sensors-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Sensors and Methods for the Measurement of Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Biosensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Antti Vehkaoja
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland
Interests: unobtrusive measurement methods; wearable sensors; cardiovascular monitoring
Dr. Jari Viik
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland
Interests: physiological measurements; electrocardiography; ballistocardiography; bioimpedance measurements; impedance pneumography; non-invasive sensors
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Cardiovascular and respiratory systems are the most important life-supporting systems of a body. Sensors and methods for measuring their operation are constantly under active research. Measurements of cardiovascular and respiratory systems may also be used to provide information on the status of the autonomic nervous system.

We invite manuscripts presenting and evaluating sensors as well as measurement or sensor signal analysis methods for assessing the condition of the aforementioned systems or monitoring their operation. In addition, methods using their signals for indirectly monitoring other physiological systems are within the scope of this Special Issue. Both original research papers and review articles relating to the sensors and methods in the areas of this Special Issue are welcomed.

Prof. Antti Vehkaoja
Prof. Jari Viik
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • cardiovascular measurements
  • respiratory measurements
  • wearable or ambulatory sensors
  • unobtrusive measurement systems
  • analysis methods
  • sensor signal processing
  • diagnostic methods
  • autonomic nervous system

Published Papers (4 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Open AccessArticle
A Deep Learning-Based Camera Approach for Vital Sign Monitoring Using Thermography Images for ICU Patients
Sensors 2021, 21(4), 1495; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21041495 - 21 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 911
Abstract
Infrared thermography for camera-based skin temperature measurement is increasingly used in medical practice, e.g., to detect fevers and infections, such as recently in the COVID-19 pandemic. This contactless method is a promising technology to continuously monitor the vital signs of patients in clinical [...] Read more.
Infrared thermography for camera-based skin temperature measurement is increasingly used in medical practice, e.g., to detect fevers and infections, such as recently in the COVID-19 pandemic. This contactless method is a promising technology to continuously monitor the vital signs of patients in clinical environments. In this study, we investigated both skin temperature trend measurement and the extraction of respiration-related chest movements to determine the respiratory rate using low-cost hardware in combination with advanced algorithms. In addition, the frequency of medical examinations or visits to the patients was extracted. We implemented a deep learning-based algorithm for real-time vital sign extraction from thermography images. A clinical trial was conducted to record data from patients on an intensive care unit. The YOLOv4-Tiny object detector was applied to extract image regions containing vital signs (head and chest). The infrared frames were manually labeled for evaluation. Validation was performed on a hold-out test dataset of 6 patients and revealed good detector performance (0.75 intersection over union, 0.94 mean average precision). An optical flow algorithm was used to extract the respiratory rate from the chest region. The results show a mean absolute error of 2.69 bpm. We observed a computational performance of 47 fps on an NVIDIA Jetson Xavier NX module for YOLOv4-Tiny, which proves real-time capability on an embedded GPU system. In conclusion, the proposed method can perform real-time vital sign extraction on a low-cost system-on-module and may thus be a useful method for future contactless vital sign measurements. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
SDNN24 Estimation from Semi-Continuous HR Measures
Sensors 2021, 21(4), 1463; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21041463 - 20 Feb 2021
Viewed by 777
Abstract
The standard deviation of the interval between QRS complexes recorded over 24 h (SDNN24) is an important metric of cardiovascular health. Wrist-worn fitness wearable devices record heart beats 24/7 having a complete overview of users’ heart status. Due to motion artefacts affecting QRS [...] Read more.
The standard deviation of the interval between QRS complexes recorded over 24 h (SDNN24) is an important metric of cardiovascular health. Wrist-worn fitness wearable devices record heart beats 24/7 having a complete overview of users’ heart status. Due to motion artefacts affecting QRS complexes recording, and the different nature of the heart rate sensor used on wearable devices compared to ECG, traditionally used to compute SDNN24, the estimation of this important Heart Rate Variability (HRV) metric has never been performed from wearable data. We propose an innovative approach to estimate SDNN24 only exploiting the Heart Rate (HR) that is normally available on wearable fitness trackers and less affected by data noise. The standard deviation of inter-beats intervals (SDNN24) and the standard deviation of the Average inter-beats intervals (ANN) derived from the HR (obtained in a time window with defined duration, i.e., 1, 5, 10, 30 and 60 min), i.e., ANN=60HR (SDANNHR24), were calculated over 24 h. Power spectrum analysis using the Lomb-Scargle Peridogram was performed to assess frequency domain HRV parameters (Ultra Low Frequency, Very Low Frequency, Low Frequency, and High Frequency). Due to the fact that SDNN24 reflects the total power of the power of the HRV spectrum, the values estimated from HR measures (SDANNHR24) underestimate the real values because of the high frequencies that are missing. Subjects with low and high cardiovascular risk show different power spectra. In particular, differences are detected in Ultra Low and Very Low frequencies, while similar results are shown in Low and High frequencies. For this reason, we found that HR measures contain enough information to discriminate cardiovascular risk. Semi-continuous measures of HR throughout 24 h, as measured by most wrist-worn fitness wearable devices, should be sufficient to estimate SDNN24 and cardiovascular risk. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Extraction and Analysis of Respiratory Motion Using a Comprehensive Wearable Health Monitoring System
Sensors 2021, 21(4), 1393; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21041393 - 17 Feb 2021
Viewed by 468
Abstract
Respiratory activity is an important vital sign of life that can indicate health status. Diseases such as bronchitis, emphysema, pneumonia and coronavirus cause respiratory disorders that affect the respiratory systems. Typically, the diagnosis of these diseases is facilitated by pulmonary auscultation using a [...] Read more.
Respiratory activity is an important vital sign of life that can indicate health status. Diseases such as bronchitis, emphysema, pneumonia and coronavirus cause respiratory disorders that affect the respiratory systems. Typically, the diagnosis of these diseases is facilitated by pulmonary auscultation using a stethoscope. We present a new attempt to develop a lightweight, comprehensive wearable sensor system to monitor respiration using a multi-sensor approach. We employed new wearable sensor technology using a novel integration of acoustics and biopotentials to monitor various vital signs on two volunteers. In this study, a new method to monitor lung function, such as respiration rate and tidal volume, is presented using the multi-sensor approach. Using the new sensor, we obtained lung sound, electrocardiogram (ECG), and electromyogram (EMG) measurements at the external intercostal muscles (EIM) and at the diaphragm during breathing cycles with 500 mL, 625 mL, 750 mL, 875 mL, and 1000 mL tidal volume. The tidal volumes were controlled with a spirometer. The duration of each breathing cycle was 8 s and was timed using a metronome. For each of the different tidal volumes, the EMG data was plotted against time and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. The AUC calculated from EMG data obtained at the diaphragm and EIM represent the expansion of the diaphragm and EIM respectively. AUC obtained from EMG data collected at the diaphragm had a lower variance between samples per tidal volume compared to those monitored at the EIM. Using cubic spline interpolation, we built a model for computing tidal volume from EMG data at the diaphragm. Our findings show that the new sensor can be used to measure respiration rate and variations thereof and holds potential to estimate tidal lung volume from EMG measurements obtained from the diaphragm. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Towards Continuous and Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring: Methods for Efficient Data Acquisition for Pulse Transit Time Estimation
Sensors 2020, 20(24), 7106; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20247106 - 11 Dec 2020
Viewed by 735
Abstract
We developed a prototype for measuring physiological data for pulse transit time (PTT) estimation that will be used for ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring. The device is comprised of an embedded system with multimodal sensors that streams high-throughput data to a custom Android [...] Read more.
We developed a prototype for measuring physiological data for pulse transit time (PTT) estimation that will be used for ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring. The device is comprised of an embedded system with multimodal sensors that streams high-throughput data to a custom Android application. The primary focus of this paper is on the hardware–software codesign that we developed to address the challenges associated with reliably recording data over Bluetooth on a resource-constrained platform. In particular, we developed a lossless compression algorithm that is based on optimally selective Huffman coding and Huffman prefixed coding, which yields virtually identical compression ratios to the standard algorithm, but with a 67–99% reduction in the size of the compression tables. In addition, we developed a hybrid software–hardware flow control method to eliminate microcontroller (MCU) interrupt-latency related data loss when multi-byte packets are sent from the phone to the embedded system via a Bluetooth module at baud rates exceeding 115,200 bit/s. The empirical error rate obtained with the proposed method with the baud rate set to 460,800 bit/s was identically equal to 0%. Our robust and computationally efficient physiological data acquisition system will enable field experiments that will drive the development of novel algorithms for PTT-based continuous BP monitoring. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop