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Diazonium Chemistry for the Bio-Functionalization of Glassy Nanostring Resonator Arrays

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2V4, Canada
Department of Chemistry and National Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2G2, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Montserrat Calleja
Sensors 2015, 15(8), 18724-18741;
Received: 3 June 2015 / Revised: 10 July 2015 / Accepted: 17 July 2015 / Published: 30 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomechanics for Sensing and Spectrometry)
PDF [896 KB, uploaded 4 August 2015]


Resonant glassy nanostrings have been employed for the detection of biomolecules. These devices offer high sensitivity and amenability to large array integration and multiplexed assays. Such a concept has however been impaired by the lack of stable and biocompatible linker chemistries. Diazonium salt reduction-induced aryl grafting is an aqueous-based process providing strong chemical adhesion. In this work, diazonium-based linker chemistry was performed for the first time on glassy nanostrings, which enabled the bio-functionalization of such devices. Large arrays of nanostrings with ultra-narrow widths down to 10 nm were fabricated employing electron beam lithography. Diazonium modification was first developed on SiCN surfaces and validated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Similarly modified nanostrings were then covalently functionalized with anti-rabbit IgG as a molecular probe. Specific enumeration of rabbit IgG was successfully performed through observation of downshifts of resonant frequencies. The specificity of this enumeration was confirmed through proper negative control experiments. Helium ion microscopy further verified the successful functionalization of nanostrings. View Full-Text
Keywords: biosensors; nanomechanics; nanostrings; interferometry biosensors; nanomechanics; nanostrings; interferometry

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Zheng, W.; Du, R.; Cao, Y.; Mohammad, M.A.; Dew, S.K.; McDermott, M.T.; Evoy, S. Diazonium Chemistry for the Bio-Functionalization of Glassy Nanostring Resonator Arrays. Sensors 2015, 15, 18724-18741.

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