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Special Issue "Emerging IT Security Technologies in the Computer Systems: Network Security and Cryptography"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Sensor Networks".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 July 2022) | Viewed by 3613

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Mikolaj Karpinski
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Computer Science and Automatics, University of Bielsko-Biala, 43-300 Bielsko-Biala, Poland
Interests: computer networks & wireless communication; computer security & cryptography; computing systems
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Oleksandr O. Kuznetsov
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of information systems and technologies security, V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, 61022 Kharkiv, Ukraine
Interests: noise-tolerant transmission of information; algebraic code theory; authentication theory; cryptography and steganography
Prof. Dr. Oleksandr V. Lemeshko
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
V.V. Popovskyy Department of Infocommunication Engineering, Kharkiv National University of Radio Electronics, 61166 Kharkiv, Ukraine
Interests: traffic management; optimization and quality of service in infocommunications; wireless networks; hierarchical and fault-tolerant routing; network security

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent years, there has been a rapid increase in threats to information and cyber security, which cause enormous damage to the resources of computer systems and networks, including the Internet of Things, communications, smart networks, etc. Malicious actions of hacker groups, deliberate interference and disinformation, natural failures and errors, and many other potentially possible events, processes, or actions can cause irreparable damage to information and computer systems. Despite the tremendous efforts of academic researchers and industry representatives, a general solution to limit IT security threats has not yet been found. Therefore, the search for effective solutions in Network Security and Cryptography, as well as in other related fields, remains relevant. This Special Issue is planned to provide an overview of the latest advances in IT security Technologies in the Computer Systems. In particular, we focus on new cybersecurity technologies in modern computer networks and telecommunication systems, blockchain technologies, the Internet of Things, smart networks, etc. We cover the latest advances in routing methods and traffic management in computer networks, cryptography, network security, modeling complex information processes in the context of IT security, and much more. Possible topics include, but are not limited to the following: · Internet of Things secure sensors; · Computer network security; · Methods of secure routing and traffic management in computer networks; · Cryptographic algorithms in the context of computer systems security ; · Blockchain security and related topics; · Biometric Technologies in Cybersecurity; · Modeling complex information processes in IT security; · Smart Grids and IT security Technologies; · Lightweight Computing and Cryptography.

Prof. Dr. Mikolaj Karpinski
Prof. Dr. Oleksandr O. Kuznetsov
Prof. Dr. Oleksandr V. Lemeshko
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • network
  • model
  • method
  • traffic
  • cyber-resilient
  • rerouting
  • routing
  • fault-tolerant
  • security
  • IT security
  • computer systems
  • network security
  • cryptography
  • cybersecurity

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Article
Optimization of a Simulated Annealing Algorithm for S-Boxes Generating
Sensors 2022, 22(16), 6073; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22166073 - 14 Aug 2022
Viewed by 333
Abstract
Cryptographic algorithms are used to ensure confidentiality, integrity and authenticity of data in information systems. One of the important areas of modern cryptography is that of symmetric key ciphers. They convert the input plaintext into ciphertext, representing it as a random sequence of [...] Read more.
Cryptographic algorithms are used to ensure confidentiality, integrity and authenticity of data in information systems. One of the important areas of modern cryptography is that of symmetric key ciphers. They convert the input plaintext into ciphertext, representing it as a random sequence of characters. S-boxes are designed to complicate the input–output relationship of the cipher. In other words, S-boxes introduce nonlinearity into the encryption process, complicating the use of different methods of cryptanalysis (linear, differential, statistical, correlation, etc.). In addition, S-boxes must be random. This property means that nonlinear substitution cannot be represented as simple algebraic constructions. Random S-boxes are designed to protect against algebraic methods of cryptanalysis. Thus, generation of random S-boxes is an important area of research directly related to the design of modern cryptographically strong symmetric ciphers. This problem has been solved in many related works, including some using the simulated annealing (SA) algorithm. Some works managed to generate 8-bit bijective S-boxes with a nonlinearity index of 104. However, this required enormous computational resources. This paper presents the results of our optimization of SA via various parameters. We were able to significantly reduce the computational complexity of substitution generation with SA. In addition, we also significantly increased the probability of generating the target S-boxes with a nonlinearity score of 104. Full article
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Article
DITES: A Lightweight and Flexible Dual-Core Isolated Trusted Execution SoC Based on RISC-V
Sensors 2022, 22(16), 5981; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22165981 - 10 Aug 2022
Viewed by 400
Abstract
A Trusted Execution Environment (TEE) is an efficient way to secure information. To obtain higher efficiency, the building of a dual-core system-on-chip (SoC) with TEE security capabilities is the hottest topic. However, TEE SoCs currently commonly use complex processor cores such as Rocket, [...] Read more.
A Trusted Execution Environment (TEE) is an efficient way to secure information. To obtain higher efficiency, the building of a dual-core system-on-chip (SoC) with TEE security capabilities is the hottest topic. However, TEE SoCs currently commonly use complex processor cores such as Rocket, resulting in high resource usage. More importantly, the cryptographic unit lacks flexibility and ignores secure communication in dual cores. To address the above problems, we propose DITES, a dual-core TEE SoC based on a Reduced Instruction Set Computer-V (RISC-V). At first, we designed a fully isolated multi-level bus architecture based on a lightweight RISC-V processor with an integrated crypto core supporting Secure Hashing Algorithm-1 (SHA1), Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), and Rivest–Shamir–Adleman (RSA), among which RSA can be configured to five key lengths. Then, we designed a secure boot based on Chain-of-Trust (CoT). Furthermore, we propose a hierarchical access policy to improve the security of inter-core communication. Finally, DITES is deployed on a Kintex 7 Field-Programmable-Gate-Array (FPGA) with a power consumption of 0.297 W, synthesized using TSMC 90 nm. From the results, the acceleration ratios of SHA1 and RSA1024 decryption/encryption can reach 75 and 1331/1493, respectively. Compared to exiting TEE SoCs, DITES has lower resource consumption, higher flexibility, and better security. Full article
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Article
A Wavelet-Based Steganographic Method for Text Hiding in an Audio Signal
Sensors 2022, 22(15), 5832; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22155832 - 04 Aug 2022
Viewed by 282
Abstract
The developed method of steganographic hiding of text information in an audio signal based on the wavelet transform acquires a deep meaning in the conditions of the use by an attacker of deliberate unauthorized manipulations with a steganocoded audio signal to distort the [...] Read more.
The developed method of steganographic hiding of text information in an audio signal based on the wavelet transform acquires a deep meaning in the conditions of the use by an attacker of deliberate unauthorized manipulations with a steganocoded audio signal to distort the text information embedded in it. Thus, increasing the robustness of the stego-system by compressing the steganocoded audio signal subject to the preservation of the integrity of text information, taking into account the features of the psychophysiological model of sound perception, is the main objective of this scientific research. The task of this scientific research is effectively solved using a multilevel discrete wavelet transform using adaptive block normalization of text information with subsequent recursive embedding in the low-frequency component of the audio signal and further scalar product of the obtained coefficients with the Daubechies wavelet filters. The results of the obtained experimental studies confirm the hypothesis, namely that it is proposed to use recursive embedding in the low-frequency component (approximating wavelet coefficients) followed by their scalar product with wavelet filters at each level of the wavelet decomposition, which will increase the average power of hidden data. It should be noted that upon analyzing the existing method, which is based on embedding text information in the high-frequency component (detailed wavelet coefficients), at the last level of the wavelet decomposition, we obtained the limit CR = 6, and in the developed, CR = 20, with full integrity of the text information in both cases. Therefore, the resistance of the stego-system is increased by 3.3 times to deliberate or passive compression of the audio signal in order to distort the embedded text information. Full article
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Article
High-Speed Path Probing Method for Large-Scale Network
Sensors 2022, 22(15), 5650; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22155650 - 28 Jul 2022
Viewed by 287
Abstract
In large-scale network topology discovery, due to the complex network structure and dynamic change characteristics, it is always the focus of network topology measurement to obtain as many network paths as possible in a short time. In this paper, we propose a large-scale [...] Read more.
In large-scale network topology discovery, due to the complex network structure and dynamic change characteristics, it is always the focus of network topology measurement to obtain as many network paths as possible in a short time. In this paper, we propose a large-scale network path probing approach in order to solve the problems of low probing efficiency and high probing redundancy commonly found in current research. By improving the packet delivery order and the update strategy of time-to-live field values, we redesigned and implemented an efficient large-scale network path probing tool. The experimental results show that the method-derived tool can complete path probing for a sample of 12 million/24 network address segments worldwide within 1 hour, which greatly improves the efficiency of network path probing. Meanwhile, compared to existing methods, the proposed method can reduce the number of packets sent by about 10% with the same number of network addresses found, which effectively reduces probing redundancy and alleviates the network load. Full article
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Article
Permutation-Based Block Code for Short Packet Communication Systems
Sensors 2022, 22(14), 5391; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22145391 - 19 Jul 2022
Viewed by 297
Abstract
This paper presents an approach to the construction of block error-correcting code for data transmission systems with short packets. The need for this is driven by the necessity of information interaction between objects of machine-type communication network with a dynamically changing structure and [...] Read more.
This paper presents an approach to the construction of block error-correcting code for data transmission systems with short packets. The need for this is driven by the necessity of information interaction between objects of machine-type communication network with a dynamically changing structure and unique system of commands or alerts for each network object. The codewords of a code are permutations with a given minimum pairwise Hamming distance. The purpose of the study is to develop a statistical method for constructing a code, in contrast to known algebraic methods, and to investigate the code size. An algorithm for generating codewords has been developed. It can be implemented both by enumeration of the full set of permutations, and by enumeration of a given number of randomly selected permutations. We have experimentally determined the dependencies of the average and the maximum values of the code size on the size of a subset of permutations used for constructing the code. A technique for computing approximation quadratic polynomials for the determined code size dependencies has been developed. These polynomials and their corresponding curves estimate the size of a code generated from a subset of random permutations of such a size that a statistically significant experiment cannot be performed. The results of implementing the developed technique for constructing a code based on permutations of lengths 7 and 11 have been presented. The prediction relative error of the code size did not exceed the value of 0.72% for permutation length 11, code distance 9, random permutation subset size 50,000, and permutation statistical study range limited by 5040. Full article
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Article
Direct Spread Spectrum Technology for Data Hiding in Audio
Sensors 2022, 22(9), 3115; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22093115 - 19 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 708
Abstract
Direct spread spectrum technology is traditionally used in radio communication systems with multiple access, for example, in CDMA standards, in global satellite navigation systems, in Wi-Fi network wireless protocols, etc. It ensures high security and reliability of information transfer. In addition, spread spectrum [...] Read more.
Direct spread spectrum technology is traditionally used in radio communication systems with multiple access, for example, in CDMA standards, in global satellite navigation systems, in Wi-Fi network wireless protocols, etc. It ensures high security and reliability of information transfer. In addition, spread spectrum technology provides the transmitted signals with a noise-like appearance, thus hiding the semantic content of the messages. We researched this technology for other implementations. The purpose of our study was to investigate new technologies for hiding data in multimedia files. In particular, we investigated the direct spread spectrum in the context of the development of methods for hiding data in audio containers. We considered various spreading sequences (chip codes) and also explored their use for hiding information in audio files. We conducted experimental studies and estimated the bit error rate (BER) in the recovered data. The article also evaluates the distortion of an audio container by the peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR). The results of our research enable us to find out which method of forming chip codes gives a lower BER with equal PSNR. We provide recommendations on the formation of spreading sequences to reliably and safely hide informational messages in audio files. Full article
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Article
Secured Secret Sharing of QR Codes Based on Nonnegative Matrix Factorization and Regularized Super Resolution Convolutional Neural Network
Sensors 2022, 22(8), 2959; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22082959 - 12 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 635
Abstract
Advances in information technology have harnessed the application of Quick Response (QR) codes in day-to-day activities, simplifying information exchange. QR codes are witnessed almost everywhere, on consumables, newspapers, information bulletins, etc. The simplicity of QR code creation and ease of scanning with free [...] Read more.
Advances in information technology have harnessed the application of Quick Response (QR) codes in day-to-day activities, simplifying information exchange. QR codes are witnessed almost everywhere, on consumables, newspapers, information bulletins, etc. The simplicity of QR code creation and ease of scanning with free software have tremendously influenced their wide usage, and since QR codes place information on an object they are a tool for the IoT. Many healthcare IoT applications are deployed with QR codes for data-labeling and quick transfer of clinical data for rapid diagnosis. However, these codes can be duplicated and tampered with easily, attributed to open- source QR code generators and scanners. This paper presents a novel (n,n) secret-sharing scheme based on Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (NMF) for secured transfer of QR codes as multiple shares and their reconstruction with a regularized Super Resolution Convolutional Neural Network (SRCNN). This scheme is an alternative to the existing polynomial and visual cryptography-based schemes, exploiting NMF in part-based data representation and structural regularized SRCNN to capture the structural elements of the QR code in the super-resolved image. The experimental results and theoretical analyses show that the proposed method is a potential solution for secured exchange of QR codes with different error correction levels. The security of the proposed approach is evaluated with the difficulty in launching security attacks to recover and decode the secret QR code. The experimental results show that an adversary must try 258 additional combinations of shares and perform 3 × 288 additional computations, compared to a representative approach, to compromise the proposed system. Full article
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