Next Article in Journal
Investigation of Low Latitude Spread-F Triggered by Nighttime Medium-Scale Traveling Ionospheric Disturbance
Previous Article in Journal
Hair Fescue and Sheep Sorrel Identification Using Deep Learning in Wild Blueberry Production
Previous Article in Special Issue
Plume Height Time-Series Retrieval Using Shadow in Single Spatial Resolution Satellite Images
Open AccessArticle

Variable Magnitude and Intensity of Strombolian Explosions: Focus on the Eruptive Processes for a First Classification Scheme for Stromboli Volcano (Italy)

1
Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Osservatorio Etneo-Sezione di Catania, 95125 Catania, Italy
2
Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Osservatorio Vesuviano, 80125 Napoli, Italy
3
Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universitá degli Studi di Firenze, 50121 Firenze, Italy
4
National Institute of Oceanography and Applied Geophysics—OGS, 30010 Trieste, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Fumio Yamazaki
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(5), 944; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13050944
Received: 9 February 2021 / Revised: 24 February 2021 / Accepted: 25 February 2021 / Published: 3 March 2021
Strombolian activity varies in magnitude and intensity and may evolve into a threat for the local populations living on volcanoes with persistent or semi-persistent activity. A key example comes from the activity of Stromboli volcano (Italy). The “ordinary” Strombolian activity, consisting in intermittent ejection of bombs and lapilli around the eruptive vents, is sometimes interrupted by high-energy explosive events (locally called major or paroxysmal explosions), which can affect very large areas. Recently, the 3 July 2019 explosive paroxysm at Stromboli volcano caused serious concerns in the local population and media, having killed one tourist while hiking on the volcano. Major explosions, albeit not endangering inhabited areas, often produce a fallout of bombs and lapilli in zones frequented by tourists. Despite this, the classification of Strombolian explosions on the basis of their intensity derives from measurements that are not always replicable (i.e., field surveys). Hence the need for a fast, objective and quantitative classification of explosive activity. Here, we use images of the monitoring camera network, seismicity and ground deformation data, to characterize and distinguish paroxysms, impacting the whole island, from major explosions, that affect the summit of the volcano above 500 m elevation, and from the persistent, mild explosive activity that normally has no impact on the local population. This analysis comprises 12 explosive events occurring at Stromboli after 25 June 2019 and is updated to 6 December 2020. View Full-Text
Keywords: Stromboli volcano; paroxysmal explosions; major explosive events; ground and remote sensing monitoring; classification of mild Strombolian events Stromboli volcano; paroxysmal explosions; major explosive events; ground and remote sensing monitoring; classification of mild Strombolian events
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Calvari, S.; Giudicepietro, F.; Di Traglia, F.; Bonaccorso, A.; Macedonio, G.; Casagli, N. Variable Magnitude and Intensity of Strombolian Explosions: Focus on the Eruptive Processes for a First Classification Scheme for Stromboli Volcano (Italy). Remote Sens. 2021, 13, 944. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13050944

AMA Style

Calvari S, Giudicepietro F, Di Traglia F, Bonaccorso A, Macedonio G, Casagli N. Variable Magnitude and Intensity of Strombolian Explosions: Focus on the Eruptive Processes for a First Classification Scheme for Stromboli Volcano (Italy). Remote Sensing. 2021; 13(5):944. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13050944

Chicago/Turabian Style

Calvari, Sonia; Giudicepietro, Flora; Di Traglia, Federico; Bonaccorso, Alessandro; Macedonio, Giovanni; Casagli, Nicola. 2021. "Variable Magnitude and Intensity of Strombolian Explosions: Focus on the Eruptive Processes for a First Classification Scheme for Stromboli Volcano (Italy)" Remote Sens. 13, no. 5: 944. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13050944

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop