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Open AccessArticle

Factor Structure of the Spiritual Needs Questionnaire (SpNQ) in Persons with Chronic Diseases, Elderly and Healthy Individuals

1
Professorship Quality of Life, Spirituality and Coping, Faculty of Health, Witten/Herdecke University, 58313 Herdecke, Germany
2
IUNCTUS—Competence Center for Christian Spirituality, Philosophical-Theological Academy, 48149 Münster, Germany
3
Chair of Research Methodology and Statistics in Psychology Department of Psychology, Faculty of Health, University of Witten-Herdecke, 58455 Witten, Germany
4
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
5
Department of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
6
Caritas Science and Christian Social Work, Faculty of Theology, Albert-Ludwigs University, 79098 Freiburg, Germany
7
Munich School of Philosophy & Research Centre Spiritual Care, Technical University Munich, 80333 München, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Religions 2018, 9(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel9010013
Received: 18 December 2017 / Revised: 29 December 2017 / Accepted: 3 January 2018 / Published: 5 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Measures of Spirituality/Religiosity (2018))
The Spiritual Needs Questionnaire (SpNQ) is an established measure of psychosocial, existential and spiritual needs. Its 4-factor structure has been primarily validated in persons with chronic diseases, but until now has not been done in elderly and stressed healthy populations. Therefore, we tested the factor structure of the SpNQ in: (1) persons with chronic diseases (n = 627); (2) persons with chronic disease plus elderly (n = 940); (3) healthy persons (i.e., adults and elderly) (n = 1468); and (4) chronically ill, elderly, and healthy persons together (n = 2095). The suggested structure was then validated using structured equation modelling (SEM). The 4-factor structure of the 20-item SpNQ (SpNQ-20) was confirmed, differentiating Religious Needs, Existential Needs, Inner Peace Needs, and Giving/Generativity Needs. The psychometric properties of the measure indicated (CFI = 0.96, TLI = 0.95, RMSEA = 0.04 and SRMR = 0.03), with good reliability indices (Cronbach’s alpha varying from 0.71 to 0.81). This latest version of the SpNQ provides researchers with a reliable and valid instrument that can now be used in comparative studies. Cultural and religious differences can be addressed using their different language versions, assuming the SpNQ’s structure is maintained. View Full-Text
Keywords: spiritual needs; questionnaire; factorial structure; validation; structural equation modeling; patients; chronic disease; healthy persons; elderly spiritual needs; questionnaire; factorial structure; validation; structural equation modeling; patients; chronic disease; healthy persons; elderly
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Büssing, A.; Recchia, D.R.; Koenig, H.; Baumann, K.; Frick, E. Factor Structure of the Spiritual Needs Questionnaire (SpNQ) in Persons with Chronic Diseases, Elderly and Healthy Individuals. Religions 2018, 9, 13.

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