overcome the vulnerability of the global navigation
[...] Read more.
Resilient position, navigation, and timing (PNT) data is indispensable information in the field of e-navigation. An automatic identification system (AIS) based ranging mode (R-Mode) is put forward to develop a terrestrial backup system in order to overcome the vulnerability of the global navigation satellite system (GNSS). In general, at least three base stations are required in the traditional R-Mode positioning method. However, the geometric distribution of existing base stations is not considered for positioning, as AIS is a communication system. In some cases, a vessel can only receive signals from two base stations. In this paper, an improved position estimation method based on displacement correction is therefore proposed to solve this problem. Compared with the prior displacement correction position estimation (DCPE) method, the proposed method can improve positioning accuracy effectively by adopting a more precise motion model for the vessel, including an accelerated motion and a turning motion model. Moreover, the motion model is employed adaptively to correct the displacement of the vessel. Finally, the proposed method is verified and the performance is analyzed and compared by simulation. This study can extend the application region of AIS R-Mode. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Vehicular Mobile Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle Supporting Beacon and Event-Driven Messages in Vehicular Platoons through Token-Based Strategies
Sensors 2018, 18(4), 955; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18040955
Received: 14 February 2018 / Revised: 17 March 2018 / Accepted: 22 March 2018 / Published: 23 March 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (561 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Timely and reliable inter-vehicle communications is a critical requirement to support traffic safety applications, such as vehicle platooning. Furthermore, low-delay communications allow the platoon to react quickly to unexpected events. In this scope, having a predictable and highly effective medium access control (MAC)
[...] Read more.
Timely and reliable inter-vehicle communications is a critical requirement to support traffic safety applications, such as vehicle platooning. Furthermore, low-delay communications allow the platoon to react quickly to unexpected events. In this scope, having a predictable and highly effective medium access control (MAC) method is of utmost importance. However, the currently available IEEE 802.11p technology is unable to adequately address these challenges. In this paper, we propose a MAC method especially adapted to platoons, able to transmit beacons within the required time constraints, but with a higher reliability level than IEEE 802.11p, while concurrently enabling efficient dissemination of event-driven messages. The protocol circulates the token within the platoon not in a round-robin fashion, but based on beacon data age, i.e., the time that has passed since the previous collection of status information, thereby automatically offering repeated beacon transmission opportunities for increased reliability. In addition, we propose three different methods for supporting event-driven messages co-existing with beacons. Analysis and simulation results in single and multi-hop scenarios showed that, by providing non-competitive channel access and frequent retransmission opportunities, our protocol can offer beacon delivery within one beacon generation interval while fulfilling the requirements on low-delay dissemination of event-driven messages for traffic safety applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Vehicular Mobile Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle Communication Architecture in Mixed-Reality Simulations of Unmanned Systems
Sensors 2018, 18(3), 853; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18030853
Received: 29 January 2018 / Revised: 8 March 2018 / Accepted: 12 March 2018 / Published: 14 March 2018
PDF Full-text (2297 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Verification of the correct functionality of multi-vehicle systems in high-fidelity scenarios is required before any deployment of such a complex system, e.g., in missions of remote sensing or in mobile sensor networks. Mixed-reality simulations where both virtual and physical entities can coexist and
[...] Read more.
Verification of the correct functionality of multi-vehicle systems in high-fidelity scenarios is required before any deployment of such a complex system, e.g., in missions of remote sensing or in mobile sensor networks. Mixed-reality simulations where both virtual and physical entities can coexist and interact have been shown to be beneficial for development, testing, and verification of such systems. This paper deals with the problems of designing a certain communication subsystem for such highly desirable realistic simulations. Requirements of this communication subsystem, including proper addressing, transparent routing, visibility modeling, or message management, are specified prior to designing an appropriate solution. Then, a suitable architecture of this communication subsystem is proposed together with solutions to the challenges that arise when simultaneous virtual and physical message transmissions occur. The proposed architecture can be utilized as a high-fidelity network simulator for vehicular systems with implicit mobility models that are given by real trajectories of the vehicles. The architecture has been utilized within multiple projects dealing with the development and practical deployment of multi-UAV systems, which support the architecture’s viability and advantages. The provided experimental results show the achieved similarity of the communication characteristics of the fully deployed hardware setup to the setup utilizing the proposed mixed-reality architecture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Vehicular Mobile Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle Cooperative Vehicular Traffic Monitoring in Realistic Low Penetration Scenarios: The COLOMBO Experience
Sensors 2018, 18(3), 822; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18030822
Received: 31 January 2018 / Revised: 2 March 2018 / Accepted: 5 March 2018 / Published: 9 March 2018
PDF Full-text (1545 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The relevance of effective and efficient solutions for vehicle traffic surveillance is widely recognized in order to enable advanced strategies for traffic management, e.g., based on dynamically adaptive and decentralized traffic light management. However, most related solutions in the literature, based on the
[...] Read more.
The relevance of effective and efficient solutions for vehicle traffic surveillance is widely recognized in order to enable advanced strategies for traffic management, e.g., based on dynamically adaptive and decentralized traffic light management. However, most related solutions in the literature, based on the powerful enabler of cooperative vehicular communications, assume the complete penetration rate of connectivity/communication technologies (and willingness to participate in the collaborative surveillance service) over the targeted vehicle population, thus making them not applicable nowadays. The paper originally proposes an innovative solution for cooperative traffic surveillance based on vehicular communications capable of: (i) working with low penetration rates of the proposed technology and (ii) of collecting a large set of monitoring data about vehicle mobility in targeted areas of interest. The paper presents insights and lessons learnt from the design and implementation work of the proposed solution. Moreover, it reports extensive performance evaluation results collected on realistic simulation scenarios based on the usage of iTETRIS with real traces of vehicular traffic of the city of Bologna. The reported results show the capability of our proposal to consistently estimate the real vehicular traffic even with low penetration rates of our solution (only 10%). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Vehicular Mobile Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle Adjacent Vehicle Number-Triggered Adaptive Transmission for V2V Communications
Sensors 2018, 18(3), 755; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18030755
Received: 24 December 2017 / Revised: 16 February 2018 / Accepted: 27 February 2018 / Published: 2 March 2018
PDF Full-text (3380 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
For vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication, such issues as continuity and reliability still have to be solved. Specifically, it is necessary to consider a more scalable physical layer due to the high-speed mobility of vehicles and the complex channel environment. Adaptive transmission has been adapted
[...] Read more.
For vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication, such issues as continuity and reliability still have to be solved. Specifically, it is necessary to consider a more scalable physical layer due to the high-speed mobility of vehicles and the complex channel environment. Adaptive transmission has been adapted in channel-dependent scheduling. However, it has been neglected with regards to the physical topology changes in the vehicle network. In this paper, we propose a physical topology-triggered adaptive transmission scheme which adjusts the data rate between vehicles according to the number of connectable vehicles nearby. Also, we investigate the performance of the proposed method using computer simulations and compare it with the conventional methods. The numerical results show that the proposed method can provide more continuous and reliable data transmission for V2V communications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Vehicular Mobile Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle Hard Fusion Based Spectrum Sensing over Mobile Fading Channels in Cognitive Vehicular Networks
Sensors 2018, 18(2), 475; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18020475
Received: 24 December 2017 / Revised: 2 February 2018 / Accepted: 2 February 2018 / Published: 6 February 2018
PDF Full-text (986 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An explosive growth in vehicular wireless applications gives rise to spectrum resource starvation. Cognitive radio has been used in vehicular networks to mitigate the impending spectrum starvation problem by allowing vehicles to fully exploit spectrum opportunities unoccupied by licensed users. Efficient and effective
[...] Read more.
An explosive growth in vehicular wireless applications gives rise to spectrum resource starvation. Cognitive radio has been used in vehicular networks to mitigate the impending spectrum starvation problem by allowing vehicles to fully exploit spectrum opportunities unoccupied by licensed users. Efficient and effective detection of licensed user is a critical issue to realize cognitive radio applications. However, spectrum sensing in vehicular environments is a very challenging task due to vehicle mobility. For instance, vehicle mobility has a large effect on the wireless channel, thereby impacting the detection performance of spectrum sensing. Thus, gargantuan efforts have been made in order to analyze the fading properties of mobile radio channel in vehicular environments. Indeed, numerous studies have demonstrated that the wireless channel in vehicular environments can be characterized by a temporally correlated Rayleigh fading. In this paper, we focus on energy detection for spectrum sensing and a counting rule for cooperative sensing based on Neyman-Pearson criteria. Further, we go into the effect of the sensing and reporting channel conditions on the sensing performance under the temporally correlated Rayleigh channel. For local and cooperative sensing, we derive some alternative expressions for the average probability of misdetection. The pertinent numerical and simulating results are provided to further validate our theoretical analyses under a variety of scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Vehicular Mobile Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle Speed Bump Detection Using Accelerometric Features: A Genetic Algorithm Approach
Sensors 2018, 18(2), 443; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18020443
Received: 10 November 2017 / Revised: 5 January 2018 / Accepted: 5 January 2018 / Published: 3 February 2018
PDF Full-text (918 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Among the current challenges of the Smart City, traffic management and maintenance are of utmost importance. Road surface monitoring is currently performed by humans, but the road surface condition is one of the main indicators of road quality, and it may drastically affect
[...] Read more.
Among the current challenges of the Smart City, traffic management and maintenance are of utmost importance. Road surface monitoring is currently performed by humans, but the road surface condition is one of the main indicators of road quality, and it may drastically affect fuel consumption and the safety of both drivers and pedestrians. Abnormalities in the road, such as manholes and potholes, can cause accidents when not identified by the drivers. Furthermore, human-induced abnormalities, such as speed bumps, could also cause accidents. In addition, while said obstacles ought to be signalized according to specific road regulation, they are not always correctly labeled. Therefore, we developed a novel method for the detection of road abnormalities (i.e., speed bumps). This method makes use of a gyro, an accelerometer, and a GPS sensor mounted in a car. After having the vehicle cruise through several streets, data is retrieved from the sensors. Then, using a cross-validation strategy, a genetic algorithm is used to find a logistic model that accurately detects road abnormalities. The proposed model had an accuracy of 0.9714 in a blind evaluation, with a false positive rate smaller than 0.018, and an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.9784. This methodology has the potential to detect speed bumps in quasi real-time conditions, and can be used to construct a real-time surface monitoring system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Vehicular Mobile Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle Game-Theoretical Design of an Adaptive Distributed Dissemination Protocol for VANETs
Sensors 2018, 18(1), 294; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18010294
Received: 8 November 2017 / Revised: 16 January 2018 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 19 January 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (11987 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Road safety applications envisaged for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) depend largely on the dissemination of warning messages to deliver information to concerned vehicles. The intended applications, as well as some inherent VANET characteristics, make data dissemination an essential service and a challenging
[...] Read more.
Road safety applications envisaged for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) depend largely on the dissemination of warning messages to deliver information to concerned vehicles. The intended applications, as well as some inherent VANET characteristics, make data dissemination an essential service and a challenging task in this kind of networks. This work lays out a decentralized stochastic solution for the data dissemination problem through two game-theoretical mechanisms. Given the non-stationarity induced by a highly dynamic topology, diverse network densities, and intermittent connectivity, a solution for the formulated game requires an adaptive procedure able to exploit the environment changes. Extensive simulations reveal that our proposal excels in terms of number of transmissions, lower end-to-end delay and reduced overhead while maintaining high delivery ratio, compared to other proposals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Vehicular Mobile Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle Towards Realistic Urban Traffic Experiments Using DFROUTER: Heuristic, Validation and Extensions
Sensors 2017, 17(12), 2921; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17122921
Received: 31 October 2017 / Revised: 5 December 2017 / Accepted: 12 December 2017 / Published: 15 December 2017
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Abstract
Traffic congestion is an important problem faced by Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), requiring models that allow predicting the impact of different solutions on urban traffic flow. Such an approach typically requires the use of simulations, which should be as realistic as possible. However,
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Traffic congestion is an important problem faced by Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), requiring models that allow predicting the impact of different solutions on urban traffic flow. Such an approach typically requires the use of simulations, which should be as realistic as possible. However, achieving high degrees of realism can be complex when the actual traffic patterns, defined through an Origin/Destination (O-D) matrix for the vehicles in a city, remain unknown. Thus, the main contribution of this paper is a heuristic for improving traffic congestion modeling. In particular, we propose a procedure that, starting from real induction loop measurements made available by traffic authorities, iteratively refines the output of DFROUTER, which is a module provided by the SUMO (Simulation of Urban MObility) tool. This way, it is able to generate an O-D matrix for traffic that resembles the real traffic distribution and that can be directly imported by SUMO. We apply our technique to the city of Valencia, and we then compare the obtained results against other existing traffic mobility data for the cities of Cologne (Germany) and Bologna (Italy), thereby validating our approach. We also use our technique to determine what degree of congestion is expectable if certain conditions cause additional traffic to circulate in the city, adopting both a uniform pattern and a hotspot-based pattern for traffic injection to demonstrate how to regulate the overall number of vehicles in the city. This study allows evaluating the impact of vehicle flow changes on the overall traffic congestion levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Vehicular Mobile Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle Multi-Sensor Information Fusion for Optimizing Electric Bicycle Routes Using a Swarm Intelligence Algorithm
Sensors 2017, 17(11), 2501; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17112501
Received: 12 September 2017 / Revised: 26 October 2017 / Accepted: 27 October 2017 / Published: 31 October 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (10183 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The use of electric bikes (e-bikes) has grown in popularity, especially in large cities where overcrowding and traffic congestion are common. This paper proposes an intelligent engine management system for e-bikes which uses the information collected from sensors to optimize battery energy and
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The use of electric bikes (e-bikes) has grown in popularity, especially in large cities where overcrowding and traffic congestion are common. This paper proposes an intelligent engine management system for e-bikes which uses the information collected from sensors to optimize battery energy and time. The intelligent engine management system consists of a built-in network of sensors in the e-bike, which is used for multi-sensor data fusion; the collected data is analysed and fused and on the basis of this information the system can provide the user with optimal and personalized assistance. The user is given recommendations related to battery consumption, sensors, and other parameters associated with the route travelled, such as duration, speed, or variation in altitude. To provide a user with these recommendations, artificial neural networks are used to estimate speed and consumption for each of the segments of a route. These estimates are incorporated into evolutionary algorithms in order to make the optimizations. A comparative analysis of the results obtained has been conducted for when routes were travelled with and without the optimization system. From the experiments, it is evident that the use of an engine management system results in significant energy and time savings. Moreover, user satisfaction increases as the level of assistance adapts to user behavior and the characteristics of the route. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Vehicular Mobile Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle An Efficient and QoS Supported Multichannel MAC Protocol for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks
Sensors 2017, 17(10), 2293; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17102293
Received: 27 August 2017 / Revised: 22 September 2017 / Accepted: 1 October 2017 / Published: 9 October 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1060 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) employ multichannel to provide a variety of safety and non-safety (transport efficiency and infotainment) applications, based on the IEEE 802.11p and IEEE 1609.4 protocols. Different types of applications require different levels Quality-of-Service (QoS) support. Recently, transport efficiency and
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Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) employ multichannel to provide a variety of safety and non-safety (transport efficiency and infotainment) applications, based on the IEEE 802.11p and IEEE 1609.4 protocols. Different types of applications require different levels Quality-of-Service (QoS) support. Recently, transport efficiency and infotainment applications (e.g., electronic map download and Internet access) have received more and more attention, and this kind of applications is expected to become a big market driver in a near future. In this paper, we propose an Efficient and QoS supported Multichannel Medium Access Control (EQM-MAC) protocol for VANETs in a highway environment. The EQM-MAC protocol utilizes the service channel resources for non-safety message transmissions during the whole synchronization interval, and it dynamically adjusts minimum contention window size for different non-safety services according to the traffic conditions. Theoretical model analysis and extensive simulation results show that the EQM-MAC protocol can support QoS services, while ensuring the high saturation throughput and low transmission delay for non-safety applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Vehicular Mobile Sensing)
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