Special Issue "Cantilever Sensor"
Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2018)
Prof. Dr. Erwin Peiner
Dr.-Ing. Hutomo Suryo Wasisto
Technische Universität Braunschweig, Institute of Semiconductor Technology (IHT), Hans-Sommer-Str.66, D-38106 Braunschweig, Germany and Laboratory for Emerging Nanometrology (LENA), Langer Kamp 6a, D-38106 Braunschweig, Germany
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Interests: NEMS/NOEMS; nanosensors; nanoelectronics; NanoLEDs; nanometrology
Cantilevers, as one of the most basic types of mechanical sensors, have been continuously developed in various designs and dimensions, which are employed in broadened sensing applications. Forces acting on the cantilever induce a deflection, which can be detected by monitoring either its free-end displacement or generated strain in the clamping region. Different transducers can be employed to read out the output signals, including optical and electrical conversion methods, in which external or integrated detecting components can be used, e.g., optical triangulation or a piezoresistive strain gauge, respectively. Moreover, in the field of micro-/nano-electro-mechanical systems (M/NEMS), they have not only been fabricated in silicon but also extended into compound semiconductors (III-V nitrides: AlN and GaN), carbon-based (graphene and carbon nanotubes) and polymer materials. Most device fabrication processes are still based on planar technology because of their simplicity and cost effectiveness for large-volume industrial production as prerequisite to their widespread use. However, several cantilevers have been realized in 3D vertical architectures for enabling extremely large parallelization of the operating sensors on a much reduced active area, in which the structures are usually called micro-/nanopillars.
Cantilever sensors can be operated at quasi-static and dynamic conditions. Operated in resonance, they can detect ultra-small masses with resolution down to zepto- or yoctogram as required for highly sensitive environmental or biomedical sensing devices (e.g., gas, particulate matter, cell, protein, and DNA). In addition to combination with external exciting elements that are normally used in optomechanical metrology using lasers, recent actuators for vibration excitation have been increasingly integrated in the cantilever constructions, including piezoelectric thin films and electrothermal heating resistors. According to their design, cantilevers are also suitable for tactile probing of surfaces (e.g., in scanning probe microscopes). In this case, self-sensing cantilevers can measure the material surfaces and properties inside hard-to-access high-aspect-ratio structures, such as microholes and other irregular vertical objects. Cantilever force sensors are usable in grippers of next generation robotic systems and biomedical instrumentations or as precisely calibrated transferable artifacts to be disseminated by national metrology institutes.
The aim of this Special Issue is to gather original contributions or review papers from researchers that are actively engaged in developing new ideas in any of the innumerable sectors of development of cantilever sensors for various applications.
Papers are solicited in, though not limited to, the following areas: MEMS/NEMS, MOEMS/NOEMS, micro-/nanomachining, semiconductor cantilevers, polymer cantilevers, piezoelectric cantilevers, self-exciting cantilevers, self-sensing cantilevers, 3D vertical cantilevers, cantilever arrays, micro-/nanoresonators, contact resonance spectroscopy, environmental sensors, biochemical/medical sensors, scanning probe microscopy, tactile surface metrology, tactile sensors, and force calibration.
Prof. Dr. Erwin Peiner
Dr.-Ing. Hutomo Suryo Wasisto
Manuscript Submission Information
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- Optomechanical sensors
- Semiconductor cantilevers
- Polymer cantilevers
- Piezoelectric cantilevers
- Self-exciting cantilevers
- Self-sensing cantilevers
- 3D vertical cantilevers
- Cantilever arrays
- Contact resonance spectroscopy
- Environmental sensors
- Biochemical/medical sensors
- Scanning probe microscopy
- Tactile surface metrology
- Tactile sensors
- Force calibration