Special Issue "Volcanic Processes Monitoring and Hazard Assessment Using Integration of Remote Sensing and Ground-Based Techniques"

A special issue of Remote Sensing (ISSN 2072-4292).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Sonia Calvari
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Osservatorio Etneo, 95125 Catania, Italy
Interests: monitoring active basaltic volcanoes; thermal imaging; effusive and explosive volcanic activity; eruption dynamics; volcanic hazard
Dr. Alessandro Bonaccorso
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Osservatorio Etneo, 95125 Catania, Italy
Interests: physical volcanology; volcano deformation; volcano sources modelling
Dr. Annalisa Cappello
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Osservatorio Etneo, 95125 Catania, Italy
Interests: volcanic hazard; physics-based models for geophysical flows; spatial-temporal analysis of volcanic systems to constrain eruption probabilities; mathematical models for eruption susceptibility; volcanic hazard and risk assessment
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Flora Giudicepietro
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Osservatorio Vesuviano, Napoli, Italy
Interests: earthquake seismology; seismology; earthquake; geophysics; seismics
Dr. Eugenio Sansosti
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Istituto per il Rilevamento Elettromagnetico dell’Ambiente (IREA), National Research Council (CNR) of Italy, via Diocleziano, 328, 80124 Naples, Italy
Interests: remote sensing; synthetic aperture radar; InSAR; subsidence; radar signal processing
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Volcanoes are complex systems that deserve a multidisciplinary monitoring effort in order to carry out appropriate and timely hazard assessments. In recent years, a number of monitoring techniques based on remotely sensed data have been implemented that enable obtaining synoptic views over the monitored areas. On the other hand, ground-based methods provide punctual, yet more accurate, measurements that complement remotely sensed parameters. It is clear, therefore, that the synergic use of remote sensing techniques and data with ground-based measurements can potentially provide an extra contribution to the hazard assessment, for instance in terms of accuracy of results, amount of information obtained, temporal availability, and so on.

We are seeking contributions that integrate the use of remote sensing and ground-based data, with particular focus on and reference to volcanic processes monitoring and related hazard assessment. In particular, contributions that contain the intersection of and integration between the various terrestrial geophysical monitoring techniques (i.e., seismic, ground deformation), remote sensing both from the ground (i.e., thermal analysis, gas geochemistry) and from satellite (i.e., InSAR, thermal analysis, etc.) are welcome and strongly encouraged. The investigative approach characterized by the integration of disciplines at different scales of vision and precision represent a modern challenge to strive for a more complete understanding of volcanic processes and therefore a better hazard evaluation.

Dr. Sonia Calvari
Dr. Alessandro Bonaccorso
Dr. Annalisa Cappello
Dr. Flora Giudicepietro
Dr. Eugenio Sansosti
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Volcano monitoring
  • Data integration
  • Ground based measurements
  • Satellite observations
  • Thermal monitoring
  • Volcanic hazard assessment
  • InSAR
  • Volcanic crises management
  • Explosive and effusive eruptions

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Article
A New Analysis of Caldera Unrest through the Integration of Geophysical Data and FEM Modeling: The Long Valley Caldera Case Study
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(20), 4054; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13204054 - 11 Oct 2021
Viewed by 202
Abstract
The Long Valley Caldera, located at the eastern edge of the Sierra Nevada range in California, has been in a state of unrest since the late 1970s. Seismic, gravity and geodetic data strongly suggest that the source of unrest is an intrusion beneath [...] Read more.
The Long Valley Caldera, located at the eastern edge of the Sierra Nevada range in California, has been in a state of unrest since the late 1970s. Seismic, gravity and geodetic data strongly suggest that the source of unrest is an intrusion beneath the caldera resurgent dome. However, it is not clear yet if the main contribution to the deformation comes from pulses of ascending high-pressure hydrothermal fluids or low viscosity magmatic melts. To characterize the nature of the intrusion, we developed a 3D finite element model which includes topography and crust heterogeneities. We first performed joint numerical inversions of uplift and Electronic Distance Measurement baseline length change data, collected during the period 1985–1999, to infer the deformation-source size, position, and overpressure. Successively, we used this information to refine the source overpressure estimation, compute the gravity potential and infer the intrusion density from the inversion of deformation and gravity data collected in 1982–1998. The deformation source is located beneath the resurgent dome, at a depth of 7.5 ± 0.5 km and a volume change of 0.21 ± 0.04 km3. We assumed a rhyolite compressibility of 0.026 ± 0.0011 GPa−1 (volume fraction of water between 0% and 30%) and estimated a reservoir compressibility of 0.147 ± 0.037 GPa−1. We obtained a density of 1856 ± 72 kg/m3. This density is consistent with a rhyolite melt, with 20% to 30% of dissolved hydrothermal fluids. Full article
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Article
Anatomy of a Paroxysmal Lava Fountain at Etna Volcano: The Case of the 12 March 2021, Episode
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(15), 3052; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13153052 - 03 Aug 2021
Viewed by 1006
Abstract
On 13 December 2020, Etna volcano entered a new eruptive phase, giving rise to a number of paroxysmal episodes involving increased Strombolian activity from the summit craters, lava fountains feeding several-km high eruptive columns and ash plumes, as well as lava flows. As [...] Read more.
On 13 December 2020, Etna volcano entered a new eruptive phase, giving rise to a number of paroxysmal episodes involving increased Strombolian activity from the summit craters, lava fountains feeding several-km high eruptive columns and ash plumes, as well as lava flows. As of 2 August 2021, 57 such episodes have occurred in 2021, all of them from the New Southeast Crater (NSEC). Each paroxysmal episode lasted a few hours and was sometimes preceded (but more often followed) by lava flow output from the crater rim lasting a few hours. In this paper, we use remote sensing data from the ground and satellite, integrated with ground deformation data recorded by a high precision borehole strainmeter to characterize the 12 March 2021 eruptive episode, which was one of the most powerful (and best recorded) among that occurred since 13 December 2020. We describe the formation and growth of the lava fountains, and the way they feed the eruptive column and the ash plume, using data gathered from the INGV visible and thermal camera monitoring network, compared with satellite images. We show the growth of the lava flow field associated with the explosive phase obtained from a fixed thermal monitoring camera. We estimate the erupted volume of pyroclasts from the heights of the lava fountains measured by the cameras, and the erupted lava flow volume from the satellite-derived radiant heat flux. We compare all erupted volumes (pyroclasts plus lava flows) with the total erupted volume inferred from the volcano deflation recorded by the borehole strainmeter, obtaining a total erupted volume of ~3 × 106 m3 of magma constrained by the strainmeter. This volume comprises ~1.6 × 106 m3 of pyroclasts erupted during the lava fountain and 2.4 × 106 m3 of lava flow, with ~30% of the erupted pyroclasts being remobilized as rootless lava to feed the lava flows. The episode lasted 130 min and resulted in an eruption rate of ~385 m3 s−1 and caused the formation of an ash plume rising from the margins of the lava fountain that rose up to 12.6 km a.s.l. in ~1 h. The maximum elevation of the ash plume was well constrained by an empirical formula that can be used for prompt hazard assessment. Full article
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Article
Examples of Multi-Sensor Determination of Eruptive Source Parameters of Explosive Events at Mount Etna
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(11), 2097; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13112097 - 27 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 880
Abstract
Multi-sensor strategies are key to the real-time determination of eruptive source parameters (ESPs) of explosive eruptions necessary to forecast accurately both tephra dispersal and deposition. To explore the capacity of these strategies in various eruptive conditions, we analyze data acquired by two Doppler [...] Read more.
Multi-sensor strategies are key to the real-time determination of eruptive source parameters (ESPs) of explosive eruptions necessary to forecast accurately both tephra dispersal and deposition. To explore the capacity of these strategies in various eruptive conditions, we analyze data acquired by two Doppler radars, ground- and satellite-based infrared sensors, one infrasound array, visible video-monitoring cameras as well as data from tephra-fallout deposits associated with a weak and a strong paroxysmal event at Mount Etna (Italy). We find that the different sensors provide complementary observations that should be critically analyzed and combined to provide comprehensive estimates of ESPs. First, all measurements of plume height agree during the strong paroxysmal activity considered, whereas some discrepancies are found for the weak paroxysm due to rapid plume and cloud dilution. Second, the event duration, key to convert the total erupted mass (TEM) in the mass eruption rate (MER) and vice versa, varies depending on the sensor used, providing information on different phases of the paroxysm (i.e., unsteady lava fountaining, lava fountain-fed tephra plume, waning phase associated with plume and cloud expansion in the atmosphere). As a result, TEM and MER derived from different sensors also correspond to the different phases of the paroxysms. Finally, satellite retrievals for grain-size can be combined with radar data to provide a first approximation of total grain-size distribution (TGSD) in near real-time. Such a TGSD shows a promising agreement with the TGSD derived from the combination of satellite data and whole deposit grain-size distribution (WDGSD). Full article
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Article
Submarine and Subaerial Morphological Changes Associated with the 2014 Eruption at Stromboli Island
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(11), 2043; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13112043 - 22 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 499
Abstract
Stromboli is an active insular volcano located in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea and its recent volcanic activity is mostly confined within the Sciara del Fuoco (SdF, hereafter), a 2-km wide subaerial–submarine collapse scar, which morphologically dominates the NW flank of the edifice. In [...] Read more.
Stromboli is an active insular volcano located in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea and its recent volcanic activity is mostly confined within the Sciara del Fuoco (SdF, hereafter), a 2-km wide subaerial–submarine collapse scar, which morphologically dominates the NW flank of the edifice. In August-November 2014, an effusive eruption occurred along the steep SdF slope, with multiple lava flows reaching the sea. The integration of multisensor remote sensing data, including lidar, photogrammetric, bathymetric surveys coupled with SAR amplitude images collected before and after the 2014 eruption enabled to reconstruct the dynamics of the lava flows through the main morphological changes of the whole SdF slope. Well-defined and steep-sided ridges were created by lava flows during the early stages of the eruption, when effusion rates were high, favoring the penetration into the sea of lava flows as coherent bodies. Differently, fan-shaped features were emplaced during the declining stage of the eruption or in relation to lava overflows and associated gravel flows, suggesting the prevalence of volcaniclastic breccias with respect to coherent lava flows. The estimated volume of eruptive products emplaced on the SdF slope during the 2014 eruption, accounts for about 3.7 × 106 m3, 18% of which is in the submarine setting. This figure is different with respect to the previous 2007 eruption at Stromboli, when a large lava submarine delta formed. This discrepancy can be mainly related to the different elevation of the main vents feeding lava flows during the 2007 eruption (around 400 m) and the 2014 eruption (around 650 m). Besides slope accretion, instability processes were detected both in the subaerial and submarine SdF slope. Submarine slope failure mobilized at least 6 × 105 m3 of volcaniclastic material, representing the largest instability event detected since the 2007 lava delta emplacement. Full article
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Article
Variable Magnitude and Intensity of Strombolian Explosions: Focus on the Eruptive Processes for a First Classification Scheme for Stromboli Volcano (Italy)
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(5), 944; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13050944 - 03 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 946
Abstract
Strombolian activity varies in magnitude and intensity and may evolve into a threat for the local populations living on volcanoes with persistent or semi-persistent activity. A key example comes from the activity of Stromboli volcano (Italy). The “ordinary” Strombolian activity, consisting in intermittent [...] Read more.
Strombolian activity varies in magnitude and intensity and may evolve into a threat for the local populations living on volcanoes with persistent or semi-persistent activity. A key example comes from the activity of Stromboli volcano (Italy). The “ordinary” Strombolian activity, consisting in intermittent ejection of bombs and lapilli around the eruptive vents, is sometimes interrupted by high-energy explosive events (locally called major or paroxysmal explosions), which can affect very large areas. Recently, the 3 July 2019 explosive paroxysm at Stromboli volcano caused serious concerns in the local population and media, having killed one tourist while hiking on the volcano. Major explosions, albeit not endangering inhabited areas, often produce a fallout of bombs and lapilli in zones frequented by tourists. Despite this, the classification of Strombolian explosions on the basis of their intensity derives from measurements that are not always replicable (i.e., field surveys). Hence the need for a fast, objective and quantitative classification of explosive activity. Here, we use images of the monitoring camera network, seismicity and ground deformation data, to characterize and distinguish paroxysms, impacting the whole island, from major explosions, that affect the summit of the volcano above 500 m elevation, and from the persistent, mild explosive activity that normally has no impact on the local population. This analysis comprises 12 explosive events occurring at Stromboli after 25 June 2019 and is updated to 6 December 2020. Full article
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Article
Plume Height Time-Series Retrieval Using Shadow in Single Spatial Resolution Satellite Images
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(23), 3951; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12233951 - 03 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 737
Abstract
Volcanic plume height is a key parameter in retrieving plume ascent and dispersal dynamics, as well as eruption intensity; all of which are crucial for assessing hazards to aircraft operations. One way to retrieve cloud height is the shadow technique. This uses shadows [...] Read more.
Volcanic plume height is a key parameter in retrieving plume ascent and dispersal dynamics, as well as eruption intensity; all of which are crucial for assessing hazards to aircraft operations. One way to retrieve cloud height is the shadow technique. This uses shadows cast on the ground and the sun geometry to calculate cloud height. This technique has, however, not been frequently used, especially not with high-spatial resolution (30 m pixel) satellite data. On 26 October 2013, Mt Etna (Sicily, Italy) produced a lava fountain feeding an ash plume that drifted SW and through the approach routes to Catania international airport. We compared the proximal plume height time-series obtained from fixed monitoring cameras with data retrieved from a Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager image, with results being in good agreement. The application of the shadow technique to a single high-spatial resolution image allowed us to fully document the ascent and dispersion history of the plume–cloud system. We managed to do this over a distance of 60 km and a time period of 50 min, with a precision of a few seconds and vertical error on plume altitude of ±200 m. We converted height with distance to height with time using the plume dispersion velocity, defining a bent-over plume that settled to a neutral buoyancy level with distance. Potentially, the shadow technique defined here allows downwind plume height profiles and mass discharge rate time series to be built over distances of up to 260 km and periods of 24 h, depending on vent location in the image, wind speed, and direction. Full article
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Article
Overflows and Pyroclastic Density Currents in March-April 2020 at Stromboli Volcano Detected by Remote Sensing and Seismic Monitoring Data
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(18), 3010; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12183010 - 16 Sep 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1360
Abstract
Between 28 March and 1 April 2020, Stromboli volcano erupted, with overflows from the NE crater rim spreading along the barren Sciara del Fuoco slope and reaching the sea along the NW coast of the island. Poor weather conditions did not allow a [...] Read more.
Between 28 March and 1 April 2020, Stromboli volcano erupted, with overflows from the NE crater rim spreading along the barren Sciara del Fuoco slope and reaching the sea along the NW coast of the island. Poor weather conditions did not allow a detailed observation of the crater zone through the cameras monitoring network, but a clear view of the lower slope and the flows expanding in the area allowed us to characterize the flow features. This evidence was integrated with satellite, GBInSAR, and seismic data, thus enabling a reconstruction of the whole volcanic event, which involved several small collapses of the summit cone and the generation of pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) spreading along the slope and on the sea surface. Satellite monitoring allowed for the mapping of the lava flow field and the quantification of the erupted volume, and GBInSAR continuous measurements detected the crater widening and the deflation of the summit cone caused by the last overflow. The characterization of the seismicity made it possible to identify the signals that are associated with the propagation of PDCs along the volcano flank and, for the first time, to recognize the signal that is produced by the impact of the PDCs on the coast. Full article
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Detailed cartography of Cotopaxi’s 1877 primary lahar deposit obtained by drone-imagery and field surveys in the proximal northern drainage
Authors: S. Daniel Andrade; Emilia Saltos; Valeria Nogales; Erik Sebastian Cruz; Gareth Lee; Jenni Barclay
Affiliation: Escuela Politécnica Nacionaldisabled, Quito, Ecuador
Abstract: Lahar flows are destructive and potentially lethal phenomena related to volcanic activity, especially in the case of primary lahars which can reach volumes in the order of 106 m3 and discharge rates in the order of 103 m3/s. The assessment of lahar-hazard relies on detailed geological studies of past events and numerical simulations of those flow scenarios. On June 26, 1877 the most recent primary lahar occurred at Cotopaxi volcano as a consequence of an explosive eruption. This event has been widely used as the model scenario to produce hazard assessments for the northern, southern and eastern drainages of the volcano. The geological knowledge of that event, specially the medium- to distal-mapping as well as approximate volumes and discharge rates, has been used to feed several numerical models used to produce lahar-hazard maps for the highly inhabited valleys downstream from the volcano. In order to obtain new insight about the 1877 primary lahar, an enhanced mapping and detailed discharge rate estimations have been obtained in the proximal zones of Cotopaxi’s northern drainage, where the deposits have not yet been eroded or perturbed by human activity. The new mapping has been based on the use of imagery obtained by an un-manned aerial vehicle (drone) which carried visible-light and near infra-red sensors, allowing an enhanced identification of the deposit. The cartography obtained through the drone-imagery was produced by remote sensing techniques enhanced by detailed terrain surveys. The calculation of the discharge rates was based on field measurements preformed in each of the major deep ravines that descend Cotopaxi’s higher flanks to feed the northern drainage. Places where the flow produced super-elevations were used to estimate peak-discharge rates. These field surveys were also improved by the use of the drone-imagery. Thus, a new detailed map of the deposits belonging to the 1877 primary lahars of Cotopaxi has been obtained through this methodology and represent a significant improvement with respect to previous surveys. Given their detail, the results could be now used to test high-resolution numerical models and to improve the lahar-hazard assessment downstream. These new geological data also provides additional insight on the development of the 26 June 1877 eruption of Cotopaxi volcano.

Title: A new analysis of caldera unrest through the integration of ground based geophysics data, InSAR and FEM modeling. The Long Valley caldera case study
Authors: Pulvirenti F.; Silverii F.; Battaglia M.
Affiliation: Sapienza - University of Rome
Abstract: Long Valley Caldera (LVC) is located within the transition between the Eastern California Shear Zone (ECSZ) and the Walker Lane Belt (WLB), at the eastern edge of the Sierra Nevada range (SNR) and represents a highly tectonically active area with long-term shear and extension, frequent episodes of unrest (volcanic inflation) and earthquake swarms. Observed deformations in this area are due to subsurface intrusions as evidenced by seismic, gravity and geodetic data, however, is not clear if the main contribution to the deformations comes from hydrothermal fluxes or magma intrusions. In order to characterize the intrusions, we developed a 3D finite element model where we implemented topography, gravitational load and material heterogeneities and performed numerical joint inversions of gravity, levelling, GPS and EDM data collected during the period 1982 - 1999 to calculate the mass flux, density and volume changes of the intrusions. Results confirm the presence of a modest magma intrusion beneath the caldera resurgent dome.

Title: Using HYSPLIT Model to Improve Volcanic Ash Prediction from Assimilation Satellite Volcanic Top Height and Bottom Height Retrievals
Authors: Lin Zhu; Guansheng Bin; Lei Yang
Affiliation: 1. National Satellite Meteorological Center, China Meteorological Administration, Beijing 100081, China 2. College of Geoscience and Surveying Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083, China
Abstract: HYSPLIT is a Lagrangian transmission and diffusion model, which can be used to predict and study the position, direction and distribution of volcanic ash during volcanic eruptions. The accuracy of HYSPLIT output highly depends on the accuracy of initialization: initial position, size distribution and gray component as a function of time. Cloud thickness is determined by cloud top and cloud bottom retrievals. In this study, a hybrid deep learning method is developed to retrieve volcanic ash top height and bottom height simultaneously through combined polar orbit active and geostationary passive remote sensing data. Using the retrievals from satellite observations with the HYSPLIT model, a new prediction model was developed. A series of eruptions over Iceland’s Eyjafjallajökull volcano from April to May 2010 were selected as typical cases for independent validation of the volcanic height retrievals and the forecast model. The methodology and approaches can be applied to the measurements from the advanced imagers onboard the new generation of international geostationary (GEO) weather satellites for dynamic volcanic ash monitoring and evaluation.

Title: Extensive parameters to monitoring the volcanic activity: The geochemical network of Vulcano Island (Italy)
Authors: Salvatore Inguaggiato; Fabio Vita; Calderone Lorenzo
Affiliation: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia
Abstract: Volatiles degassing from volcanic systems is a peculiar and useful tool to monitoring the volcanic activity to the aims of characterizing the geochemistry of shallow plumbing systems and forecasting and individuating the changes of the volcanic activity level. For this reason, many scientists have carried out investigations on shallow volatile degassing to characterize the normal activity level and for identifying the main active degassing structures that are present on the studied volcanic systems. Consequently, many volcano observatories have been established through the world including geochemical monitoring networks of extensive parameters, like CO2 and SO2 fluxes from soil and plume. Such a geochemical tool has been successful applied to Vulcano Island that is characterized by solfataric activity in the last centuries after the last eruption occurred in the 1888-1890. A geochemical investigation (Inguaggiato et al.2012) was carried out to estimate the CO2 output of discharged fluids from Vulcano Island and individuate the anomalous degassing areas of the Vulcano island. From these studies, we find that the summit area accounts for more than 90 % of total CO2 discharged from the island (Inguaggiato et al. 2012) and is a suitable site for installing geochemical monitoring systems to investigate volcanic activity. Therefore, an automated CO2 soil monitoring station was installed within the active summit crater of La Fossa but beyond the fumarolic areas, in September 2007. Moreover a second anomalous degassing zone was recognize in the Palizzi area located in the NW side of the island were a second monitoring station of soil CO2 has been installed in the 2016. The other extensive parameter useful to monitoring the changes of volcanic activity is the SO2 emitted by the entire solfataric area located on the summit zone (La Fossa crater) of the volcanic edifice. For this reason two UV-Scanning DOAS have been installed in the Palizzi area and Levante beach respectively in the 2008 and 2015. The aim of this article is to present the geochemical monitoring network of extensive parameters installed at Vulcano Island and the obtained results of over 10 years of observations useful to evaluate the degassing activity level.

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