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Open AccessArticle

Translation, Cultural Adaptation of Spiritual Needs Questionnaire in Pakistan

by 1,* and 2
1
Faculty of Humanitites, COMSATS University, Park Road, Chak Shehzad, Islamabad 45550, Pakistan
2
Department of Humanities, COMSATS University, Park Road, Chak Shehzad, Islamabad 45550, Pakistan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Religions 2018, 9(5), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel9050163
Received: 1 March 2018 / Revised: 24 April 2018 / Accepted: 3 May 2018 / Published: 18 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Measures of Spirituality/Religiosity (2018))
The current study was conducted with the aim of translating, adapting, and exploring the factor structure of Spiritual Needs Questionnaire (SpNQ) in chronically ill patients. To meet this objective, the English-version SpNQ was translated into Urdu for Pakistan following standard methods of translation and adaptation. The Urdu version was then used to collect data from a sample of 150 chronically ill patients. The results showed that spiritual needs were significantly associated with each other. Compared to the previous English-version that proposed a four-factor solution, the exploratory factor analysis revealed a three-factor structure for the Urdu version with good internal consistency coefficients, indicating the new version to be a reliable measure. View Full-Text
Keywords: spiritual needs; translation; exploratory factor analysis; internal consistency spiritual needs; translation; exploratory factor analysis; internal consistency
MDPI and ACS Style

Kashif, A.; Kanwal, Z. Translation, Cultural Adaptation of Spiritual Needs Questionnaire in Pakistan. Religions 2018, 9, 163. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel9050163

AMA Style

Kashif A, Kanwal Z. Translation, Cultural Adaptation of Spiritual Needs Questionnaire in Pakistan. Religions. 2018; 9(5):163. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel9050163

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kashif, Aisha; Kanwal, Zaira. 2018. "Translation, Cultural Adaptation of Spiritual Needs Questionnaire in Pakistan" Religions 9, no. 5: 163. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel9050163

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