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Antenna Design and Optimization for 5G, 6G, and IoT

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Communications".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2024 | Viewed by 11346

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
School of Engineering and the Built Environment, Edinburgh Napier University, Edinburgh EH10 5DT, UK
Interests: MIMO/diversity antennas; 5G/6G antennas; MM-wave phased arrays; multi-band/UWB antennas; RFID antennas; metamaterials and metasurfaces; Fabry resonators; fractal antennas; band-pass/band-stop microwave filters; reconfigurable structures; power amplifiers; electromagnetic wave propagation
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

With the rapid evolution of wireless communications, fifth-generation (5G) communication has received lots of attention from both academia and industry, with many reported efforts and research outputs. In order to meet the needs of emerging application areas, such as the Internet of Things (IoT), remote sensing, and medical imaging, 5G will have significant improvements in different aspects such as data rate speed and resolution, mobility, latency, etc. In some countries, the commercialization of 5G communication has been started, and initial research of beyond technologies, such as 6G, has already started.

MIMO technology with multiple antennas are a promising technology to obtain the requirements of 5G/6G communications. It can significantly enhance the capacity of the system and resist multipath fading, and it has become a hot spot in the field of wireless communications. This technology is a key component and probably the most established to truly reach the promised transfer data rates of future communication systems. In MIMO systems, multiple antennas are deployed at both the transmitter and receiver sides. The greater number of antennas can make the system more resistant to intentional jamming and interference. Massive MIMO with an especially high number of antennas will reduce energy consumption by targeting signals to individual users utilizing beamforming.

Apart from sub-6 GHz frequency bands, 5G/6G devices are also expected to cover millimeter-wave (mmWave) and terahertz (THz) spectra. However, moving to higher bands will bring new challenges and will certainly require careful consideration of the antenna design for smart devices. Compact antennas arranged as conformal, planar, and linear arrays can be employed at different portions of base stations and user equipment to form phased arrays with high gain and directional radiation beams.

Specific Topics

Submission can focus on the conceptual and applied research in topics including, but not limited to:

  • Multi-Band/UWB Antenna Design and Optimization;
  • MM-Wave and THz Antennas;
  • MIMO Antenna Systems;
  • Antenna Design and Optimization for IoT networks;
  • Numerical Modelling of Antennas;
  • Simulation-Driven Antenna Optimization;
  • Smartphone Antennas;
  • Decoupling of MIMO/Diversity Antennas;
  • Massive MIMO Antenna Array for Base Station Applications;
  • Optimized Filtering Antennas;
  • RF/Microwave Components for 5G/6G Antenna Systems;
  • SAR and User-Impact on the Antenna Performance;
  • Phased Array and Beam-Steerable 5G/6G Antennas;
  • Simulation-Driven Antenna Optimization;
  • Beamforming and Smart Antennas for 5G and beyond;
  • Artificial Intelligence (AI) empowered 5G/6G Antennas;
  • Design and Optimization of Metamaterials and Metasurfaces;
  • Optimization-based pattern synthesis of 5G/6G antennas;
  • Reconfigurable Antennas for 5G and 6G communications;
  • Prototyping, Measurements, and Experimentation of 5G/6G Antennas.

Submission should be high quality for an international journal and should not have been submitted or published elsewhere. However, the extended versions of conference papers that show significant improvement (minimal of over 50%) can be considered for review in this Special Issue. In addition, we welcome review papers that cover the subjects of this Special Issue.

Dr. Naser Ojaroudi Parchin
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

11 pages, 2775 KiB  
Communication
Dual-Polarized Dipole Antenna with Wideband Stable Radiation Patterns Using Artificial Magnetic Conductor Reflector
by Xianjing Lin, Jielin Mai, Hongjun He and Yao Zhang
Sensors 2024, 24(12), 3911; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24123911 - 17 Jun 2024
Viewed by 198
Abstract
This paper presents a wideband dual-polarized dipole antenna structure operating at 1.7–3.8 GHz (76.4%). For a traditional 4G dipole antenna that covers the band 1.71–2.69 GHz, it is difficult to maintain the satisfactory impedance matching and normal stable radiation patterns within the 5G [...] Read more.
This paper presents a wideband dual-polarized dipole antenna structure operating at 1.7–3.8 GHz (76.4%). For a traditional 4G dipole antenna that covers the band 1.71–2.69 GHz, it is difficult to maintain the satisfactory impedance matching and normal stable radiation patterns within the 5G sub-6 GHz band 3.3–3.8 GHz, mainly due to the fixed antenna height no longer being a quarter-wavelength. To solve this, a connected-ring-shaped metasurface structure is proposed and deployed to operate as an artificial magnetic conductor (AMC). As a result, stable antenna radiation patterns are obtained within the whole band 1.7–3.8 GHz. For verification, this wideband dipole antenna using AMC is implemented and tested. The measured results show that the proposed antenna has an impedance bandwidth of 80.7% (1.7–4.0 GHz). It has an average measured in-band realized gain of 7.0±1.0 dBi and a stable 70±5 half power beam width (HPBW) within the 4G/5G-sub 6GHz bands 1.71–2.69 GHz and 3.3–3.8 GHz. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antenna Design and Optimization for 5G, 6G, and IoT)
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13 pages, 1507 KiB  
Article
Reliability Evaluation Method for Array Antenna Considering Performance Changes
by Xinxin Huang, Sai Zhu and Guanhui Liang
Sensors 2024, 24(6), 1914; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24061914 - 16 Mar 2024
Viewed by 623
Abstract
The existing array antenna reliability evaluation method based on the n/k system is analyzed. As the failed T/R module’s influence on the array antenna’s performance is not considered, the reliability of the array antenna is overestimated. To improve the accuracy of the array [...] Read more.
The existing array antenna reliability evaluation method based on the n/k system is analyzed. As the failed T/R module’s influence on the array antenna’s performance is not considered, the reliability of the array antenna is overestimated. To improve the accuracy of the array antenna reliability evaluation, the performance changes caused by T/R failures in different locations are considered. The reliability evaluation method considering the performance changes is established. The performance and probability of the array antenna’s state are calculated, and accurate reliability is obtained by calculating all the available state’s probabilities. The complexity of the reliability evaluation method is analyzed, and the reliability evaluation method for large-scale array antennae is established. The large-scale array antenna is divided into several subarrays. The performance and reliability of each subarray are analyzed, and the array antenna’s reliability is calculated through subarrays. The array antenna’s performance changes are considered with the proposed method, the overestimation problem of the existing reliability evaluation method is solved, and the accuracy of the array antenna reliability evaluation is improved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antenna Design and Optimization for 5G, 6G, and IoT)
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15 pages, 7991 KiB  
Article
mmWave Zero Order Resonant Antenna with Patch-Like Radiation Fed by a Butler Matrix for Passive Beamforming
by Manoj Prabhakar Mohan, Hong Cai, Arokiaswami Alphones and Muhammad Faeyz Karim
Sensors 2023, 23(18), 7973; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23187973 - 19 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 990
Abstract
A small zero-order resonant antenna based on the composite right-left-handed (CRLH) principle is designed and fabricated without metallic vias at 30 GHz to have patch-like radiation. The mirror images of two CRLH structures are connected to design the antenna without via holes. The [...] Read more.
A small zero-order resonant antenna based on the composite right-left-handed (CRLH) principle is designed and fabricated without metallic vias at 30 GHz to have patch-like radiation. The mirror images of two CRLH structures are connected to design the antenna without via holes. The equivalent circuit, parameter extraction, and dispersion diagram are studied to analyze the characteristics of the CRLH antenna. The antenna was fabricated and experimentally verified. The measured realized gain of the antenna is 5.35 dBi at 30 GHz. The designed antenna is free of spurious resonance over a band width of 10 GHz. A passive beamforming array is designed using the proposed CRLH antenna and the Butler matrix. A substrate integrated waveguide is used to implement the Butler matrix. The CRLH antennas are connected to four outputs of a 4×4 Butler matrix. The scanning angles are 12, 68, 64, and 11 for excitations from port 1 to port 4 of the 4×4 Butler matrix feeding the CRLH antenna. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antenna Design and Optimization for 5G, 6G, and IoT)
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24 pages, 9163 KiB  
Article
Multifunctional THz Graphene Antenna with 360 Continuous ϕ-Steering and θ-Control of Beam
by Victor Dmitriev, Rodrigo M. S. de Oliveira, Rodrigo R. Paiva and Nilton R. N. M. Rodrigues
Sensors 2023, 23(15), 6900; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23156900 - 3 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1119
Abstract
A novel graphene antenna composed of a graphene dipole and four auxiliary graphene sheets oriented at 90 to each other is proposed and analyzed. The sheets play the role of reflectors. A detailed group-theoretical analysis of symmetry properties of the discussed antennas [...] Read more.
A novel graphene antenna composed of a graphene dipole and four auxiliary graphene sheets oriented at 90 to each other is proposed and analyzed. The sheets play the role of reflectors. A detailed group-theoretical analysis of symmetry properties of the discussed antennas has been completed. Through electric field control of the chemical potentials of the graphene elements, the antenna can provide a quasi-omnidirectional diagram, a one- or two-directional beam regime, dynamic control of the beam width and, due to the vertical orientation of the dipole with respect to the base substrate, a 360 beam steering in the azimuth plane. An additional graphene layer on the base permits control of the radiation pattern in the θ-direction. Radiation patterns in different working states of the antenna are considered using symmetry arguments. We discuss the antenna parameters such as input reflection coefficient, total efficiency, front-to-back ratio, and gain. An equivalent circuit of the antenna is suggested. The proposed antenna operates at frequencies between 1.75 THz and 2.03 THz. Depending on the active regime defined by the chemical potentials set on the antenna graphene elements, the maximum gain varies from 0.86 to 1.63. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antenna Design and Optimization for 5G, 6G, and IoT)
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10 pages, 5136 KiB  
Communication
Suppression of Common-Mode Resonance in Multiband Base Station Antennas
by Madiha Farasat, Dushmantha Thalakotuna, Yang Yang, Zhonghao Hu and Karu Esselle
Sensors 2023, 23(6), 2905; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23062905 - 7 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1545
Abstract
5G demands a significant increment in the number of connected devices. As a result, gNodeBs are constantly pushed to serve more spectrum and smaller sectors. These increased capacity demands are met by using multiband antennas in base stations. One of the key challenges [...] Read more.
5G demands a significant increment in the number of connected devices. As a result, gNodeBs are constantly pushed to serve more spectrum and smaller sectors. These increased capacity demands are met by using multiband antennas in base stations. One of the key challenges with multiband antennas is the pattern distortions due to the presence of other surrounding antenna element structures. This work provides a novel approach to address the challenge of pattern distortion in the lower frequency band 690–960 MHz due to common-mode (CM) currents in the high- frequency-band antenna element operating in the 1810–2690 MHz band. A common-mode suppression circuit is integrated with the impedance matching network of the high-band antenna element to reduce these common-mode currents. The experimental results verified that the common-mode suppression circuit reduces the common-mode currents at low-band frequencies by moving the common-mode resonance frequency outside the low frequency band, resulting in cleaner low-band patterns meeting pattern specifications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antenna Design and Optimization for 5G, 6G, and IoT)
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15 pages, 5062 KiB  
Article
A Shorted Stub Loaded UWB Flexible Antenna for Small IoT Devices
by Esraa Mousa Ali, Wahaj Abbas Awan, Mohammed S. Alzaidi, Abdullah Alzahrani, Dalia H. Elkamchouchi, Francisco Falcone and Sherif S. M. Ghoneim
Sensors 2023, 23(2), 748; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23020748 - 9 Jan 2023
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2065
Abstract
In this manuscript, a compact in size yet geometrically simple Ultra-Wideband (UWB) antenna is demonstrated. The flexible-by-nature substrate ROGERS 5880, having a thickness of 0.254 mm, is utilized to design the proposed work. The antenna configuration is an excerpt of a traditional rectangular [...] Read more.
In this manuscript, a compact in size yet geometrically simple Ultra-Wideband (UWB) antenna is demonstrated. The flexible-by-nature substrate ROGERS 5880, having a thickness of 0.254 mm, is utilized to design the proposed work. The antenna configuration is an excerpt of a traditional rectangular monopole antenna resonating at 5 GHz. Initially, a pair of triangular slots are employed to extend the impedance bandwidth of the antenna. In addition, a semi-circular-shaped, short-ended stub is connected at the upper edges of the patch to further increase the operational bandwidth. After optimization, the proposed antenna offers UWB ranging from 2.73–9.68 GHz, covering almost the entire spectrum allocated globally for UWB applications. Further, the antenna offers a compact size of 15 × 20 mm2 that can easily be integrated into small, flexible electronics. The flexibility analysis is done by bending the antenna on both the x and y axes. The antenna offers performance stability in terms of return loss, radiation pattern, and gain for both conformal and non-conformal conditions. Furthermore, the strong comparison between simulated and measured results for both rigid and bent cases of the antenna, along with the performance comparison with the state-of-the-art, makes it a potential candidate for present and future compact-sized flexible devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antenna Design and Optimization for 5G, 6G, and IoT)
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22 pages, 2533 KiB  
Article
Near Field Models of Spatially-Fed Planar Arrays and Their Application to Multi-Frequency Direct Layout Optimization for mm-Wave 5G New Radio Indoor Network Coverage
by Daniel R. Prado
Sensors 2022, 22(22), 8925; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22228925 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1387
Abstract
Two near field models for the analysis of spatially fed planar array antennas are presented, compared and applied to a multi-frequency wideband direct layout optimization for mm-Wave 5G new radio (NR) indoor network coverage. One model is based on the direct application of [...] Read more.
Two near field models for the analysis of spatially fed planar array antennas are presented, compared and applied to a multi-frequency wideband direct layout optimization for mm-Wave 5G new radio (NR) indoor network coverage. One model is based on the direct application of the radiation equations directly derived from the A and F vector potentials. The second model is based on the superposition of far field contributions of all array elements, which are modelled as rectangular apertures with constant field. Despite the different assumptions made to develop both models, the degree of agreement between them in the computation of the radiated near field is very high. The relative error between the models is equal or lower than 3.2% at a plane 13λ from the array, and it decreases as the near field is computed further away from the array. Then, the faster model is employed in a general direct layout optimization procedure to shape the electromagnetic near field for application in an indoor femtocell to provide coverage with constant power in a private office. Results show that a magnitude ripple better than 1.5 dB can be achieved in an enlarged coverage area covering the whole n257 band of the 5G NR, corresponding to a 10.7% relative bandwidth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antenna Design and Optimization for 5G, 6G, and IoT)
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15 pages, 7245 KiB  
Article
Design of a mmWave Antenna Printed on a Thick Vehicle-Glass Substrate Using a Linearly Arrayed Patch Director and a Grid-Slotted Patch Reflector for High-Gain Characteristics
by Changhyeon Im, Tae Heung Lim and Hosung Choo
Sensors 2022, 22(16), 6187; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22166187 - 18 Aug 2022
Viewed by 1799
Abstract
This paper proposes a 5G glass antenna that can be printed on the thick window glass of a vehicle. The proposed antenna consists of a coplanar waveguide (CPW), a printed monopole radiator, parasitic elements, a linearly arrayed patch director, and a grid-slotted patch [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a 5G glass antenna that can be printed on the thick window glass of a vehicle. The proposed antenna consists of a coplanar waveguide (CPW), a printed monopole radiator, parasitic elements, a linearly arrayed patch director, and a grid-slotted patch reflector. The linearly arrayed patch director and grid-slotted patch reflector are applied to improve the bore-sight gain of the antenna. To verify the performance improvement and feasibility, the proposed antenna is fabricated, and a reflection coefficient and a radiation pattern are measured and compared with the simulation results. The measured reflection coefficient shows broadband characteristics of less than −10 dB from 24.1 GHz to 31.0 GHz (fractional bandwidth of 24.6%), which agrees well with the simulation results. The reflection coefficients are −33.1 dB by measurement and −25.7 dB by simulation, and the maximum gains are 6.2 dBi and 5.5 dBi at 28 GHz, respectively. These results demonstrate that the proposed antenna has high-gain characteristics being suitable for 5G wireless communications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antenna Design and Optimization for 5G, 6G, and IoT)
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