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Design, Analysis, and Measurement of Antennas

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Electrical, Electronics and Communications Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 June 2023) | Viewed by 28216

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
School of Engineering and the Built Environment, Edinburgh Napier University, Edinburgh EH10 5DT, UK
Interests: MIMO/diversity antennas; 5G/6G antennas; MM-wave phased arrays; multi-band/UWB antennas; RFID antennas; metamaterials and metasurfaces; Fabry resonators; fractal antennas; band-pass/band-stop microwave filters; reconfigurable structures; power amplifiers; electromagnetic wave propagation
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Rapid growth in the area of modern wireless communication systems has led to the demand for multifunctional devices to be used in various wireless services. Antennas for these devices must be compact, multifunctional, and able to maintain a high level of performance in any kind of environment. One of the important issues in communication systems is the provision of the right orientation between the transmitter and receiver antennas. Circular and dual polarized antennas are good solutions to this problem. Reconfigurable and switchable antennas are attractive in various applications such as cognitive radio, surveillance, and tracking because they produce more than one operation band and radiation pattern using active elements. MIMO technology and phased array systems with multiple adaptive and smart antennas can significantly enhance the capacity of the system and resist multipath fading, and are promising technologies to meet the requirements of the future 5G networks. In a MIMO antenna system with limited space, one of the urgent difficulties to be resolved is to reduce the mutual couplings from adjacent elements. Miniaturization of wireless and handheld devices using miniaturized antennas with metamaterials, EBG, and FSS are necessary nowadays. Low-profile antennas with the low-cost manufacturing and measurement process are desirable for various applications such as RFID, UWB, and WBAN systems.

The objective of this Special Issue is to shed some light on recent advances and novel approaches in design, analysis, and measurement of antennas for various emerging wireless communication systems and identify further avenues for the development of research and techniques in this exciting field.

Submissions can focus on conceptual and applied research in topics including but not limited to the following:

  • MIMO and Array Antennas
  • UWB Antennas
  • Mutual Coupling Reduction
  • Antenna Optimization
  • Electromagnetic Bandgap (EBG) Structures
  • Multiple 5G Antennas
  • Antenna Miniaturization
  • Mobile Phone and Handheld Antennas
  • Filtering Antennas
  • Circular and Dual Polarized Antennas
  • RFID Antennas
  • MM-Wave and THz Antennas
  • Adaptive and Smart Antennas
  • Metamaterial Antennas
  • Fractal Antennas
  • Antennas for Biomedical and Wireless Body Area Networks
  • Automotive, Radar, and Satellite Antennas
  • Reconfigurable and Switchable Antennas
  • Prototyping and Manufacturing Methods
  • Measurements and Experimentation of Antennas

Submissions should reflect the high quality of this international journal and should not have been submitted or published elsewhere. Extended versions of conference papers that show significant improvement (minimal of over 50%) can be considered for publication in this Special Issue. In addition, we welcome review papers that seek to address the theme of this Special Issue.

Dr. Naser Ojaroudi Parchin
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Editorial

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4 pages, 182 KiB  
Editorial
Editorial on “Design, Analysis, and Measurement of Antennas”
by Naser Ojaroudi Parchin
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(18), 10069; https://doi.org/10.3390/app131810069 - 6 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 694
Abstract
The area of modern wireless communication systems has experienced rapid growth, leading to a rising demand for multifunctional devices capable of providing various wireless services [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design, Analysis, and Measurement of Antennas)

Research

Jump to: Editorial

14 pages, 6859 KiB  
Article
A Compact Planar Wi-Fi Antenna with Optimized Radiation Patterns for Small UAV Applications
by Ya-Lung Yang and Ding-Bing Lin
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(13), 7470; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13137470 - 24 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1619
Abstract
This paper proposes a compact planar Wi-Fi antenna with optimized radiation patterns for small uncrewed aerial vehicle (UAV) applications in both urban and open areas. It is suitable for mounting on the outermost side of the non-metallic wing of small UAVs. It has [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a compact planar Wi-Fi antenna with optimized radiation patterns for small uncrewed aerial vehicle (UAV) applications in both urban and open areas. It is suitable for mounting on the outermost side of the non-metallic wing of small UAVs. It has small dimensions of 16.5 mm (L) by 30.3 mm (W) by 1.6 mm (h), and the measured results of its prototype are in agreement with simulated data. Its impedance bandwidths over the two frequency ranges are 2.11 to 2.58 GHz and 5.06 to 7.5 GHz (S11-10 dB). At 5.8 GHz, it has stronger radiation below the small UAV to reduce interference from rare-use directions. Its maximum radiations, the directions of the maximum radiation in each elevation plane, are below the UAV and between 14° and 29° from the horizontal plane. At 2.4 GHz, it has quasi-omnidirectional radiation to ensure a stable link in all directions, and its maximum radiations are near the horizontal plane. The optimized radiation patterns at 5.8 and 2.4 GHz can provide more antenna gain when the small UAV flies farther in urban and open areas, respectively. In addition, it has good vertically polarized radiation for long-distance applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design, Analysis, and Measurement of Antennas)
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16 pages, 6996 KiB  
Article
Wideband, High-Gain, and Compact Four-Port MIMO Antenna for Future 5G Devices Operating over Ka-Band Spectrum
by Sayed Aqib Hussain, Fatma Taher, Mohammed S. Alzaidi, Irshad Hussain, Rania M. Ghoniem, Mohamed Fathy Abo Sree and Ali Lalbakhsh
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(7), 4380; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13074380 - 30 Mar 2023
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2067
Abstract
In this article, the compact, ultra-wideband and high-gain MIMO antenna is presented for future 5G devices operating over 28 GHz and 38 GHz. The presented antenna is designed over substrate material Roger RT/Duroid 6002 with a thickness of 1.52 mm. The suggested design [...] Read more.
In this article, the compact, ultra-wideband and high-gain MIMO antenna is presented for future 5G devices operating over 28 GHz and 38 GHz. The presented antenna is designed over substrate material Roger RT/Duroid 6002 with a thickness of 1.52 mm. The suggested design has dimensions of 15 mm × 10 mm and consists of stubs with loaded rectangular patch. The various stubs are loaded to antenna to improve impedance bandwidth and obtain ultra-wideband. The resultant antenna operates over a broadband of 26.5–43.7 GHz, with a peak value of gain >8 dBi. A four-port MIMO configuration is achieved to present the proposed antenna for future high data rate devices. The MIMO antenna offers isolation <−30 dB with ECC of <0.0001. The antenna offers good results in terms of gain, radiation efficiency, envelop correlation coefficient (ECC), mean effective gain (MEG), diversity gain (DG), channel capacity loss (CCL), and isolation. The antenna hardware prototype is fabricated to validate the performance of the suggested design of the antenna achieved from software tools, and good correlation between measured and simulated results is observed. Moreover, the proposed work performance is also differentiated with literature work, which verifies that the suggested work is a potential applicant for future 5G compact devices operating over wideband and high gain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design, Analysis, and Measurement of Antennas)
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12 pages, 2501 KiB  
Communication
A Compact Size Antenna for Extended UWB with WLAN Notch Band Stub
by Syed Naheel Raza Rizvi, Wahaj Abbas Awan, Domin Choi, Niamat Hussain, Seong Gyoon Park and Nam Kim
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(7), 4271; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13074271 - 28 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1929
Abstract
An ultra-wideband (UWB), geometrically simple, compact, and high-gain antenna with a WLAN notch band is presented for future wireless devices. The antenna is printed on the top side of the Rogers RT/Duroid 5880 substrate and has a small dimension of 10 mm × [...] Read more.
An ultra-wideband (UWB), geometrically simple, compact, and high-gain antenna with a WLAN notch band is presented for future wireless devices. The antenna is printed on the top side of the Rogers RT/Duroid 5880 substrate and has a small dimension of 10 mm × 15 mm × 0.254 mm. The primary radiator of the proposed coplanar waveguide-fed monopole antenna is comprised of a rectangular-shaped structure initially modified using a slot, and its bandwidth is further enhanced by loading a Y-shaped radiator. As a result, the antenna offers a –10 dB impedance matching bandwidth of 11.55 GHz ranging from 3–14.55 GHz, covering globally allocated C-, S-, and X-band applications. Afterward, another rectangular stub is loaded in the structure to mitigate the WLAN band from the UWB spectrum, and the final antenna offers a notched band spanning from 4.59 to 5.82 GHz. Moreover, to validate the simulated results, a hardware prototype is built and measured, which exhibits good agreement with the simulated results. Furthermore, the proposed work is compared to state-of-the-art antennas for similar applications to demonstrate its design significance, as it has a compact size, wider bandwidth, and stable gain characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design, Analysis, and Measurement of Antennas)
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10 pages, 1031 KiB  
Article
Design of a Wide-Bandwidth, High-Gain and Easy-to-Manufacture 2.4 GHz Floating Patch Antenna Fed with the Through-Wire Technique
by Marcos D. Fernandez, Darío Herraiz, David Herraiz, Akram Alomainy and Angel Belenguer
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(24), 12925; https://doi.org/10.3390/app122412925 - 16 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2662
Abstract
This paper presents a feasibility study for designing a floating patch antenna structure fed with a probe from a microstrip. The main premise is to eliminate the dielectric in the patch design, which is equivalent to having an air dielectric and leads to [...] Read more.
This paper presents a feasibility study for designing a floating patch antenna structure fed with a probe from a microstrip. The main premise is to eliminate the dielectric in the patch design, which is equivalent to having an air dielectric and leads to the necessity of proper support to fasten the patch in the air. The novelty of this paper is that this new device, apart from being fed with the though-wire technique directly from the microstrip line, has to be, by design, robust and easy to manufacture, and, at the same time, it has to present, simultaneously, good values in all of the performance indexes. A prototype has been designed, manufactured, and measured with good performance results: a bandwidth higher than 10% around 2.4 GHz, a radiation efficiency higher than 96%, a 9.63 dBi gain, and a wide beamwidth. The main advantages of this prototype, together with its good performance indexes, include its low fabrication cost, low losses, light weight, robustness, high integration capability, the complete removal of the dielectric material, and the use of a single post for feeding the patch while simultaneously fixing its floating position. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design, Analysis, and Measurement of Antennas)
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12 pages, 4753 KiB  
Article
Simulation-Based Selection of Transmitting Antenna Type for Enhanced Loran System in Selected Location
by Zhaopeng Hu, Ming Dong, Shifeng Li and Chanzhong Yang
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(12), 6031; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12126031 - 14 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1895
Abstract
To improve the coverage and timing capability of enhanced Loran signals, three enhanced Loran transmitters are planned to be built in Western China. The most appropriate antenna configuration can be determined by comparing domestic and foreign mainstream small and radio antennas. By analyzing [...] Read more.
To improve the coverage and timing capability of enhanced Loran signals, three enhanced Loran transmitters are planned to be built in Western China. The most appropriate antenna configuration can be determined by comparing domestic and foreign mainstream small and radio antennas. By analyzing and comparing the electrical and structural parameters and signal propagation curves of the transmitting antenna, it can be concluded that the single tower umbrella antenna provides the best performance in all evaluation indexes, and the enhanced Loran signal can be transmitted to areas 1000 km away through the single tower umbrella antenna so that the enhanced Loran signal covers most areas of Western China. Therefore, it should be widely used in the construction of enhanced Loran transmitters in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design, Analysis, and Measurement of Antennas)
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21 pages, 7365 KiB  
Article
A Modified Compact Flexible Vivaldi Antenna Array Design for Microwave Breast Cancer Detection
by Ayman M. Qashlan, Rabah W. Aldhaheri and Khalid H. Alharbi
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(10), 4908; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12104908 - 12 May 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2991
Abstract
In this paper, a compact, flexible Vivaldi antenna is designed, and an array of nine identical antennas of this type is used as a microwave breast imaging model to detect cancerous tumors in the multilayers phantom model presented in this paper. The nine-antenna [...] Read more.
In this paper, a compact, flexible Vivaldi antenna is designed, and an array of nine identical antennas of this type is used as a microwave breast imaging model to detect cancerous tumors in the multilayers phantom model presented in this paper. The nine-antenna array is used to measure the backscattering signal of the breast phantom, where one antenna acts as a transmitter and the other eight antennas act as receivers of the scattered signals. Then, the second antenna is used as a transmitter and the other antennas as receivers, and so on till we have gone through all the antennas. These collected backscattered signals are used to reconstruct the image of the breast phantom using software called “Microwave Radar-based Imaging Toolbox (MERIT)”. From the reconstructed image, the tumor inside the breast model can be identified and located. Different tumor sizes in different locations are tested, and it is found that the locations can be determined irrespective of the tumor size. The proposed modified Vivaldi antenna has a very compact size of 25 × 20 × 0.1 mm3 and has a different geometry compared with conventional Vivaldi antennas. The first version of the antenna has two resonant frequencies at 4 and 9.4 GHz, and because we are interested more in the first band, where it gives us sufficient resolution, we have notched the second frequency by etching two slots in the ground plane of the antenna and adding two rectangular parasitic elements on the radiating side of the antenna. This technique is utilized to block the second frequency at 9.4 GHz, and, as a result, the bandwidth of the first resonant frequency is enhanced by 20% compared with the first design bandwidth. The modified antenna is fabricated on Polyimide flexible material 0.1 mm thick with a dielectric constant of 3.5 using a standard PCB manufacturing process. The measured performance of this antenna is compared with the simulated results using the commercially available simulation software Ansoft HFSS, and it is found that the measured results and the simulated results are in good agreement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design, Analysis, and Measurement of Antennas)
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12 pages, 3144 KiB  
Article
A Jug-Shaped CPW-Fed Ultra-Wideband Printed Monopole Antenna for Wireless Communications Networks
by Sarosh Ahmad, Umer Ijaz, Salman Naseer, Adnan Ghaffar, Muhammad Awais Qasim, Faisal Abrar, Naser Ojaroudi Parchin, Chan Hwang See and Raed Abd-Alhameed
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 821; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12020821 - 14 Jan 2022
Cited by 46 | Viewed by 2940
Abstract
A type of telecommunication technology called an ultra-wideband (UWB) is used to provide a typical solution for short-range wireless communication due to large bandwidth and low power consumption in transmission and reception. Printed monopole antennas are considered as a preferred platform for implementing [...] Read more.
A type of telecommunication technology called an ultra-wideband (UWB) is used to provide a typical solution for short-range wireless communication due to large bandwidth and low power consumption in transmission and reception. Printed monopole antennas are considered as a preferred platform for implementing this technology because of its alluring characteristics such as light weight, low cost, ease of fabrication, integration capability with other systems, etc. Therefore, a compact-sized ultra-wideband (UWB) printed monopole antenna with improved gain and efficiency is presented in this article. Computer simulation technology microwave studio (CSTMWS) software is used to build and analyze the proposed antenna design technique. This broadband printed monopole antenna contains a jug-shaped radiator fed by a coplanar waveguide (CPW) technique. The designed UWB antenna is fabricated on a low-cost FR-4 substrate with relative permittivity of 4.3, loss tangent of 0.025, and a standard height of 1.6 mm, sized at 25 mm × 22 mm × 1.6 mm, suitable for wireless communication system. The designed UWB antenna works with maximum gain (peak gain of 4.1 dB) across the whole UWB spectrum of 3–11 GHz. The results are simulated, measured, and debated in detail. Different parametric studies based on numerical simulations are involved to arrive at the optimal design through monitoring the effects of adding cuts on the performance of the proposed antennas. Therefore, these parametric studies are optimized to achieve maximum antenna bandwidth with relatively best gain. The proposed patch antenna shape is like a jug with a handle that offers greater bandwidth, good gain, higher efficiency, and compact size. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design, Analysis, and Measurement of Antennas)
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14 pages, 8645 KiB  
Article
Performance Enhancement of Reconfigurable Metamaterial Reflector Antenna by Decreasing the Absorption of the Reflected Beam
by Efi Rahamim, David Rotshild and Amir Abramovich
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(19), 8999; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11198999 - 27 Sep 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2056
Abstract
In this study, a new concept for a Ka-band 5G communication tunable reflector metasurface (MS) for beam steering at 28 GHz is proposed. Varactor diodes are used as the tunability component of each unit cell of this MS. Significant improvements in beam steering [...] Read more.
In this study, a new concept for a Ka-band 5G communication tunable reflector metasurface (MS) for beam steering at 28 GHz is proposed. Varactor diodes are used as the tunability component of each unit cell of this MS. Significant improvements in beam steering and bandwidth performance were achieved using this new concept referred to as the stripes configuration. Several different geometries of unit cells arranged in stripes were designed to achieve better performance in directionality, gain, sidelobe level (SLL), and bandwidth in the stripes configuration. Simulation results for a three-stripe MS with different unit cells in each stripe showed better performance in the phase dynamic range and reduced reflectance losses compared to a typical one-stripe MS. The simulation results showed a significant improvement of 3 dB, depending on the steering angle in reflectance gain, compared to a uniform MS (one stripe). Furthermore, a significant improvement of approximately 50% in the accuracy of the steering angle for different operating frequencies was demonstrated. Manufacturing considerations are discussed in this study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design, Analysis, and Measurement of Antennas)
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18 pages, 31269 KiB  
Article
Quarter Wavelength Fabry–Perot Cavity Antenna with Wideband Low Monostatic Radar Cross Section and Off-Broadside Peak Radiation
by Hassan Umair, Tarik Bin Abdul Latef, Yoshihide Yamada, Tayyab Hassan, Wan Nor Liza Binti Wan Mahadi, Mohamadariff Othman, Kamilia Kamardin and Mousa I. Hussein
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(3), 1053; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11031053 - 25 Jan 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2545
Abstract
Since antennas are strong radar targets, their radar cross section (RCS) reduction and radiation enhancement is of utmost necessity, particularly for stealth platforms. This work proposes the design of a Fabry–Perot Cavity (FPC) antenna which has wideband low monostatic RCS. While in the [...] Read more.
Since antennas are strong radar targets, their radar cross section (RCS) reduction and radiation enhancement is of utmost necessity, particularly for stealth platforms. This work proposes the design of a Fabry–Perot Cavity (FPC) antenna which has wideband low monostatic RCS. While in the transmission mode, not only is gain enhancement achieved, but radiation beam is also deflected in the elevation plane. Moreover, the design is low-profile, i.e., the cavity height is ~λ/4. A patch antenna designed at 6 GHz serves as the excitation source of the cavity constructed between the metallic ground plane and superstrate. The superstrate structure is formed with absorptive frequency selective surface (AFSS) in conjunction with dual-sided partially reflective surface (PRS). Resistor loaded metallic rings serve as the AFSS, while PRS is constructed from inductive gradated mesh structure on one side to realize phase gradient for beam deflection; the other side has fixed capacitive elements. Results show that wideband RCS reduction was achieved from 4–16 GHz, with average RCS reduction of about 8.5 dB over the reference patch antenna. Off-broadside peak radiation at −38° was achieved, with gain approaching ~9.4 dB. Simulation and measurement results are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design, Analysis, and Measurement of Antennas)
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12 pages, 1811 KiB  
Article
A Refined Shape Sensing Method for Skin Antenna Structure Based on Inverse Finite Element Method
by Shengtao Niu, Kexiang Li, Jianfeng Liu and Hong Bao
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(21), 7620; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10217620 - 29 Oct 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1767
Abstract
An important issue in the existing inverse finite element method (iFEM) is that reconstruction accuracy cannot satisfy the analytical demand for the flexible structure. To address this issue, this paper presents a multi-nodes iFEM that reconstructs the displacement of structure based on surface [...] Read more.
An important issue in the existing inverse finite element method (iFEM) is that reconstruction accuracy cannot satisfy the analytical demand for the flexible structure. To address this issue, this paper presents a multi-nodes iFEM that reconstructs the displacement of structure based on surface measurement strains in real time. Meanwhile, in light of the response characteristics of iFEM, an innovative interpolation method is adapted to regenerate the full field deformation again. The proposed method substantially expands the size of inverse elements, which reduces the numbers of sensors and improves the reconstruction accuracy. The effectiveness of the method to predict displacement is verified by a flexible antenna panel subjected typical boundary conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design, Analysis, and Measurement of Antennas)
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12 pages, 4758 KiB  
Article
Generation of Multiple Pseudo Bessel Beams with Accurately Controllable Propagation Directions and High Efficiency Using a Reflective Metasurface
by Haixia Liu, Hao Xue, Yongjie Liu and Long Li
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(20), 7219; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10207219 - 16 Oct 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2706
Abstract
In this paper, a generation method procedure based on a reflective metasurface is proposed to generate multiple pseudo Bessel beams with accurately controllable propagation directions and high efficiency. Firstly, by adjusting the miniaturized unit cell of the reflective metasurface to modulate the electromagnetic [...] Read more.
In this paper, a generation method procedure based on a reflective metasurface is proposed to generate multiple pseudo Bessel beams with accurately controllable propagation directions and high efficiency. Firstly, by adjusting the miniaturized unit cell of the reflective metasurface to modulate the electromagnetic waves using the proposed method, some off-axis pseudo Bessel beams with different propagation directions are generated. Then, by achieving the large-angle deflection and comparing the results with previous existing methods, the superiority of the proposed method is demonstrated. Based on the generated single off-axis pseudo Bessel beam and the superposition principle of the electromagnetic wave, a reflective metasurface with 47 × 47 elements is designed and fabricated at 10 GHz to generate dual pseudo Bessel beams. Full-wave simulation and experimental measurement results validate that the dual pseudo Bessel beams were generated successfully. The propagation directions of the dual pseudo Bessel beams can be controlled accurately by the reflective metasurface, and the efficiency of the beams is 59.2% at a propagation distance of 400 mm. The energy of the beams keeps concentrating along the propagation axes, which provides a new choice for wireless power transfer and wireless communication with one source to multiple receiving targets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design, Analysis, and Measurement of Antennas)
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