Special Issue "Measures of Spirituality/Religiosity (2018)"

A special issue of Religions (ISSN 2077-1444).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 March 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. med. Arndt Büssing

Institute for Integrative Medicine, Faculty of Health, Witten/Herdecke University, Alfred-Herrhausen-Straße 50, 58448 Witten, Germany
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +49-2330-623246
Fax: +49 2330623358
Interests: mind-body medicine approaches; spirituality and health; quality of life; coping; questionnaire development; integrative medicine; clinical studies; health service research

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues.

The interest in the topic of spirituality as an independent dimension of quality of life is continuously growing, and also the research questions start to change because also the fields of religiosity are changing, becoming more diverse and pluralistic. To address the new topics in health research, one may rely on standardized questionnaires. Several of these new questions cannot be easily answered with the instruments designed for previous questions, and thus new instruments are constantly developed. The number of instruments intended to measure specific aspects of spirituality is growing and it is difficult to value particularly the new ones.

This special issue intends to pay attention to some of the already established instruments (and to update the knowledge), but also to describe the features and intentions of newly developed instruments, which may have potential to be used in larger studies to develop knowledge relevant to spiritual care and practice. Some of these are rather ‘inclusive’ (embracing also secular concepts of spirituality, and may thus be less specific) and others are rather ‘exclusive’ (or specific for circumscribed religious groups, and thus not suited for varying denominations or a-religious persons).This issue should become a resource of relevant instruments in the wide range of organized religiosity, the individual experience of the divine, and the open approach in the search for meaning and purpose in life.

High quality manuscripts are welcomed which briefly describe the background of questionnaire development, its unique features and intentions, and a sound description of items, scales, and validity measures.

Prof. Dr. Arndt Büssing
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Religions is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • spirituality
  • religiosity
  • faith
  • secular
  • health
  • psychology

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Introduction of the Special Issue “Measures of Spirituality/Religiosity (2018)”
Religions 2019, 10(3), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel10030214
Received: 15 March 2019 / Revised: 18 March 2019 / Accepted: 18 March 2019 / Published: 21 March 2019
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Abstract
The interest in the topic of spirituality as a more or less independent dimension of quality of life is continuously growing [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Measures of Spirituality/Religiosity (2018))

Research

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Open AccessArticle Translation, Cultural Adaptation of Spiritual Needs Questionnaire in Pakistan
Religions 2018, 9(5), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel9050163
Received: 1 March 2018 / Revised: 24 April 2018 / Accepted: 3 May 2018 / Published: 18 May 2018
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Abstract
The current study was conducted with the aim of translating, adapting, and exploring the factor structure of Spiritual Needs Questionnaire (SpNQ) in chronically ill patients. To meet this objective, the English-version SpNQ was translated into Urdu for Pakistan following standard methods of translation [...] Read more.
The current study was conducted with the aim of translating, adapting, and exploring the factor structure of Spiritual Needs Questionnaire (SpNQ) in chronically ill patients. To meet this objective, the English-version SpNQ was translated into Urdu for Pakistan following standard methods of translation and adaptation. The Urdu version was then used to collect data from a sample of 150 chronically ill patients. The results showed that spiritual needs were significantly associated with each other. Compared to the previous English-version that proposed a four-factor solution, the exploratory factor analysis revealed a three-factor structure for the Urdu version with good internal consistency coefficients, indicating the new version to be a reliable measure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Measures of Spirituality/Religiosity (2018))
Open AccessArticle Spiritual Jihad among U.S. Muslims: Preliminary Measurement and Associations with Well-Being and Growth
Religions 2018, 9(5), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel9050158
Received: 2 March 2018 / Revised: 7 May 2018 / Accepted: 10 May 2018 / Published: 13 May 2018
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Abstract
Religious and spiritual (r/s) struggles entail tension and conflict regarding religious and spiritual aspects of life. R/s struggles relate to distress, but may also relate to growth. Growth from struggles is prominent in Islamic spirituality and is sometimes referred to as spiritual jihad. [...] Read more.
Religious and spiritual (r/s) struggles entail tension and conflict regarding religious and spiritual aspects of life. R/s struggles relate to distress, but may also relate to growth. Growth from struggles is prominent in Islamic spirituality and is sometimes referred to as spiritual jihad. This work’s main hypothesis was that in the context of moral struggles, incorporating a spiritual jihad mindset would relate to well-being, spiritual growth, and virtue. The project included two samples of U.S. Muslims: an online sample from Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (MTurk) worker database website (N = 280) and a community sample (N = 74). Preliminary evidence of reliability and validity emerged for a new measure of a spiritual jihad mindset. Results revealed that Islamic religiousness and daily spiritual experiences with God predicted greater endorsement of a spiritual jihad mindset among participants from both samples. A spiritual jihad mindset predicted greater levels of positive religious coping (both samples), spiritual and post-traumatic growth (both samples), and virtuous behaviors (MTurk sample), and less depression and anxiety (MTurk sample). Results suggest that some Muslims incorporate a spiritual jihad mindset in the face of moral struggles. Muslims who endorse greater religiousness and spirituality may specifically benefit from implementing a spiritual jihad mindset in coping with religious and spiritual struggles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Measures of Spirituality/Religiosity (2018))
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Open AccessArticle Translation and Validation of Spiritual Well-Being Questionnaire SHALOM in Lithuanian Language, Culture and Health Care Practice
Religions 2018, 9(5), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel9050156
Received: 3 April 2018 / Revised: 8 May 2018 / Accepted: 9 May 2018 / Published: 11 May 2018
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Abstract
Awareness of patients’ and healthy people’s spiritual well-being allows for care professionals to support individual spiritual concerns in a timely and appropriate manner, performing a whole-person approach to care. To date, there have been no validated measures of spiritual well-being for use with [...] Read more.
Awareness of patients’ and healthy people’s spiritual well-being allows for care professionals to support individual spiritual concerns in a timely and appropriate manner, performing a whole-person approach to care. To date, there have been no validated measures of spiritual well-being for use with healthy or illness-affected Lithuanian people. This paper reports the translation and validation procedures of the Spiritual Well-Being Questionnaire, SHALOM, for its use with Lithuanian people regarding the self-assessment of spiritual health. A convenience sample of 171 hospitalized non-terminally ill oncology patients was interviewed face-to-face during a field-test of a Lithuanian version of SHALOM. Overall scale reliability of the SHALOM-Ideals section was 0.909, with overall scale reliability of the SHALOM-Lived Experience section being 0.888. Culturally relevant translation resulted in very good stability over time with a seven-day break between repeat application (Ideals section: Spearman-Brown coefficient was 0.927; Lived Experience section: Spearman-Brown coefficient was 0.942). The construct validity of the scale was determined using exploratory factor analysis. The research perspective on spirituality and spiritual well-being in Lithuania indicates the desirability for larger scale quantitative and qualitative studies with different populations applying cross-sectional and cross-cultural comparisons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Measures of Spirituality/Religiosity (2018))
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Open AccessArticle Transcultural Adaptation and Psychometric Properties of Portuguese Version of the Spiritual Needs Questionnaire (SpNQ) Among HIV Positive Patients in Brazil
Religions 2018, 9(4), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel9040135
Received: 28 February 2018 / Revised: 3 April 2018 / Accepted: 11 April 2018 / Published: 18 April 2018
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Abstract
The Spiritual Needs Questionnaire (SpNQ), originally written in the German language, was translated and validated into 11 languages, but not Latin languages, such as Brazilian Portuguese. This study aimed to determine the psychometric properties of the SpNQ after translation and transcultural adaptation to [...] Read more.
The Spiritual Needs Questionnaire (SpNQ), originally written in the German language, was translated and validated into 11 languages, but not Latin languages, such as Brazilian Portuguese. This study aimed to determine the psychometric properties of the SpNQ after translation and transcultural adaptation to the Portuguese language, identifying unmet spiritual needs in a sample of patients living with HIV in Brazil. This pioneering study conformed a four-factor structure of 20 items, differentiating Religious Needs (α = 0.887), Giving/Generativity Needs (α = 0.848), Inner Peace (α = 0.813) and a new item: Family Support Needs (α = 0.778). The Brazilian version of the SpNQ (SpNQ-BR) had good internal validity criteria and can be used for research of the spiritual needs for Brazilian patients. The cross-cultural adaptation and comparison with previous studies showed that the SpNQ is sensitive to the cultural characteristics of different countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Measures of Spirituality/Religiosity (2018))
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Open AccessArticle Validation of the Gratitude/Awe Questionnaire and Its Association with Disposition of Gratefulness
Religions 2018, 9(4), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel9040117
Received: 13 March 2018 / Revised: 30 March 2018 / Accepted: 3 April 2018 / Published: 8 April 2018
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Abstract
Self-transcendent feelings such as gratitude, compassion, and awe are highly relevant for human societies. So far, empirical research has focused more on the relational aspects of these feelings (concrete persons), and less on the spiritual aspects referring to the Sacred in a person’s [...] Read more.
Self-transcendent feelings such as gratitude, compassion, and awe are highly relevant for human societies. So far, empirical research has focused more on the relational aspects of these feelings (concrete persons), and less on the spiritual aspects referring to the Sacred in a person’s life. We intended to validate an extended version of the former three-item Gratitude/Awe scale. This extended scale was designed with a focus on the experiential aspects of being moved and touched by certain moments and places/nature, on related reactions of pausing with daily activities, and on the subsequent feelings of awe and gratitude. Enrolling 183 test persons (67% women; 59% with a Christian confession) in a cross-sectional study, we can confirm that the seven-item Gratitude/Awe scale (GrAw-7) has good psychometric properties (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.82) and moderate correlation (r = 0.42) with grateful disposition (GQ-6 questionnaire). Structured equation modeling (SEM) confirmed that both constructs, although moderately related, are different. While Gratitude/Awe was best predicted by the frequency of meditation practice, a grateful disposition was best predicted by the frequency of praying and by general life satisfaction. The GrAw-7 scale is not contaminated with specific religious topics or quality of life issues, and can be easily implemented in larger studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Measures of Spirituality/Religiosity (2018))
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Open AccessArticle Brazilian Validation of the Attachment to God Inventory (IAD-Br)
Religions 2018, 9(4), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel9040103
Received: 12 March 2018 / Revised: 23 March 2018 / Accepted: 27 March 2018 / Published: 30 March 2018
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Abstract
Bowlby’s Attachment Theory proposes that the person seeks protection and security with his or her caregiver, establishing a significant bond, which Bowlby characterizes as “attachment relationship”. The relationship with God can also be understood as an attachment relationship. Until now, there are no [...] Read more.
Bowlby’s Attachment Theory proposes that the person seeks protection and security with his or her caregiver, establishing a significant bond, which Bowlby characterizes as “attachment relationship”. The relationship with God can also be understood as an attachment relationship. Until now, there are no instruments in Brazil to measure one’s attachment to God. The purpose of this article is to present the adaptation and validation process of the Attachment to God Inventory for the Brazilian context, resulting in a Brazilian version of the Attachment to God Inventory (IAD-Br). The validation methodology for the IAD-Br consisted of Portuguese translation, reverse translation to English, pre-test, data collection, and validation through confirmatory factorial analysis (CFA). A total of 470 people participated in the study: 179 men and 291 women. Confirmatory factorial analysis presented unsatisfactory statistical parameters. Of the 28 items of the instrument, 11 items did not present adequate Item-Total Correlation. After excluding these 11 items, the instrument presented adequate adjustment indices. The IAD-Br, composed of 17 items, is able to be used to measure attachment to God in Brazil and constitutes a relevant instrument to identify the attachment to God style, being useful for application in the psychotherapeutic clinic and in contexts of spiritual care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Measures of Spirituality/Religiosity (2018))
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Open AccessArticle Filipino College Students’ Attitudes towards Religion: An Analysis of the Underlying Factors
Religions 2018, 9(3), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel9030085
Received: 18 January 2018 / Revised: 17 February 2018 / Accepted: 13 March 2018 / Published: 17 March 2018
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Abstract
In the last 50 years, measures of religious constructs have been the subject of much scientific attention. Cross-cultural considerations necessitate that empirical claims on assessments about religion are validated by local data. While religion is typically viewed in terms of spirituality and religiosity, [...] Read more.
In the last 50 years, measures of religious constructs have been the subject of much scientific attention. Cross-cultural considerations necessitate that empirical claims on assessments about religion are validated by local data. While religion is typically viewed in terms of spirituality and religiosity, recent empirical studies indicate a shift in the interpretation of these dimensions in a more diffused and relaxed appreciation. Building up from these developments, in the present research, we develop and test the structure and reliability of a scale to assess students’ attitudes towards religion. Using a sample (n = 2733) of college students from two provincial universities in the Philippines, we employed data reduction techniques to understand the underlying factor structure. The results showed a three-factor measure of attitudes towards religion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Measures of Spirituality/Religiosity (2018))
Open AccessArticle Factor Structure of the Spiritual Needs Questionnaire (SpNQ) in Persons with Chronic Diseases, Elderly and Healthy Individuals
Religions 2018, 9(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel9010013
Received: 18 December 2017 / Revised: 29 December 2017 / Accepted: 3 January 2018 / Published: 5 January 2018
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Abstract
The Spiritual Needs Questionnaire (SpNQ) is an established measure of psychosocial, existential and spiritual needs. Its 4-factor structure has been primarily validated in persons with chronic diseases, but until now has not been done in elderly and stressed healthy populations. Therefore, we tested [...] Read more.
The Spiritual Needs Questionnaire (SpNQ) is an established measure of psychosocial, existential and spiritual needs. Its 4-factor structure has been primarily validated in persons with chronic diseases, but until now has not been done in elderly and stressed healthy populations. Therefore, we tested the factor structure of the SpNQ in: (1) persons with chronic diseases (n = 627); (2) persons with chronic disease plus elderly (n = 940); (3) healthy persons (i.e., adults and elderly) (n = 1468); and (4) chronically ill, elderly, and healthy persons together (n = 2095). The suggested structure was then validated using structured equation modelling (SEM). The 4-factor structure of the 20-item SpNQ (SpNQ-20) was confirmed, differentiating Religious Needs, Existential Needs, Inner Peace Needs, and Giving/Generativity Needs. The psychometric properties of the measure indicated (CFI = 0.96, TLI = 0.95, RMSEA = 0.04 and SRMR = 0.03), with good reliability indices (Cronbach’s alpha varying from 0.71 to 0.81). This latest version of the SpNQ provides researchers with a reliable and valid instrument that can now be used in comparative studies. Cultural and religious differences can be addressed using their different language versions, assuming the SpNQ’s structure is maintained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Measures of Spirituality/Religiosity (2018))
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Open AccessArticle Validation of the SpREUK—Religious Practices Questionnaire as a Measure of Christian Religious Practices in a General Population and in Religious Persons
Religions 2017, 8(12), 269; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel8120269
Received: 28 November 2017 / Revised: 6 December 2017 / Accepted: 8 December 2017 / Published: 9 December 2017
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Abstract
Measures of spirituality should be multidimensional and inclusive and as such be applicable to persons with different worldviews and spiritual-religious beliefs and attitudes. Nevertheless, for distinct research purposes it may be relevant to more accurately differentiate specific religious practices, rituals and behaviors. It [...] Read more.
Measures of spirituality should be multidimensional and inclusive and as such be applicable to persons with different worldviews and spiritual-religious beliefs and attitudes. Nevertheless, for distinct research purposes it may be relevant to more accurately differentiate specific religious practices, rituals and behaviors. It was thus the aim of this study to validate a variant version of the SpREUK-P questionnaire (which measures frequency of engagement in a large spectrum of organized and private religious, spiritual, existential and philosophical practices). This variant version was enriched with items addressing specific rituals and practices of Catholic religiosity, by further differentiating items of praying and meditation. The instrument was then tested in a sample of Catholics (inclusively nuns and monks), Protestants, and in non-religious persons. This 23-item SpREUK-RP (Religious Practices) questionnaire has four factors (i.e., Prosocial-Humanistic practices; General religious practices; Catholic religious practices; Existentialistic practices/Gratitude and Awe) and good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha ranging from 0.84 to 0.94). An advantage of this instrument is that it is not generally contaminated with items related to persons’ well-being, and it is not intermixed with specific religious attitudes and convictions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Measures of Spirituality/Religiosity (2018))
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Validation of a Novel Instrument to Measure Elements of Franciscan-Inspired Spirituality in a General Population and in Religious Persons
Religions 2017, 8(9), 197; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel8090197
Received: 3 August 2017 / Revised: 23 August 2017 / Accepted: 15 September 2017 / Published: 19 September 2017
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Abstract
Today there are several approaches for bringing mindfulness, which conceptually refers to the Buddhist Vipassana tradition, into organizations. Programs referring to value-based attitudes and behaviors derived from specific Christian contexts are rarely evaluated. A prerequisite are reliable instruments for measuring the respective outcomes. [...] Read more.
Today there are several approaches for bringing mindfulness, which conceptually refers to the Buddhist Vipassana tradition, into organizations. Programs referring to value-based attitudes and behaviors derived from specific Christian contexts are rarely evaluated. A prerequisite are reliable instruments for measuring the respective outcomes. We therefore performed a cross-sectional study among 418 participants to validate an instrument measuring specific aspects of Franciscan-inspired spirituality (FraSpir), particularly the core dimensions and transformative outcomes. Exploratory factor analysis of this FraSpir questionnaire with 26 items pointed to four main factors (i.e., “Live from Faith/Search for God”; “Peaceful attitude/Respectful Treatment”; “Commitment to Disadvantaged and Creation”; “Attitude of Poverty”). Their internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha) ranged from 0.79 to 0.97. With respect to convergent validity, there were sound correlations with engagement in religious practices, gratitude and awe, and prosocial-humanistic practices. The 26-item instrument was found to be a reliable and valid instrument for use in training and education programs. Interestingly, nuns and monks scored significantly higher on the Faith and Poverty subscales than others, but similarly on the two subscales addressing considerate action in the world. These attitudes and behaviors are not exclusively valued by those of religious faith, but by all. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Measures of Spirituality/Religiosity (2018))

Review

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Open AccessReview Measuring Symptoms of Moral Injury in Veterans and Active Duty Military with PTSD
Religions 2018, 9(3), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel9030086
Received: 13 December 2017 / Revised: 14 March 2018 / Accepted: 14 March 2018 / Published: 17 March 2018
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Abstract
The Moral Injury Symptom Scale-Military Version (MISS-M) is a 45-item measure of moral injury (MI) symptoms designed to use in Veterans and Active Duty Military with PTSD. This paper reviews the psychometric properties of the MISS-M identified in a previous report, discusses the [...] Read more.
The Moral Injury Symptom Scale-Military Version (MISS-M) is a 45-item measure of moral injury (MI) symptoms designed to use in Veterans and Active Duty Military with PTSD. This paper reviews the psychometric properties of the MISS-M identified in a previous report, discusses the rationale for the development of the scale, and explores its possible clinical and research applications. The MISS-M consists of 10 theoretically grounded subscales that assess the psychological and spiritual/religious symptoms of MI: guilt, shame, betrayal, moral concerns, loss of meaning/purpose, difficulty forgiving, loss of trust, self-condemnation, spiritual/religious struggles, and loss of religious faith/hope. The scale has high internal reliability, high test-retest reliability, and a factor structure that can be replicated. The MISS-M correlates strongly with PTSD severity, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms, indicating convergent validity, and is relatively weakly correlated with social, spiritual, and physical health constructs, suggesting discriminant validity. The MISS-M is the first multidimensional scale that measures both the psychological and spiritual/religious symptoms of MI and is a reliable and valid measure for assessing symptom severity in clinical practice and in conducting research that examines the efficacy of treatments for MI in Veterans and Active Duty Military personnel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Measures of Spirituality/Religiosity (2018))
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Open AccessReview Measuring Spirituality and Religiosity in Clinical Settings: A Scoping Review of Available Instruments
Religions 2018, 9(3), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel9030070
Received: 22 February 2018 / Revised: 28 February 2018 / Accepted: 28 February 2018 / Published: 4 March 2018
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Abstract
Aims: Numerous measures exist that assess dimensions of spirituality and religiosity in health, theological and social settings. In this review, we aim to identify and evaluate measures assessing factors relating to spirituality and religiosity in clinical settings. Methods: A systematic literature search was [...] Read more.
Aims: Numerous measures exist that assess dimensions of spirituality and religiosity in health, theological and social settings. In this review, we aim to identify and evaluate measures assessing factors relating to spirituality and religiosity in clinical settings. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed, EMBASE and PsycINFO databases with search terms relating to spirituality, religiosity that also included well-being, needs, distress and beliefs used in self-reporting and clinician-administered measures. Only articles relating to the validation and subsequent administration of measures used in clinical settings were eligible for review. Results: Of 75 measures selected for initial screening, 25 had been validated and used in clinical settings and were reviewed for this study. Most measures were validated in oncological and palliative care settings where the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy Spiritual Well-being (FACIT-Sp12) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Spiritual, Religious and Personal Beliefs (WHOQOL-SRPB) were most validated and frequently used. Only six measures were found that assessed spiritual distress and/or the needs of which only two had been investigated more than twice. Two measures assessing spirituality and religious beliefs in healthcare staff were also reviewed. Conclusions: This review provides a current summary of measures evaluating several dimensions of spirituality and religiosity used in clinical settings. Currently there is a lack of reliable measures evaluating spiritual needs and distress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Measures of Spirituality/Religiosity (2018))
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