Special Issue "Quantum Beams Applying to Innovative Industrial Materials"

A special issue of Quantum Beam Science (ISSN 2412-382X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Masakazu Washio
Website
Guest Editor
Waseda University, Research Institute for Science and Engineering, 3-4-1, Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555, Japan
Interests: polymer chemistry; polymer structure; functional materials; radiation chemistry; materials informatics, EUV lithography
Dr. Yasunari Maekawa
Website SciProfiles
Guest Editor
National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology (QST), Department of Advanced Functional Materials Research, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292, Japan

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We plan to accept original and review articles in the fields of research and development of novel functional materials for industrial application using radiation crosslinking, curing, and grafting techniques and quantum beam equipment, such as electron and ion accelerators and gamma-ray radiation facilities. We welcome functional materials, devices, and equipment in the energy/environmental, life-science/medical, and electrical/electronic fields. The followings are some of examples for the above research fields:

Energy and environmental field: Secondary battery, solar cell, fuel cell membranes and catalysts, functional clothing fibers, precious metal absorbents, exhaust gas purification, etc.
Life-science and medical field: Sterilization, biocompatible materials, wound dressing, regenerative medicine, etc.
Printing and semiconductor fields: Tire and rubber, cable and wire, offset printing, coating, electron beam and extreme-ultraviolet lithography, ultra-fine processing, etc.

We expect to receive research articles for novel functional materials and equipment from not only preparation and processing, but also analysis and evaluation, such as structural analysis/characterization and functionality evaluations using a variety of quantum beams, including synchrotron EB, ion beams, synchrotron X-rays, and reactor/accelerator-based neutron. Furthermore, we welcome both very basic and scientific research articles, such as the initial physical process of irradiation and radiation chemistry for materials and devices, as well as contribution from industry in the field of mass production (scale up) processing and quantum beam equipment, which are used for the manufacture of advanced functional materials.

Dr. Masakazu Washio
Dr. Yasunari Maekawa
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Quantum Beam Science is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Electron Beam
  • Gamma-rays
  • Laser Beam
  • Irradiation
  • Radiation chemistry
  • Radiation processing
  • EUV lithography
  • Polymer functional materials
  • Organics In-organics Structure analysis

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Quantum Beams Applying to Innovative Industrial Materials
Quantum Beam Sci. 2020, 4(3), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/qubs4030027 - 27 Jul 2020
Abstract
Welcome to this Special Issue of Quantum Beam Science entitled “Quantum Beams Applying to Innovative Industrial Materials” [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quantum Beams Applying to Innovative Industrial Materials)

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Development of Hydrogen-Permselective Porous Membranes Using Radiation-Induced Graft Polymerization
Quantum Beam Sci. 2020, 4(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/qubs4020023 - 02 Jun 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Hydrogen-permselective membranes were developed using a radiation-induced grafting method. Styrene (St) and acrylic acid (AAc) monomers were introduced into porous polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes to obtain St- and AAc-grafted PVDF membranes with grafting degrees of 82% and 92%, respectively. The porosities of the [...] Read more.
Hydrogen-permselective membranes were developed using a radiation-induced grafting method. Styrene (St) and acrylic acid (AAc) monomers were introduced into porous polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes to obtain St- and AAc-grafted PVDF membranes with grafting degrees of 82% and 92%, respectively. The porosities of the grafted membranes were controlled in the range 30–40% by hot-press compression at 159 °C and 4 MPa. The hydrogen permeability was found to be of the order of 10−7 mol/m2∙s∙Pa, which was higher than the permeability for water vapor and nitrogen (oxygen model). The St- and AAc-grafted membranes exhibited 9.0 and 34 times higher permeability for H2 than for H2O and N2, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quantum Beams Applying to Innovative Industrial Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Lamellar Orientation of a Block Copolymer via an Electron-Beam Induced Polarity Switch in a Nitrophenyl Self-Assembled Monolayer or Si Etching Treatments
Quantum Beam Sci. 2020, 4(2), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/qubs4020019 - 27 Mar 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Directed self-assembly (DSA) was investigated on self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) chemically modified by electron beam (EB) irradiation, which is composed of 6-(4-nitrophenoxy) hexane-1-thiol (NPHT). Irradiating a NPHT by EB could successfully induce the orientation and selective patterning of block copolymer domains. We clarified that [...] Read more.
Directed self-assembly (DSA) was investigated on self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) chemically modified by electron beam (EB) irradiation, which is composed of 6-(4-nitrophenoxy) hexane-1-thiol (NPHT). Irradiating a NPHT by EB could successfully induce the orientation and selective patterning of block copolymer domains. We clarified that spatially-selective lamellar orientations of polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) could be achieved by a change of an underlying SAM. The change of an underlying SAM is composed of the transition of an NO2 group to an NH2 group, which is induced by EB. The modification in the polarity of different regions of the SAM with EB lithography controlled the lamellar orientation of PS-b-PMMA. The reduction of the NPHT SAM plays an important role in the orientation of block copolymer. This method might significantly simplify block copolymer DSA processes when it is compared to the conventional DSA process. By investigating the lamellae orientation with EB, it is clarified that only suitable annealing temperatures and irradiation doses lead to the vertical orientation. We also fabricated pre-patterned Si substrates by EB lithographic patterning and reactive ion etching (RIE). DSA onto such pre-patterned Si substrates was proven to be successful for subdivision of the lithographic patterns into line and space patterns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quantum Beams Applying to Innovative Industrial Materials)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
A Methodology for Reconstructing DSET Pulses from Heavy-Ion Broad-Beam Measurements
Quantum Beam Sci. 2020, 4(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/qubs4010015 - 04 Mar 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
A table-based method for the estimation of heavy-ion-induced Digital Single Event Transient (DSET) voltage pulse-width in a single logic cell has been developed. The estimation method is based on the actual heavy-ion-induced transient current data in a single metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) [...] Read more.
A table-based method for the estimation of heavy-ion-induced Digital Single Event Transient (DSET) voltage pulse-width in a single logic cell has been developed. The estimation method is based on the actual heavy-ion-induced transient current data in a single metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) used in the logic cell. The DSET pulse waveform in an inverter is obtained from which the pulse-width was estimated to be 420 ps. This DSET pulse-width value (420 ps) falls within the reasonable range of the DSET pulse-width distribution measured by the self-triggering flip-flop latch chain under heavy-ion irradiation test conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quantum Beams Applying to Innovative Industrial Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Novel Approaches for Intensifying Negative C60 Ion Beams Using Conventional Ion Sources Installed on a Tandem Accelerator
Quantum Beam Sci. 2020, 4(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/qubs4010013 - 02 Mar 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
We developed novel methods for producing negative C60 ion beams at the accelerator facility Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application (TIARA) to increase the current intensity of swift C60 ion beams accelerated to the MeV energy region using a tandem [...] Read more.
We developed novel methods for producing negative C60 ion beams at the accelerator facility Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application (TIARA) to increase the current intensity of swift C60 ion beams accelerated to the MeV energy region using a tandem accelerator. We produced negative C60 ion beams with an intensity of 1.3 µA, which is several tens of thousands of times greater than the intensity of beams produced using conventional methods based on the Cs sputtering process. These beams were obtained by temporarily adding an ionization function based on electron attachment to an existing ion source that is widely used in tandem accelerators. The high-intensity swift C60 ion beams can be made available relatively easily to institutes that have tandem accelerators and ion sources of the type used at TIARA because there is no need to change existing ion sources or install new ones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quantum Beams Applying to Innovative Industrial Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Formation of Fe Nanoparticles by Ion Implantation Technique for Catalytic Graphitization of a Phenolic Resin
Quantum Beam Sci. 2020, 4(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/qubs4010011 - 12 Feb 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Ion implantation technique was employed to introduce iron nanoparticles (Fe NPs) into a carbon precursor polymer with the aim of forming of a graphitic nanostructure through catalytic graphitization by the introduced Fe NPs. A phenolic resin was implanted by 100 keV Fe+ [...] Read more.
Ion implantation technique was employed to introduce iron nanoparticles (Fe NPs) into a carbon precursor polymer with the aim of forming of a graphitic nanostructure through catalytic graphitization by the introduced Fe NPs. A phenolic resin was implanted by 100 keV Fe+ ions with ion fluence of 1 × 1014–1 × 1016 ions/cm2 at ambient temperature under vacuum, and subsequently heat-treated at 800 °C in a nitrogen gas atmosphere. It was found that the particle size of Fe NPs could be controlled in the range of 5–30 nm by the Fe+ ion fluence. Additionally, it was found that a nanosized turbostratic graphite structure with mean interlayer distance of 0.3531 nm, which is consisted of shell-like carbon layers and intricately distorted carbon layers, was formed around the Fe NPs. The ion implantation technique is one of the advantageous ways to introduce size-controlled fine metal NPs which are effective for the formation of graphitic nanostructure from a carbon precursor polymer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quantum Beams Applying to Innovative Industrial Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Precipitation of Pt Nanoparticles inside Ion-Track-Etched Capillaries
Quantum Beam Sci. 2020, 4(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/qubs4010008 - 06 Feb 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Ion-track-etched capillaries containing nanoparticles of precious metals (e.g., Pt, Au, and Ag) can be applied to plasmonic absorber materials. The precipitation of homogeneous and highly dispersed precious metal nanoparticles inside capillaries represents a key process. Ion-track-etched capillaries (diameter: ~500 nm, length: ~25 μm) [...] Read more.
Ion-track-etched capillaries containing nanoparticles of precious metals (e.g., Pt, Au, and Ag) can be applied to plasmonic absorber materials. The precipitation of homogeneous and highly dispersed precious metal nanoparticles inside capillaries represents a key process. Ion-track-etched capillaries (diameter: ~500 nm, length: ~25 μm) were created in polyimide film by 350 MeV Xe irradiation (3 × 107 ions/cm2) and chemical etching (using a sodium hypochlorite solution). The films with capillaries were immersed in an aqueous solution containing 0.1–10 mmol/L H2PtCl6 and 0.5 vol% C2H5OH, and then irradiated with a 2 MeV electron beam up to a fluence of 1.4 × 1016 e/cm2. The Pt particles inside the capillaries were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The precipitation of Pt nanoparticles and isolated aggregates inside the capillaries was confirmed by TEM. The Pt nanoparticles tended to aggregate under increasing concentrations of H2PtCl6 in the aqueous solution; meanwhile, no changes in nanoparticle size were noted under increasing electron beam fluence. The results suggest that the proposed method can be used to form metal nanoparticles in nanosized capillaries with a high aspect ratio. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quantum Beams Applying to Innovative Industrial Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Efficient Adsorption Performance of Lithium Ion onto Cellulose Microspheres with Sulfonic Acid Groups
Quantum Beam Sci. 2020, 4(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/qubs4010006 - 03 Feb 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The separation of Li+ from an aqueous solution has received much attention in recent years because of its wide application in batteries and nuclear energy. A cellulose microsphere adsorbent with sulfonic acid groups (named as CGS) was successfully prepared by the pre-irradiation-induced [...] Read more.
The separation of Li+ from an aqueous solution has received much attention in recent years because of its wide application in batteries and nuclear energy. A cellulose microsphere adsorbent with sulfonic acid groups (named as CGS) was successfully prepared by the pre-irradiation-induced emulsion graft polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate onto cellulose microspheres through subsequent sulfonation and protonation. The adsorption performance of Li+ onto the CGS adsorbent is investigated in detail. The as-prepared CGS adsorbent exhibited fast adsorption kinetics and a high adsorption capacity of Li+ (16.0 mg/g) in a wide pH range from 4 to 10. The existence of K+ and Na+ was found to have the ability to affect the adsorption capacity of Li+ due to the cation-exchange adsorption mechanism, which was further confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The column adsorption experiment indicated that the adsorption capacity of CGS agreed well with the batch adsorption, and a fast desorption could be obtained in 10 min. It is expected that CGS has potential usage in the adsorption separation of Li+ from an aqueous solution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quantum Beams Applying to Innovative Industrial Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
A Compact Ultrafast Electron Diffractometer with Relativistic Femtosecond Electron Pulses
Quantum Beam Sci. 2020, 4(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/qubs4010004 - 20 Jan 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
We have developed a compact relativistic femtosecond electron diffractometer with a radio-frequency photocathode electron gun and an electron lens system. The electron gun generated 2.5-MeV-energy electron pulses with a duration of 55 ± 5 fs containing 6.3 × 104 electrons per pulse. [...] Read more.
We have developed a compact relativistic femtosecond electron diffractometer with a radio-frequency photocathode electron gun and an electron lens system. The electron gun generated 2.5-MeV-energy electron pulses with a duration of 55 ± 5 fs containing 6.3 × 104 electrons per pulse. Using these pulses, we successfully detected high-contrast electron diffraction images of single crystalline, polycrystalline, and amorphous materials. An excellent spatial resolution of diffraction images was obtained as 0.027 ± 0.001 Å−1. In the time-resolved electron diffraction measurement, a laser-excited ultrafast electronically driven phase transition in single-crystalline silicon was observed with a temporal resolution of 100 fs. The results demonstrate the advantages of the compact relativistic femtosecond electron diffractometer, including access to high-order Bragg reflections, single shot imaging with the relativistic femtosecond electron pulse, and the feasibility of time-resolved electron diffraction to study ultrafast structural dynamics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quantum Beams Applying to Innovative Industrial Materials)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Applications of Microbeams Produced by Tapered Glass Capillary Optics
Quantum Beam Sci. 2020, 4(2), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/qubs4020022 - 01 Jun 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Production of ion microbeams using tapered glass capillary optics was introduced more than 10 years ago. This technique has drawn attention in terms of both its peculiar transmission features and application to ion beam analysis. The transmission mechanism based on a self-organized charge-up [...] Read more.
Production of ion microbeams using tapered glass capillary optics was introduced more than 10 years ago. This technique has drawn attention in terms of both its peculiar transmission features and application to ion beam analysis. The transmission mechanism based on a self-organized charge-up process for keV-energy ions was observed for the first time in an experiment using a multitude of nanometer-sized capillaries in a polymer foil. The same mechanism can be seen for the transmission of keV ions through a single tapered glass capillary. The transmission experiments with keV ions showed a delayed transmission, focusing effects, guiding effects, and formation of microbeams. Experiments using MeV-energy ions always aim at applications of microbeam irradiation for material analysis, surface modification, cell surgery, and so on. In this article, the applications of MeV ion microbeams, including the fabrication method of the glass capillary, are reviewed, as well as the experimental and theoretical studies for the transmission mechanisms of keV/MeV ions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quantum Beams Applying to Innovative Industrial Materials)
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Open AccessReview
Recent Progress in Charged Polymer Chains Grafted by Radiation-Induced Graft Polymerization; Adsorption of Proteins and Immobilization of Inorganic Precipitates
Quantum Beam Sci. 2020, 4(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/qubs4020020 - 13 Apr 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Radiation-induced graft polymerization provides industrially superior functionalization schemes by selection of existing polymer substrates and design of graft chains. In this review, by a pre-irradiation method of the radiation-induced graft polymerization and subsequent chemical modifications, charged polymer chains grafted onto various components and [...] Read more.
Radiation-induced graft polymerization provides industrially superior functionalization schemes by selection of existing polymer substrates and design of graft chains. In this review, by a pre-irradiation method of the radiation-induced graft polymerization and subsequent chemical modifications, charged polymer chains grafted onto various components and shapes of the polymer substrates are described. The charged graft chains immobilized onto a porous hollow-fiber membrane captured proteins in multilayers via multipoint binding. A membrane onto which positively charged graft chains are immobilized, i.e., an anion-exchange porous hollow-fiber membrane, was commercialized in 2011 for the removal of undesirable proteins in the purification of pharmaceuticals. On the other hand, a membrane onto which negatively charged graft chains are immobilized, i.e., a cation-exchange porous hollow-fiber membrane, exhibited a low permeation flux for pure water; however, the prepermeation of an aqueous solution of magnesium chloride through the membrane restored the permeation flux because of ionic crosslinking of graft chains with magnesium ions. The charged graft chains provide a precipitation field for inorganic compounds such as insoluble cobalt ferrocyanide. The graft chains entangle or penetrate a precipitate owing to electrostatic interactions with the surface charge on the precipitate. Braids and wound filters composed of insoluble-cobalt-ferrocyanide-impregnated fibers are used for the removal of radiocesium from contaminated water at Tokyo Electric Power Co. (TEPCO) Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quantum Beams Applying to Innovative Industrial Materials)
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Open AccessReview
Modification of Lattice Structures and Mechanical Properties of Metallic Materials by Energetic Ion Irradiation and Subsequent Thermal Treatments
Quantum Beam Sci. 2020, 4(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/qubs4010017 - 16 Mar 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
When materials are irradiated with high-energy ions, their energies are transferred to electrons and atoms in materials, and the lattice structures of the materials are largely changed to metastable or non-thermal equilibrium states, causing the modification of several physical properties. There are two [...] Read more.
When materials are irradiated with high-energy ions, their energies are transferred to electrons and atoms in materials, and the lattice structures of the materials are largely changed to metastable or non-thermal equilibrium states, causing the modification of several physical properties. There are two processes for the material modification by ion irradiation; one is “the irradiation-enhanced process”, and the other is “the irradiation-induced process”. In this review, two kinds of recent results for the microstructural changes and the modifications of mechanical properties will be summarized: one is the hardness modification of dilute aluminum alloys, which is a result of the irradiation-enhanced process, and the other is the hardness modification of Ni-based intermetallic compounds as a result of the irradiation-induced process. The effect of the subsequent thermal treatment on the microstructures and the hardness for ion-irradiated dilute aluminum alloys is quite different from that for Ni-based intermetallic compounds. This result reflects the difference between the irradiation-enhanced process and the irradiation-induced process. Finally, possibilities of the ion irradiation and subsequent thermal treatment to industrial applications will also be discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quantum Beams Applying to Innovative Industrial Materials)
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Open AccessReview
Development of Advanced Biodevices Using Quantum Beam Microfabrication Technology
Quantum Beam Sci. 2020, 4(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/qubs4010014 - 02 Mar 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Biodevices with engineered micro- and nanostructures are strongly needed for advancements in medical technology such as regenerative medicine, drug discovery, diagnostic reagents, and drug delivery to secure high quality of life. The authors produced functional biocompatible plastics and hydrogels with physical and chemical [...] Read more.
Biodevices with engineered micro- and nanostructures are strongly needed for advancements in medical technology such as regenerative medicine, drug discovery, diagnostic reagents, and drug delivery to secure high quality of life. The authors produced functional biocompatible plastics and hydrogels with physical and chemical properties and surface microscopic shapes that can be freely controlled in three dimensions during the production process using the superior properties of quantum beams. Nanostructures on a biocompatible poly(L-lactic acid) surface were fabricated using a focused ion beam. Soft hydrogels based on polysaccharides were micro-fabricated using a focused proton beam. Gelatin hydrogels were fabricated using γ-rays and electron beam, and their microstructures and stiffnesses were controlled for biological applications. HeLa cells proliferated three-dimensionally on the radiation-crosslinked gelatin hydrogels and, furthermore, their shapes can be controlled by the micro-fabricated surface of the hydrogel. Long-lasting hydrophilic concave structures were fabricated on the surface of silicone by radiation-induced crosslinking and oxidation. The demonstrated advanced biodevices have potential applications in three-dimensional cell culture, gene expression control, stem cell differentiation induction/suppression, cell aggregation into arbitrary shapes, tissue culture, and individual diagnosis in the medical field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quantum Beams Applying to Innovative Industrial Materials)
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Open AccessReview
Recent Progress in X-ray and Neutron Phase Imaging with Gratings
Quantum Beam Sci. 2020, 4(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/qubs4010009 - 10 Feb 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Under the JST-ERATO project in progress to develop X-ray and neutron phase-imaging methods together, recent achievements have been selected and reviewed after describing the merit and the principle of the phase imaging method. For X-ray phase imaging, recent developments of four-dimensional phase tomography [...] Read more.
Under the JST-ERATO project in progress to develop X-ray and neutron phase-imaging methods together, recent achievements have been selected and reviewed after describing the merit and the principle of the phase imaging method. For X-ray phase imaging, recent developments of four-dimensional phase tomography and phase microscopy at SPring-8, Japan are mainly presented. For neutron phase imaging, an approach in combination with the time-of-flight method developed at J-PARC, Japan is described with the description of new Gd grating fabrication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quantum Beams Applying to Innovative Industrial Materials)
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Other

Open AccessPerspective
Interactions of Single Particle with Organic Matters: A Facile Bottom-Up Approach to Low Dimensional Nanostructures
Quantum Beam Sci. 2020, 4(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/qubs4010007 - 05 Feb 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
A particle induces a pack of chemical reactions in nanospace: chemical reactions confined into extremely small space provide an ultimate technique for the nanofabrication of organic matter with a variety of functions. Since the discovery of particle accelerators, an extremely high energy density [...] Read more.
A particle induces a pack of chemical reactions in nanospace: chemical reactions confined into extremely small space provide an ultimate technique for the nanofabrication of organic matter with a variety of functions. Since the discovery of particle accelerators, an extremely high energy density can be deposited, even by a single isolated particle with MeV-ordered kinetic energy. However, this was considered to cause severe damages to organic molecules due to its relatively small bond energies, and lack of ability to control the reactions precisely to form the structures while retaining physico-chemical molecular functionalities. Practically, the severely damaged area along a particle trajectory: a core of a particle track has been simply visualized for the detection/dosimetry of an incident particle to the matters, or been removed to lead nanopores and functionalized by refilling/grafting of fresh organic/inorganic materials. The use of intra-track reactions in the so-called “penumbra” or “halo” area of functional organic materials has been realized and provided us with novel and facile protocols to provide low dimensional nano-materials with perfect size controllability in the 21st century. These protocols are now referred to as single particle nanofabrication technique (SPNT) and/or single particle triggered linear polymerization technique (STLiP), paving the way towards a new approach for nanomaterials with desired functionalities from original molecules. Herein, we report on the extremely wide applicability of SPNT/STLiP protocols for the future development of materials for opto-electronic, catalytic, and biological applications among others. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quantum Beams Applying to Innovative Industrial Materials)
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