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Special Issue "Surface Acoustic Wave Sensors"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Physical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 November 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Wen Wang

Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +86-010-8254-7803
Interests: surface acoustic wave based sensor in physical (torque, gyroscope, temperature), and chemical (gas) application; wireless acoustic wave sensor; ID tag
Co-Guest Editor
Prof. Keekeun Lee

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ajou University, Korea
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +82-31-219-1848
Interests: Wireless and batteryfree SAW sensors including power meter, gyroscope, pressure, humidity and chemical sensors; Acousto-optic (AO) holographic display; Impedance-loaded SAW sensor; Harsh environmental-applicable SAW sensors; SAW biosensors

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Surface acoustic wave sensors are a class of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) which rely on the modulation of surface acoustic waves generated by the photolithographically defined interdigital transducers (IDTs) on a piezoelectric substrate to sense a physical phenomenon. The success of SAW sensors is unquestioned to this day; various SAW sensors have been reported to successfully sense the phenomena of pressure, strain, torque, temperature, and mass. Evolving designs and sensitive materials are providing abundant options for the integration of new mechanisms to achieve selectivity and sensitivity. However, the SAW sensor technology is still underdeveloped, and few commercial products currently exist. There are still many challenges facing SAW sensors; the insufficient stability and reliability are a general issue that this community continues to confront. The solution lies in the sophisticated design of the sensor chip, and the exploration of stable sensitive materials. As a result of the abundant opportunities and challenges, we have decided that it is the opportune time to create a Special Issue in Sensors. Experienced researchers, as well as newcomers, will benefit from a consolidated collection of insightful and innovative publications, and we hope that you will contribute to this important project and help us expand the understanding and impact of SAW sensors.

Prof. Dr. Wen Wang
Prof. Keekeun Lee
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • surface acoustic wave
  • sensors
  • sensitivity
  • response mechanism
  • sensitive materials

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Fast and Accurate Finite Transducer Analysis Method for Wireless Passive Impedance-Loaded SAW Sensors
Sensors 2018, 18(11), 3988; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18113988
Received: 29 September 2018 / Revised: 9 November 2018 / Accepted: 12 November 2018 / Published: 16 November 2018
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Abstract
An accurate and fast simulation tool plays an important role in the design of wireless passive impedance-loaded surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors which have received much attention recently. This paper presents a finite transducer analysis method for wireless passive impedance-loaded SAW sensors. The
[...] Read more.
An accurate and fast simulation tool plays an important role in the design of wireless passive impedance-loaded surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors which have received much attention recently. This paper presents a finite transducer analysis method for wireless passive impedance-loaded SAW sensors. The finite transducer analysis method uses a numerically combined finite element method-boundary element method (FEM/BEM) model to analyze non-periodic transducers. In non-periodic transducers, FEM/BEM was the most accurate analysis method until now, however this method consumes central processing unit (CPU) time. This paper presents a faster algorithm to calculate the bulk wave part of the equation coefficient which usually requires a long time. A complete non-periodic FEM/BEM model of the impedance sensors was constructed. Modifications were made to the final equations in the FEM/BEM model to adjust for the impedance variation of the sensors. Compared with the conventional method, the proposed method reduces the computation time efficiently while maintaining the same high degree of accuracy. Simulations and their comparisons with experimental results for test devices are shown to prove the effectiveness of the analysis method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Acoustic Wave Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Enhanced Sensitivity of a Hydrogen Sulfide Sensor Based on Surface Acoustic Waves at Room Temperature
Sensors 2018, 18(11), 3796; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18113796
Received: 11 October 2018 / Revised: 1 November 2018 / Accepted: 2 November 2018 / Published: 6 November 2018
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Abstract
In this contribution, a new surface acoustic wave (SAW)-based sensor was proposed for sensing hydrogen sulfide (H2S) at room temperature (30 °C), which was composed of a phase discrimination circuit, a SAW-sensing device patterned with delay line, and a triethanolamine (TEA)
[...] Read more.
In this contribution, a new surface acoustic wave (SAW)-based sensor was proposed for sensing hydrogen sulfide (H2S) at room temperature (30 °C), which was composed of a phase discrimination circuit, a SAW-sensing device patterned with delay line, and a triethanolamine (TEA) coating along the SAW propagation path of the sensing device. The TEA was chosen as the sensitive interface for H2S sensing, owing to the high adsorption efficiency by van der Waals’ interactions and hydrogen bonds with H2S molecules at room temperature. The adsorption in TEA towards H2S modulates the SAW propagation, and the change in the corresponding phase was converted into voltage signal proportional to H2S concentration was collected as the sensor signal. A SAW delay line patterned on Y-cut quartz substrate with Al metallization was developed photographically, and lower insertion and excellent temperature stability were achieved thanks to the single-phase unidirectional transducers (SPUDTs) and lower cross-sensitivity of the piezoelectric substrate. The synthesized TEA by the reaction of ethylene oxide and ammonia was dropped into the SAW propagation path of the developed SAW device to build the H2S sensor. The developed SAW sensor was characterized by being collecting into the phase discrimination circuit. The gas experimental results appear that fast response (7 s at 4 ppm H2S), high sensitivity (0.152 mV/ppm) and lower detection limit (0.15 ppm) were achieved at room temperature. It means the proposed SAW sensor will be promising for H2S sensing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Acoustic Wave Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Enhanced Sensitivity of a Love Wave-Based Methane Gas Sensor Incorporating a Cryptophane-A Thin Film
Sensors 2018, 18(10), 3247; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18103247
Received: 4 September 2018 / Revised: 25 September 2018 / Accepted: 25 September 2018 / Published: 27 September 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (6082 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A Love wave-based sensing chip incorporating a supramolecular cryptophane A (CrypA) thin film was proposed for methane gas sensing in this work. The waveguide effect in the structure of SiO2/36° YX LiTaO3 will confine the acoustic wave energy in SiO
[...] Read more.
A Love wave-based sensing chip incorporating a supramolecular cryptophane A (CrypA) thin film was proposed for methane gas sensing in this work. The waveguide effect in the structure of SiO2/36° YX LiTaO3 will confine the acoustic wave energy in SiO2 thin-film, which contributes well to improvement of the mass loading sensitivity. The CrypA synthesized from vanillyl alcohol by a double trimerisation method was dropped onto the wave propagation path of the sensing device, and the adsorption to methane gas molecules by supramolecular interactions in CrypA modulates the acoustic wave propagation, and the corresponding frequency shifts were connected as the sensing signal. A theoretical analysis was performed to extract the coupling of modes for sensing devices simulation. Also, the temperature self-compensation of the Love wave devices was also achieved by using reverse polarity of the temperature coefficient in each media in the waveguide structure. The developed CrypA coated Love wave sensing device was connected into the differential oscillation loop, and the corresponding gas sensitive characterization was investigated. High sensitivity, fast response, and excellent temperature stability were successfully achieved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Acoustic Wave Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle A Novel Surface Acoustic Wave Sensor Array Based on Wireless Communication Network
Sensors 2018, 18(9), 2977; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18092977
Received: 18 July 2018 / Revised: 4 September 2018 / Accepted: 4 September 2018 / Published: 6 September 2018
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Abstract
A novel surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor array based on wireless communication network is prepared. The array is composed of four SAW sensors, a wireless communication network module, and a global positioning system (GPS) module. The four SAW sensors of the array are
[...] Read more.
A novel surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor array based on wireless communication network is prepared. The array is composed of four SAW sensors, a wireless communication network module, and a global positioning system (GPS) module. The four SAW sensors of the array are coated with triethanolamine, polyepichlorohydrin, fluoroalcoholpolysiloxane, and L-glutamic acid hydrochloride to detect hydrogen sulfide (H2S), 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), dimethylmethylphosphonate (DMMP), and ammonia (NH3) at film thicknesses of 50–100 nm. The wireless communication network module consists of an acquisition unit, a wireless control unit, and a microcontroller unit. By means of Zigbee and Lora technologies, the module receives and transmits the collected data to a PC work station in real-time; moreover, the module can control the sensor array’s working mode and monitor the working status. Simultaneously, the testing location is determined by the GPS module integrated into the SAW sensor array. H2S, CEES, DMMP, and NH3 are detected in 300 m at different concentrations. Given the practical future application in environment in the future, the low, safe concentrations of 1.08, 0.59, 0.10, and 5.02 ppm for H2S, CEES, DMMP, and NH3, respectively, are detected at the lowest concentration, and the sensitivities of different sensors of the sensor array are 32.4, 14.9, 78.1 and 22.6 Hz/ppm, respectively. With the obtained fingerprints and pattern recognition technology, the detected gases can be recognized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Acoustic Wave Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle FEM Analysis of Sezawa Mode SAW Sensor for VOC Based on CMOS Compatible AlN/SiO2/Si Multilayer Structure
Sensors 2018, 18(6), 1687; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18061687
Received: 17 February 2018 / Revised: 28 March 2018 / Accepted: 29 March 2018 / Published: 24 May 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (6583 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A Finite Element Method (FEM) simulation study is conducted, aiming to scrutinize the sensitivity of Sezawa wave mode in a multilayer AlN/SiO2/Si Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) sensor to low concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), that is, trichloromethane, trichloroethylene, carbon tetrachloride
[...] Read more.
A Finite Element Method (FEM) simulation study is conducted, aiming to scrutinize the sensitivity of Sezawa wave mode in a multilayer AlN/SiO2/Si Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) sensor to low concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), that is, trichloromethane, trichloroethylene, carbon tetrachloride and tetrachloroethene. A Complimentary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) compatible AlN/SiO2/Si based multilayer SAW resonator structure is taken into account for this purpose. In this study, first, the influence of AlN and SiO2 layers’ thicknesses over phase velocities and electromechanical coupling coefficients (k2) of two SAW modes (i.e., Rayleigh and Sezawa) is analyzed and the optimal thicknesses of AlN and SiO2 layers are opted for best propagation characteristics. Next, the study is further extended to analyze the mass loading effect on resonance frequencies of SAW modes by coating a thin Polyisobutylene (PIB) polymer film over the AlN surface. Finally, the sensitivity of the two SAW modes is examined for VOCs. This study concluded that the sensitivity of Sezawa wave mode for 1 ppm of selected volatile organic gases is twice that of the Rayleigh wave mode. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Acoustic Wave Sensors)
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