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Special Issue "Nanomechanics for Sensing and Spectrometry"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Chemical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2016).

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Montserrat Calleja

Instituto de Microelectrónica de Madrid Isaac Newton, 8, Tres Cantos, E-28760
Website | E-Mail
Interests: nanotechnology; nanomechanics; molecular diagnostics; biosensors
Guest Editor
Dr. Priscila Kosaka

IMM-CSIC Isaac Newton 8, PTM-28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: ultra high sensitivity biosensors; plasmonics; nanomechanics; cancer diagnostics; HIV diagnosis

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Detecting the presence of a given substance at the molecular level, down to a single molecule, remains a considerable challenge for many nanotechnology sensor applications that range from nanobiotechnology research to environmental monitoring. Fortunately, the advances in micro- and nanofabrication technologies enable the fabrication of increasingly smaller mechanical transducers with micro- and nanosized moving parts, of which deformation and vibration are sensitively modified upon molecular adsorption. Molecular adsorption decreases the free energy and change in energy in spatial domain is force; thus, at a fundamental level, all interactions in biology and chemistry involve nanomechanics.

This Special Issue of “Sensors” shall gather cutting-edge research concerning nanomechanics for sensing and the emerging field of single molecule mass spectrometry enabled by nanomechanical systems.

Dr. Priscila M. Kosaka
Dr. Montserrat Calleja
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • nanomechanics
  • nanomechanical mass spectrometry
  • chemical sensors
  • biosensors
  • innovative nanomechanical resonators
  • optical readout systems

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Spatially Multiplexed Micro-Spectrophotometry in Bright Field Mode for Thin Film Characterization
Sensors 2016, 16(6), 926; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16060926
Received: 20 May 2016 / Revised: 14 June 2016 / Accepted: 17 June 2016 / Published: 21 June 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3452 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Thickness characterization of thin films is of primary importance in a variety of nanotechnology applications, either in the semiconductor industry, quality control in nanofabrication processes or engineering of nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) because small thickness variability can strongly compromise the device performance. Here, we [...] Read more.
Thickness characterization of thin films is of primary importance in a variety of nanotechnology applications, either in the semiconductor industry, quality control in nanofabrication processes or engineering of nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) because small thickness variability can strongly compromise the device performance. Here, we present an alternative optical method in bright field mode called Spatially Multiplexed Micro-Spectrophotometry that allows rapid and non-destructive characterization of thin films over areas of mm2 and with 1 μm of lateral resolution. We demonstrate an accuracy of 0.1% in the thickness characterization through measurements performed on four microcantilevers that expand an area of 1.8 mm2 in one minute of analysis time. The measured thickness variation in the range of few tens of nm translates into a mechanical variability that produces an error of up to 2% in the response of the studied devices when they are used to measure surface stress variations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomechanics for Sensing and Spectrometry)
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Open AccessArticle
Toward Higher-Order Mass Detection: Influence of an Adsorbate’s Rotational Inertia and Eccentricity on the Resonant Response of a Bernoulli-Euler Cantilever Beam
Sensors 2015, 15(11), 29209-29232; https://doi.org/10.3390/s151129209
Received: 30 September 2015 / Revised: 30 October 2015 / Accepted: 11 November 2015 / Published: 19 November 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (3186 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper a new theoretical model is derived, the results of which permit a detailed examination of how the resonant characteristics of a cantilever are influenced by a particle (adsorbate) attached at an arbitrary position along the beam’s length. Unlike most previous [...] Read more.
In this paper a new theoretical model is derived, the results of which permit a detailed examination of how the resonant characteristics of a cantilever are influenced by a particle (adsorbate) attached at an arbitrary position along the beam’s length. Unlike most previous work, the particle need not be small in mass or dimension relative to the beam, and the adsorbate’s geometric characteristics are incorporated into the model via its rotational inertia and eccentricity relative to the beam axis. For the special case in which the adsorbate’s (translational) mass is indeed small, an analytical solution is obtained for the particle-induced resonant frequency shift of an arbitrary flexural mode, including the effects of rotational inertia and eccentricity. This solution is shown to possess the exact first-order behavior in the normalized particle mass and represents a generalization of analytical solutions derived by others in earlier studies. The results suggest the potential for “higher-order” nanobeam-based mass detection methods by which the multi-mode frequency response reflects not only the adsorbate’s mass but also important geometric data related to its size, shape, or orientation (i.e., the mass distribution), thus resulting in more highly discriminatory techniques for discrete-mass sensing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomechanics for Sensing and Spectrometry)
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Open AccessArticle
Modelling the Size Effects on the Mechanical Properties of Micro/Nano Structures
Sensors 2015, 15(11), 28543-28562; https://doi.org/10.3390/s151128543
Received: 7 August 2015 / Revised: 20 October 2015 / Accepted: 26 October 2015 / Published: 11 November 2015
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (1044 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction
Abstract
Experiments on micro- and nano-mechanical systems (M/NEMS) have shown that their behavior under bending loads departs in many cases from the classical predictions using Euler-Bernoulli theory and Hooke’s law. This anomalous response has usually been seen as a dependence of the material properties [...] Read more.
Experiments on micro- and nano-mechanical systems (M/NEMS) have shown that their behavior under bending loads departs in many cases from the classical predictions using Euler-Bernoulli theory and Hooke’s law. This anomalous response has usually been seen as a dependence of the material properties on the size of the structure, in particular thickness. A theoretical model that allows for quantitative understanding and prediction of this size effect is important for the design of M/NEMS. In this paper, we summarize and analyze the five theories that can be found in the literature: Grain Boundary Theory (GBT), Surface Stress Theory (SST), Residual Stress Theory (RST), Couple Stress Theory (CST) and Surface Elasticity Theory (SET). By comparing these theories with experimental data we propose a simplified model combination of CST and SET that properly fits all considered cases, therefore delivering a simple (two parameters) model that can be used to predict the mechanical properties at the nanoscale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomechanics for Sensing and Spectrometry)
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Open AccessArticle
Lipid Multilayer Grating Arrays Integrated by Nanointaglio for Vapor Sensing by an Optical Nose
Sensors 2015, 15(8), 20863-20872; https://doi.org/10.3390/s150820863
Received: 3 July 2015 / Revised: 29 July 2015 / Accepted: 17 August 2015 / Published: 21 August 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (722 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Lipid multilayer gratings are recently invented nanomechanical sensor elements that are capable of transducing molecular binding to fluid lipid multilayers into optical signals in a label free manner due to shape changes in the lipid nanostructures. Here, we show that nanointaglio is suitable [...] Read more.
Lipid multilayer gratings are recently invented nanomechanical sensor elements that are capable of transducing molecular binding to fluid lipid multilayers into optical signals in a label free manner due to shape changes in the lipid nanostructures. Here, we show that nanointaglio is suitable for the integration of chemically different lipid multilayer gratings into a sensor array capable of distinguishing vapors by means of an optical nose. Sensor arrays composed of six different lipid formulations are integrated onto a surface and their optical response to three different vapors (water, ethanol and acetone) in air as well as pH under water is monitored as a function of time. Principal component analysis of the array response results in distinct clustering indicating the suitability of the arrays for distinguishing these analytes. Importantly, the nanointaglio process used here is capable of producing lipid gratings out of different materials with sufficiently uniform heights for the fabrication of an optical nose. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomechanics for Sensing and Spectrometry)
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Open AccessArticle
Diazonium Chemistry for the Bio-Functionalization of Glassy Nanostring Resonator Arrays
Sensors 2015, 15(8), 18724-18741; https://doi.org/10.3390/s150818724
Received: 3 June 2015 / Revised: 10 July 2015 / Accepted: 17 July 2015 / Published: 30 July 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (896 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Resonant glassy nanostrings have been employed for the detection of biomolecules. These devices offer high sensitivity and amenability to large array integration and multiplexed assays. Such a concept has however been impaired by the lack of stable and biocompatible linker chemistries. Diazonium salt [...] Read more.
Resonant glassy nanostrings have been employed for the detection of biomolecules. These devices offer high sensitivity and amenability to large array integration and multiplexed assays. Such a concept has however been impaired by the lack of stable and biocompatible linker chemistries. Diazonium salt reduction-induced aryl grafting is an aqueous-based process providing strong chemical adhesion. In this work, diazonium-based linker chemistry was performed for the first time on glassy nanostrings, which enabled the bio-functionalization of such devices. Large arrays of nanostrings with ultra-narrow widths down to 10 nm were fabricated employing electron beam lithography. Diazonium modification was first developed on SiCN surfaces and validated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Similarly modified nanostrings were then covalently functionalized with anti-rabbit IgG as a molecular probe. Specific enumeration of rabbit IgG was successfully performed through observation of downshifts of resonant frequencies. The specificity of this enumeration was confirmed through proper negative control experiments. Helium ion microscopy further verified the successful functionalization of nanostrings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomechanics for Sensing and Spectrometry)
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Other

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Open AccessCorrection
Correction: Abazari, A.M., et al. Modelling the Size Effects on the Mechanical Properties of Micro/Nano Structures. Sensors 2015, 15, 28543–28562
Sensors 2016, 16(6), 781; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16060781
Received: 25 May 2016 / Accepted: 26 May 2016 / Published: 27 May 2016
PDF Full-text (146 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The authors wish to make the following correction to this paper [1]: The article type should be changed from “Review” into “Article”.[...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomechanics for Sensing and Spectrometry)
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