Special Issue "Waste Management Practices in Developing Countries"

A special issue of Recycling (ISSN 2313-4321).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 July 2018).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Linda Godfrey
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Manager Waste RDI Roadmap Implementation Unit and Principal Scientist, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), South Africa
2.Associate Professor, North-West University, South Africa
Interests: solid waste management in developing countries; green economy; circular economy; informal waste sector; waste information; waste R&D and innovation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

As outlined in the Global Waste Management Outlook (UNEP 2015), developing countries around the world face numerous challenges with respect to solid waste management. The recent UN Environment Geo-6 Regional Assessments and the Regional Waste Management Outlooks (currently under development) show that developing countries also face a number of common waste management challenges. These include, amongst others:

  • poor waste collection services
  • open/illegal/indiscriminate dumping of waste
  • disposal of waste to uncontrolled dumpsites, often with associated open burning
  • growing waste generation associated with urbanisation, economic development and changing consumption patterns
  • active informal waste pickers, involved in the collection of recyclables
  • the generation of proportionally high quantities of organic waste (posing environmental and technology challenges)
  • illegal trafficking and dumping of hazardous waste, often from developed countries
  • lack of appropriate, alternative waste treatment technologies, and
  • limited appetite for financing waste infrastructure development

Furthermore, reliable evidence from developing countries is often lacking and solid waste management research is limited.

This Special Issue aims to highlight, through original research and scientific evidence, the state of waste management in developing countries, and the opportunities to address these challenges. Researchers from academia and industry are invited to submit their research on the above, and other, topics of relevance to solid waste management in developing countries.

Prof. Dr. Linda Godfrey
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Recycling is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Developing countries
  • Solid waste management
  • Uncontrolled dumping
  • Waste collection
  • Waste recycling
  • Informal waste pickers
  • Appropriate technologies
  • Waste financing

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Cassava Waste Management and Biogas Generation Potential in Selected Local Government Areas in Ogun State, Nigeria
Recycling 2018, 3(4), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/recycling3040058 - 14 Dec 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Agricultural products such as cassava produce huge amounts of waste when processed into consumable goods. The waste generated is generally considered to contribute largely to environmental pollution. This study therefore investigates the waste management practice that is adopted by cassava processors in Ogun [...] Read more.
Agricultural products such as cassava produce huge amounts of waste when processed into consumable goods. The waste generated is generally considered to contribute largely to environmental pollution. This study therefore investigates the waste management practice that is adopted by cassava processors in Ogun State, Nigeria. Five local government areas (LGAs) dominant in processing cassava were selected for the study on the basis of spatial location distribution, landmass, and population. The survey involved the use of structured questionnaires administered to cassava processors of the selected LGAs. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software application and descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. Results of the analysis show that the majority (70%) of the cassava processors are females. Cassava peel constitutes 10% of the waste produced, of which 91% is heaped at refuse dumps in most communities. Results also reveal that 86.3% of cassava residues are used for animal feeds. Other findings show that the peels, when dried, are used as biofuel for cooking and there is a significant potential for biogas production. From the data captured from respondents during the study, most processors are willing to pay for an improved waste management system. The study therefore recommends the proper waste management of cassava waste to minimize environmental pollution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Waste Management Practices in Developing Countries)
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Open AccessArticle
A Biowaste Treatment Technology Assessment in Malawi
Recycling 2018, 3(4), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/recycling3040055 - 27 Nov 2018
Abstract
In the city of Blantyre, much of the generated municipal waste is biowaste, typically mixed with other waste fractions and disposed at the city’s dumpsite. Energy and nutrients could be recovered; however, with many biowaste options available, choosing what technology to implement is [...] Read more.
In the city of Blantyre, much of the generated municipal waste is biowaste, typically mixed with other waste fractions and disposed at the city’s dumpsite. Energy and nutrients could be recovered; however, with many biowaste options available, choosing what technology to implement is difficult. Selecting Organic Waste Treatment Technology (SOWATT) is a tool that supports decision making for selecting a biowaste treatment option considering social, technical, and environmental aspects. SOWATT was used to evaluate options for Blantyre’s Limbe Market. Anaerobic digestion, black soldier fly processing, slow pyrolysis, in-vessel composting, windrow composting, vermicomposting, and wet-biomass-briquetting were considered as options. The performance of each alternative was assessed based on five objectives by government, NGO, and market-based stakeholders in order to determine the most acceptable option for the greatest number of people: something that is rarely done, or if it is the preferences are not rigorously quantified (e.g., stakeholder workshops) and/or weighted against specific objectives. However, given the novelty of the ranking-solicitation process, some participants struggled with the variety of options presented, and further iterations of SOWATT will address this limitation. Ultimately, vermicomposting scored highest of all alternatives and could best achieve the five objectives as prioritized by the stakeholders when implemented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Waste Management Practices in Developing Countries)
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Open AccessArticle
A Voluntary Delivery Point in Reverse Supply Chain for Waste Cooking Oil: An Action Plan for Participation of a Public-School in the State of Rio De Janeiro, Brazil
Recycling 2018, 3(4), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/recycling3040048 - 10 Oct 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Improper disposal of waste cooking oil into sewer systems is harmful to the environment. Through the selective collection, this highly polluting residue can be handled in a less harmful way. The present study presents an action plan for a public school in the [...] Read more.
Improper disposal of waste cooking oil into sewer systems is harmful to the environment. Through the selective collection, this highly polluting residue can be handled in a less harmful way. The present study presents an action plan for a public school in the Region of Médio Paraíba Fluminense of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil to serve as a voluntary delivery point in a reverse logistics chain for waste cooking oil. A case study method with semi-structured interviews was carried out with agents who are part of the chain, including the government, commercial residue generators, collectors, the biodiesel production industry, the community, and teachers and students of the public school. Even though the reverse supply chain for waste cooking oil in the region lacks structure, this study showed that the actors were interested in correctly disposing of waste cooking oil through partnerships and agreements. In addition to the environmental benefits, environmental education actions in public schools, such as the one in this study, can help raise student awareness of issues relative to citizenship and social responsibility and promote employment and income opportunities for recyclable material collector cooperatives and industries that use waste cooking oil as raw material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Waste Management Practices in Developing Countries)
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Open AccessArticle
Sustainability Assessment of Waste Management System for Mexico City (Mexico)—Based on Analytic Hierarchy Process
Recycling 2018, 3(3), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/recycling3030045 - 12 Sep 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
Mexico City introduced the new legal waste norm Norma NADF-024-AMBT-2013 in July 2017. This report compares the proposed system with three alternatives: a baseline scenario with composting of organics, a scenario which involves anaerobic digestion of organics, and a mechanical–biological treatment scenario with [...] Read more.
Mexico City introduced the new legal waste norm Norma NADF-024-AMBT-2013 in July 2017. This report compares the proposed system with three alternatives: a baseline scenario with composting of organics, a scenario which involves anaerobic digestion of organics, and a mechanical–biological treatment scenario with no source separation. The comparison was done using an Analytic Hierarchy Process. Eleven different indicators were chosen for the evaluation: general waste performance indicators (landfill disposal and recycling rates), environmental indicators (greenhouse gas emissions, acid gas emissions, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), and mercury content in water and soil), economic indicators (investment and operation costs) ($ per Mg municipal solid waste (MSW)), and social indicators (jobs created and social acceptance). The scenario ranking based on pairwise comparison made by 5 experts from Mexico City showed that the most sustainable scenario, environmentally, socially, and economically, is that which corresponds to Norma NADF-024-AMBT-2013 with a ranking priority of 30.78%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Waste Management Practices in Developing Countries)
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Open AccessArticle
Recycling and Reuse Technology: Waste to Wealth Initiative in a Private Tertiary Institution, Nigeria
Recycling 2018, 3(3), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/recycling3030044 - 08 Sep 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
The practice of collecting, treating, and managing solid waste prior to disposal has become a necessity in developing and modern societies. However, over the years, most waste has become regarded as having second-rate value and could be recovered and reused for valuable goods. [...] Read more.
The practice of collecting, treating, and managing solid waste prior to disposal has become a necessity in developing and modern societies. However, over the years, most waste has become regarded as having second-rate value and could be recovered and reused for valuable goods. However, the construction costs for conventional Material Recovery Facility(s) (MRFs) have been a major barrier for its implementation, and these technologies also require considerable technical expertise, which is not often available in developing nations for the successful operation of the MRFs. Covenant University, a private mission institution undertaking a waste-to-wealth scheme, is focused on managing and processing used materials to create reusable products. Such materials included PET bottles, paper waste, food waste from cafeterias, plastic food packs, nylon, tin cans, and others. Specific areas from the university which were chosen for the survey included the residential areas for staff and students and the two cafeterias. The waste generated was characterized so as to quantify the amount of recyclable waste generated, and also to find out which was most-occurring. The survey involved the use of structured questionnaires, on-site observations, and measurements. The study revealed that the average amount of recyclable waste generated per day in the institution were 55.56% food waste, 13.46% PET bottles, 12.64% other plastic, 9.63% nylon, 4.68% tin cans, and 4.03% paper. The study establishes that adequate waste characterization is a requirement for effective integrated solid waste management, which would boost resource recovery, reuse, and recycling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Waste Management Practices in Developing Countries)
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Open AccessArticle
Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior to Recycling Behavior in South Africa
Recycling 2018, 3(3), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/recycling3030043 - 08 Sep 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
This paper reports on an application of the Theory of Planned Behavior to understand the relationships between the determinants (latent variables) comprising the Theory of Planned Behavior and, based on these findings, to guide decision-making related to household recycling in South Africa. Data [...] Read more.
This paper reports on an application of the Theory of Planned Behavior to understand the relationships between the determinants (latent variables) comprising the Theory of Planned Behavior and, based on these findings, to guide decision-making related to household recycling in South Africa. Data from a representative sample of respondents in large urban areas (n = 2004) was analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The results of the SEM analysis showed a good fit of the survey data to the Theory of Planned Behavior theoretical model. The Theory of Planned Behavior explains 26.4% of the variance in recycling behavior and 46.4% of the variance in intention to recycle. Only 3.3% of South Africans in large urban areas show dedicated recycling behavior, considering the recycling of five materials: paper, plastic, glass, metal, and compostable organic waste. The recycling frequency item in the recycling behavior construct is the most likely to be over-reported. South Africans lack sufficient knowledge, positive attitudes, social pressure, and perceived control that would encourage recycling behavior. Awareness drives containing moral values (injunctive norms) and information about available recycling schemes, combined with the provision of a curbside collection service for recyclables, have the greatest chance to positively influence recycling behavior amongst South Africa’s city dwellers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Waste Management Practices in Developing Countries)
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Open AccessArticle
Barriers to Household Waste Recycling: Empirical Evidence from South Africa
Recycling 2018, 3(3), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/recycling3030041 - 06 Sep 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
A small percentage of South Africans regularly recycle most of their recyclables, which was only 4% and 7.2% in 2010 and 2015, respectively. This empirical quantitative study, the first study on this scale in South Africa, aimed to ascertain the reasons why people [...] Read more.
A small percentage of South Africans regularly recycle most of their recyclables, which was only 4% and 7.2% in 2010 and 2015, respectively. This empirical quantitative study, the first study on this scale in South Africa, aimed to ascertain the reasons why people do not recycle. This paper reports the results from a survey conducted among a representative sample of 2004 respondents in eleven of South Africa’s large urban areas. Each respondent selected three main reasons why people do not recycle from ten possible options as well as the one main reason. The results show that (i) insufficient space, (ii) no time, (iii) dirty and untidiness associated with recycling, (iv) lack of recycling knowledge, and (v) inconvenient recycling facilities are perceived as the main reasons why people do not recycle. Non-recycling households (74% of the respondents) give high priority to time and knowledge. Low recyclers—those that sporadically recycle few items—and young South Africans give high priority to services (inconvenient facilities and no curbside collection). Lack of knowledge is an important factor for people from dense settlements as well as the unemployed looking for work. Improved recycling services such as regular curbside collections have the potential to overcome time and space barriers. Recycling services as well as recycling knowledge will have to improve to encourage the youth, the unemployed, and those living in informal areas to recycle and realize the opportunities locked in the waste sector. The perceptions of respondents from non-recycling households differ from those from recycling households. The larger representation of non-recyclers in developing countries emphasize the importance of understanding local evidence when comparing and implementing results from developed countries. The learning from this study could also assist other developing countries to encourage household participation in recycling initiatives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Waste Management Practices in Developing Countries)
Open AccessArticle
Public Policy for Solid Waste and the Organization of Waste Pickers: Potentials and Limitations to Promote Social Inclusion in Brazil
Recycling 2018, 3(3), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/recycling3030040 - 04 Sep 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
The management model for the National Solid Waste Policy to develop sustainable actions, proposes the social inclusion of recyclable waste pickers in the waste management system. Compliance with the law, the form of participation of the waste pickers, and incentive mechanisms are configured [...] Read more.
The management model for the National Solid Waste Policy to develop sustainable actions, proposes the social inclusion of recyclable waste pickers in the waste management system. Compliance with the law, the form of participation of the waste pickers, and incentive mechanisms are configured as a relationship open to analysis. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the potentials and limitations of a recycling cooperative, in terms of social technologies and inclusion, to encourage local development. The qualitative approach was aided by structured questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, and participant observation. The resulting evidence suggests that the organization of a cooperative, enabled access to information on the legislation of the National Solid Waste Policy. It showed the need to strengthen relationships with education institutions and public authorities. Despite the low levels of education of the members of the cooperative, projects and knowledge could be developed to aid social technologies. No technological innovations were observed, nor the production of alternative artifacts for recyclable materials. This weakens the cooperative in terms of articulation among peers, most notably the integration of the Catamare cooperative in the network of Cataparaná, to support the sale of material produced for industry. It may be concluded that joining the cooperative improved the social, economic, and political conditions of the members, but there were also structural limits to the recycling production chain that were not considered in the National Solid Waste Policy; and to a certain extent this weakens the development of sustainable actions. Furthermore, the organization of the cooperative hindered the development of social technologies and the social inclusion of the waste pickers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Waste Management Practices in Developing Countries)
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Open AccessArticle
Predictors of Recycling Intentions among the Youth: A Developing Country Perspective
Recycling 2018, 3(3), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/recycling3030038 - 16 Aug 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
India is currently facing a mounting challenge related to municipal waste management, due to an increasing urban population, and their high consumption lifestyles. India also has the world’s highest number of young people in the 10–24 years age group. The study applied the [...] Read more.
India is currently facing a mounting challenge related to municipal waste management, due to an increasing urban population, and their high consumption lifestyles. India also has the world’s highest number of young people in the 10–24 years age group. The study applied the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) model to predict school students’ recycling intentions in Delhi, the capital of India and one of the highest producers of municipal solid wastes in the country. Data were collected from a school in New Delhi and the sample size consisted of 272 students from 9th and 10th grades. The TPB model explained 56% of the variance in the students’ intentions to recycling. The predictor ‘subjective norm’ appeared to have the strongest impact on the students’ recycling intentions, followed by ‘attitude’ and ‘perceived behavioural control’. It indicated that social factors are driving the Indian youth’s recycling intentions. It is important that the policymakers promote recycling as a social trend in India and provide adequate facilities to the public so that they can participate in recycling activities without facing difficulties. Schools also have a role in increasing students’ awareness of recycling and motivating them to participate in household waste management practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Waste Management Practices in Developing Countries)
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Open AccessArticle
Release of Trace Elements from Bottom Ash from Hazardous Waste Incinerators
Recycling 2018, 3(3), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/recycling3030036 - 14 Aug 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Bottom ash is the major by-product of waste incineration and can contain trace elements (As, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Mo, Ni, Pb, and Zn) with concentrations up to thousands of mg·k−1. In this study, a combination of different extractions and leaching [...] Read more.
Bottom ash is the major by-product of waste incineration and can contain trace elements (As, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Mo, Ni, Pb, and Zn) with concentrations up to thousands of mg·k−1. In this study, a combination of different extractions and leaching tests (i.e., CH3COOH and ammonium-EDTA (Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) extractions and pHstat leaching tests) was used to investigate the potential release of trace elements from bottom ash samples derived from hazardous waste incineration plants. Although large variations have been found in the release of trace elements by different extractions, in general, the highest concentrations of most trace elements (except As and Mo) were released with the CH3COOH extraction, whereas the release of As and Mo was highest with the ammonium-EDTA extraction. Kinetics of element release upon acidification based on a pHstat leaching test at pH 4 could be related to the solid-phase speciation of some selected trace elements. The relatively high-potential mobility and elevated total concentrations of some trace elements imply a threat to the environment if these bottom ashes are not treated properly. Results of the present study may be useful to develop potential treatment strategies to remove contaminants and eventually recover metals from bottom ash. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Waste Management Practices in Developing Countries)
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Open AccessArticle
Study of Temperature Fields and Heavy Metal Content in the Ash and Flue Gas Produced by the Combustion of Briquettes Coming from Paper and Cardboard Waste
Recycling 2018, 3(3), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/recycling3030032 - 13 Jul 2018
Abstract
The present study focused on the combustion of four types of briquettes made from paper and cardboard waste produced in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso). Rotary and tubular kilns were used to study the combustion. The combustion mean temperatures, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) content [...] Read more.
The present study focused on the combustion of four types of briquettes made from paper and cardboard waste produced in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso). Rotary and tubular kilns were used to study the combustion. The combustion mean temperatures, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) content in the ash and heavy metals content in the ash and the flue gas were analyzed. The combustion steady phase mean temperatures ranged from 950 °C to 750 °C were obtained according to briquettes type. The temperature favored the transfer of the heavy metal in the flue gas comparatively to the ash mainly for Hg, Cd and Pb. The Pb, Hg and Mn content in flue gas and the ash are higher than their content in the parent wood used for paper production due to the additive during the manufacturing process. The results showed a high content of heavy metal in flue gas produced by combustion of briquette made with office paper and in the ash for the briquette made of corrugated cardboard. Furthermore, the low heavy metal contain in the ash allow their use for soil amendment. However, ash contained a low proportion of NPK (less than 2%) which does not allow their usage as fertilizer alone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Waste Management Practices in Developing Countries)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Public-Private Sector Involvement in Providing Efficient Solid Waste Management Services in Nigeria
Recycling 2019, 4(2), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/recycling4020019 - 27 Apr 2019
Abstract
This paper reviews the partnership between the public and the private sectors in providing efficient solid waste management (SWM) services. While the responsibility of providing SWM services lies with the public sector, the sector has not been able to meet the demand for [...] Read more.
This paper reviews the partnership between the public and the private sectors in providing efficient solid waste management (SWM) services. While the responsibility of providing SWM services lies with the public sector, the sector has not been able to meet the demand for efficient service delivery, especially in developing countries. In a bid to increase efficiency and lower costs incurred in rendering these services, the involvement of the private sector has been sought. With a focus on major Nigerian cities, partnerships between the local government and private operators in SWM have been analysed based on the level to which the partnership has improved the SWM services. This paper provides an understanding that the success of any public-private partnership relies on the extent to which all stakeholders perform their duties. If the public sector is slack in monitoring and supervising the activities of the private operators, the latter may focus on profit generation while neglecting efficient service delivery. Also, legislation is an important part of SWM. Without the right legislation and enforcement, waste generators will not be mandated to dispose their waste properly. The public sector as a facilitator is responsible for creating an environment for private operators to function, particularly through legislation, enforcement and public sensitization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Waste Management Practices in Developing Countries)
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Open AccessReview
Nomenclature for Healthcare Waste in the Healthcare Sector and Its Alignment with the Provisions Made by The World Health Organization’s Manual for Healthcare Waste Management: A Scoping Review
Recycling 2018, 3(4), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/recycling3040051 - 12 Nov 2018
Abstract
There is lack of uniform nomenclature for healthcare waste (HCW) globally, which could undermine efforts to develop and implement appropriate policies relating to healthcare waste management (HCWM) in developing countries. This study sought to understand the terminologies used to describe HCW, including their [...] Read more.
There is lack of uniform nomenclature for healthcare waste (HCW) globally, which could undermine efforts to develop and implement appropriate policies relating to healthcare waste management (HCWM) in developing countries. This study sought to understand the terminologies used to describe HCW, including their definitions, categories, classification, and how they align with those that are provided by the World Health Organization (WHO)’s global manual for HCWM from healthcare facilities. The study first identified terms from the existing literature; then, it conceptually mapped the literature, and identified gaps and areas of further inquiry. Six electronic databases—EBSCOhost, Open Access, ProQuest, PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were used to search for literature. A total of 112 studies were included in the study. Despite having various nomenclature for HCW globally that align with those provided by the WHO manual, the use of varying nomenclature could create confusion among healthcare workers in the quest of managing HCW properly, especially in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). Further studies must be conducted to determine how these terminologies are interpreted and implemented in practice by healthcare workers. This will help to understand how their implementation aligns with the recommendations provided by the WHO manual. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Waste Management Practices in Developing Countries)
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Open AccessReview
Microwave Technologies: An Emerging Tool for Inactivation of Biohazardous Material in Developing Countries
Recycling 2018, 3(3), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/recycling3030034 - 02 Aug 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Inappropriate treatment and disposal of waste containing biohazardous materials occurs especially in developing countries and can lead to adverse effects on public and occupational health and safety, as well as on the environment. For the treatment of biohazardous waste, microwave irradiation is an [...] Read more.
Inappropriate treatment and disposal of waste containing biohazardous materials occurs especially in developing countries and can lead to adverse effects on public and occupational health and safety, as well as on the environment. For the treatment of biohazardous waste, microwave irradiation is an emerging tool. It is a misbelief that microwave devices cannot be used for inactivation of solid biohazardous waste; however, the inactivation process, and especially the moisture content, has to be strictly controlled, particularly if water is required to be added to the process. Appropriate control allows also inactivation of waste containing inhomogeneous compositions of material with low fluid/moisture content. Where appropriate, especially where control of transport of waste cannot be guaranteed, the waste should be inactivated directly at the place of generation, preferably with a closed waste collection system. In waste containing sufficient moisture, there are direct useful applications, for example the treatment of sewage sludge or human feces. A number of examples of microwave applications with impacts for developing countries are presented in this review. In respect to energy costs and environmental aspects, microwave devices have clear advantages in comparison to autoclaves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Waste Management Practices in Developing Countries)
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