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Article

Respiratory Activity during Exercise: A Feasibility Study on Transition Point Estimation Using Impedance Pneumography

1
Institute of Metrology and Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Mechatronics, Warsaw University of Technology, 02-525 Warsaw, Poland
2
Department of Applied Physiology, Mossakowski Medical Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, 02-106 Warsaw, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Antti Vehkaoja and Jari Viik
Sensors 2021, 21(18), 6233; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21186233
Received: 20 August 2021 / Revised: 9 September 2021 / Accepted: 14 September 2021 / Published: 17 September 2021
The current diagnostic procedures for assessing physiological response to exercise comprise blood lactates measurements, ergospirometry, and electrocardiography. The first is not continuous, the second requires specialized equipment distorting natural breathing, and the last is indirect. Therefore, we decided to perform the feasibility study with impedance pneumography as an alternative technique. We attempted to determine points in respiratory-related signals, acquired during stress test conditions, that suggest a transition similar to the gas exchange threshold. In addition, we analyzed whether or not respiratory activity reaches steady states during graded exercise. Forty-four students (35 females), practicing sports on different levels, performed a graded exercise test until exhaustion on cycloergometer. Eventually, the results from 34 of them were used. The data were acquired with Pneumonitor 2. The signals demonstrated that the steady state phenomenon is not as evident as for heart rate. The results indicated respiratory rate approaches show the transition point at the earliest (more than 6 min before the end of the exercise test on average), and the tidal volume ones at the latest (less than 5 min). A combination gave intermediate findings. The results showed the impedance pneumography appears reasonable for the transition point estimation, but this should be further studied with the reference. View Full-Text
Keywords: exercise; respiratory steady-state; elite athletes; non-invasive respiratory monitoring; gas exchange threshold exercise; respiratory steady-state; elite athletes; non-invasive respiratory monitoring; gas exchange threshold
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MDPI and ACS Style

Młyńczak, M.; Krysztofiak, H. Respiratory Activity during Exercise: A Feasibility Study on Transition Point Estimation Using Impedance Pneumography. Sensors 2021, 21, 6233. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21186233

AMA Style

Młyńczak M, Krysztofiak H. Respiratory Activity during Exercise: A Feasibility Study on Transition Point Estimation Using Impedance Pneumography. Sensors. 2021; 21(18):6233. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21186233

Chicago/Turabian Style

Młyńczak, Marcel, and Hubert Krysztofiak. 2021. "Respiratory Activity during Exercise: A Feasibility Study on Transition Point Estimation Using Impedance Pneumography" Sensors 21, no. 18: 6233. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21186233

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