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Open AccessArticle

Towards Continuous and Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring: Methods for Efficient Data Acquisition for Pulse Transit Time Estimation

1
Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA
2
Embedded Systems Laboratory (ESL), EPFL, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2020, 20(24), 7106; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20247106
Received: 19 November 2020 / Revised: 3 December 2020 / Accepted: 7 December 2020 / Published: 11 December 2020
We developed a prototype for measuring physiological data for pulse transit time (PTT) estimation that will be used for ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring. The device is comprised of an embedded system with multimodal sensors that streams high-throughput data to a custom Android application. The primary focus of this paper is on the hardware–software codesign that we developed to address the challenges associated with reliably recording data over Bluetooth on a resource-constrained platform. In particular, we developed a lossless compression algorithm that is based on optimally selective Huffman coding and Huffman prefixed coding, which yields virtually identical compression ratios to the standard algorithm, but with a 67–99% reduction in the size of the compression tables. In addition, we developed a hybrid software–hardware flow control method to eliminate microcontroller (MCU) interrupt-latency related data loss when multi-byte packets are sent from the phone to the embedded system via a Bluetooth module at baud rates exceeding 115,200 bit/s. The empirical error rate obtained with the proposed method with the baud rate set to 460,800 bit/s was identically equal to 0%. Our robust and computationally efficient physiological data acquisition system will enable field experiments that will drive the development of novel algorithms for PTT-based continuous BP monitoring. View Full-Text
Keywords: pulse transit time; blood pressure; electrocardiogram; photoplethysmogram; seismocardiogram; gyrocardiogram; compression; Huffman coding; UART flow control pulse transit time; blood pressure; electrocardiogram; photoplethysmogram; seismocardiogram; gyrocardiogram; compression; Huffman coding; UART flow control
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ode, O.; Orlandic, L.; Inan, O.T. Towards Continuous and Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring: Methods for Efficient Data Acquisition for Pulse Transit Time Estimation. Sensors 2020, 20, 7106. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20247106

AMA Style

Ode O, Orlandic L, Inan OT. Towards Continuous and Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring: Methods for Efficient Data Acquisition for Pulse Transit Time Estimation. Sensors. 2020; 20(24):7106. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20247106

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ode, Oludotun; Orlandic, Lara; Inan, Omer T. 2020. "Towards Continuous and Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring: Methods for Efficient Data Acquisition for Pulse Transit Time Estimation" Sensors 20, no. 24: 7106. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20247106

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