Feature Paper Collection in Contemporary Mental Health Illnesses and Brain Disorders (MHBD)

A special issue of Psych (ISSN 2624-8611). This special issue belongs to the section "Neuropsychology, Mental Health and Brain Disorders".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2023) | Viewed by 50375

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Department of Medicine and Optometry, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Linnaeus University, SE-35195 Växjö, Sweden
Interests: medical science; psychology; psychiatry; brain research; medical errors; medical and health care quality and patient safety

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue, "Feature Papers in Contemporary Mental Health Illnesses and Brain Disorders (MHBD)", aims to collect high-quality original articles, reviews, research notes, and short communications in the cutting-edge field of Contemporary Mental Health Illnesses and Brain Disorders. We encourage the Editorial Board Members of Psych to contribute feature papers reflecting the latest progress in their field of research or to invite relevant experts and colleagues to do so.

Prof. Dr. Mosad Zineldin
Guest Editor

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Published Papers (21 papers)

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46 pages, 506 KiB  
Article
Home First: Stability and Opportunity in Out-of-Home Care
by Steven P. Segal
Psych 2023, 5(1), 148-193; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych5010014 - 15 Feb 2023
Viewed by 2200
Abstract
In this report, the concept of “Home First” is introduced for those children who require long-term, non-kin placements. The term “Home First” connotes a placement engendering stability and continuity; this concept is introduced in conjunction with an evaluation of the historical, theoretical, and [...] Read more.
In this report, the concept of “Home First” is introduced for those children who require long-term, non-kin placements. The term “Home First” connotes a placement engendering stability and continuity; this concept is introduced in conjunction with an evaluation of the historical, theoretical, and empirical evidence surrounding different forms of out-of-home placement, including group-care placements and foster family care. In light of these observations and studies, this report will argue that stability is a major factor, perhaps a necessary if not a sufficient condition, in successful child development. It will argue for the initiation of a new focus on the creation of long-term positive and stable residential placements within the out-of-home care system and show that such placements can and have contributed to the development of healthy, happy, and successful adulthoods. This report offers a bio-psycho-social perspective on child development in out-of-home care. It provides a brief overview of the multiple bio-psycho-social theoretical perspectives that inform us on the necessary role of stability in growth and development and the contribution of instability to dysfunction. This report considers stability in out-of-home care in relation to its associated outcomes and those factors believed to enhance or detract from these outcomes. It reviews the history of substitutive care provision for children and youth and the role of the “stability objective” in that history. Finally, it looks at how child welfare system priorities have influenced stability, and it offers some suggestions for ensuring more stable growth and development in child placement provision. Full article
13 pages, 278 KiB  
Article
Burnout among Male Physicians: A Controlled Study on Pathological Personality Traits and Facets
by Sarah Andrea Holzgang, Aju Paul Pazhenkottil, Mary Princip, Bianca Auschra, Sebastian Euler and Roland von Känel
Psych 2023, 5(1), 1-13; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych5010001 - 22 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1343
Abstract
There is a high prevalence of job burnout in physicians, impacting both the professional and personal levels. This study aimed to investigate whether physicians with burnout show specific pathological traits and facets of their personalities compared with healthy controls, according to the dimensional [...] Read more.
There is a high prevalence of job burnout in physicians, impacting both the professional and personal levels. This study aimed to investigate whether physicians with burnout show specific pathological traits and facets of their personalities compared with healthy controls, according to the dimensional personality models in the ICD-11 and DSM-5. The role of perceived stress, anxiety, and depression were exploratively investigated regarding group differences. Male physicians (n = 60) were recruited into two groups (burnout vs. healthy). The Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 Brief Form Plus (PID5BF+) and the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) were applied. The Wilcoxon rank-sum test (WRS) showed group differences in five of the six traits and in six of the seventeen facets of the PID5BF+. Multiple binary logistic regression, controlling for age, showed that deceitfulness (3.34 (1.36–9.35), p = 0.013) and impulsivity (10.20 (2.4–61.46), p = 0.004) significantly predicted burnout. Moreover, the WRS showed significant group differences in perceived stress, depressive, and anxiety symptoms (all p < 0.00)]. The findings suggest a relationship between pathological personality facets and burnout in a sample of male physicians. In particular, the facets of deceitfulness and impulsivity appear to play an important role. Furthermore, burnout showed well-known associations with perceived stress, depressive, and anxiety symptoms. Full article
8 pages, 262 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the English Version of the Smartphone Application-Based Addiction Scale (SABAS) among an Adolescent Sample
by Andre Mason, Taylor Winter, Benjamin C. Riordan, Mark D. Griffiths and Damian Scarf
Psych 2022, 4(4), 961-968; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych4040071 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2259
Abstract
The increased use of smartphones among adolescents has highlighted the need to distinguish between problematic and non-problematic smartphone use. To date, there are a lack of short, easy-to-use, and valid psychometric tools to assess smartphone addiction. The primary aim of the present study [...] Read more.
The increased use of smartphones among adolescents has highlighted the need to distinguish between problematic and non-problematic smartphone use. To date, there are a lack of short, easy-to-use, and valid psychometric tools to assess smartphone addiction. The primary aim of the present study was to conduct the first psychometric assessment and evaluation of the Smartphone Application-Based Addiction Scale (SABAS) among English-speaking adolescents. Participants were 1175 students recruited from across four different high schools in New Zealand, of which 1031 completed all questions and were used in the final analyses. Several psychometric tests were conducted to ascertain reliability and validity. The SABAS had high internal consistency. Consistent with earlier validation studies, the SABAS displayed weak-moderate, positive relationships with symptoms of depression (PHQ-2), anxiety (GAD-2), and sleep quality. Overall, the SABAS is a sound, unidimensional scale with robust psychometric properties and is a short and easy-to-use measure that can be used confidently among English-speaking adolescents. Full article
18 pages, 340 KiB  
Article
Is Anxiety Sensitivity Associated with COVID-19 Related Distress and Adherence among Emerging Adults?
by Fakir Md. Yunus, Audrey Livet, Aram Mahmoud, Mackenzie Moore, Clayton B. Murphy, Raquel Nogueira-Arjona, Kara Thompson, Matthew T. Keough, Marvin D. Krank, Patricia J. Conrod and Sherry H. Stewart
Psych 2022, 4(4), 934-951; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych4040069 - 30 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1739
Abstract
We investigated whether anxiety sensitivity (AS) is associated with increased distress and adherence to public health guidelines during the COVID-19 pandemic among undergraduates, and whether increased distress mediates the relationship between AS and increased adherence. An online cross-sectional survey was conducted with 1318 [...] Read more.
We investigated whether anxiety sensitivity (AS) is associated with increased distress and adherence to public health guidelines during the COVID-19 pandemic among undergraduates, and whether increased distress mediates the relationship between AS and increased adherence. An online cross-sectional survey was conducted with 1318 first- and second-year undergraduates (mean age of 19.2 years; 79.5% females) from five Canadian universities. Relevant subscales of the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS) and the Big Five Inventory-10 (BFI-10) were used to assess AS and neuroticism. Three measures tapped distress: the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) for depressive symptoms, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) for anxiety symptoms, and the Brief COVID-19 Stress Scales (CSS-B) for COVID-19-specific distress. The COVID-19 Adherence scale (CAD) assessed adherence to COVID-19 containment measures. AS was significantly independently associated with higher general distress (both anxiety and depressive symptoms) and higher COVID-19-specific distress, after controlling age, sex, study site, and neuroticism. Moreover, AS indirectly predicted greater adherence to COVID-19 preventive measures through higher COVID-19-specific distress. Interventions targeting higher AS might be helpful for decreasing both general and COVID-19-specific distress, whereas interventions targeting lower AS might be helpful for increasing adherence to public health containment strategies, in undergraduates. Full article
12 pages, 457 KiB  
Article
The Relationship between Personality Traits and Compliance with the COVID-19 Preventive Measures in Kosovo
by Naim Telaku, Arian Musliu, Likane Cana, Hyemin Han and Lum Zharku
Psych 2022, 4(4), 856-867; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych4040063 - 02 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2470
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic urged systematic restrictive measures in order to avoid the spread of the virus. Different countries applied different restrictive measures; however, their efficacy was vastly dependent on the willingness of the people to comply with them. How people perceived the pandemic [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic urged systematic restrictive measures in order to avoid the spread of the virus. Different countries applied different restrictive measures; however, their efficacy was vastly dependent on the willingness of the people to comply with them. How people perceived the pandemic yielded different adaptive behavior to preventative measures. In this direction, individual characteristics (i.e., personality) seem very important. The current study aimed to map a relationship between personality structure as postulated within the five-factor model of personality with the tendency to comply with preventive measures, as mediated by perceived stress and concerns over coronavirus. In a sample of 3252 adults, we found that the traits of openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness directly and positively predicted compliance. However, concerns over coronavirus partially but positively mediated the relationship between agreeableness and conscientiousness on compliance. Perceived stress, on the other hand, was not a significant mediator, although it was significantly and positively predicted by neuroticism but negatively by extraversion. These findings showed that different personality traits have different direct effects on compliance with preventative measures. Full article
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13 pages, 282 KiB  
Article
Comparing the Mental Wellbeing and Quality of Working Life among Nurses and Social Care Workers in the UK and Japan in Older Adults’ Care Services during the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Ruth D. Neill, Junko Wake, Mie Ohwa, Jill Manthorpe, Patricia Gillen and Paula McFadden
Psych 2022, 4(4), 843-855; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych4040062 - 01 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2664
Abstract
This study explored and compared the psychological wellbeing, burnout, coping strategies and work-related quality of life amongst health and social care workers in older adults’ care homes and community settings during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom (UK) and Japan. A cross-sectional [...] Read more.
This study explored and compared the psychological wellbeing, burnout, coping strategies and work-related quality of life amongst health and social care workers in older adults’ care homes and community settings during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom (UK) and Japan. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted in the UK (May–July 2021) and a postal survey conducted in Japan (September–October 2021). Participants recruited were health and social care professionals within nursing, social care and social work occupations working in care home or community settings in the UK and Japan during the pandemic. Data were analysed using SPSS. 1327 respondents across the UK and Japan completed the survey. Respondents’ psychological wellbeing was significantly lower in Japan compared to the UK (p ≤ 0.001). UK respondents had significantly higher personal burnout (p < 0.05) and work-related burnout (p < 0.05) while those in Japan had significantly higher client-related burnout (p < 0.001). The novelty of this study relates to exploring mental wellbeing and quality of working life in two culturally contrasting countries. The overall psychological wellbeing and work-related quality of life of staff who work with older adults in the UK and Japan during the COVID-19 pandemic were lower than the population norm. Greater support and flexible working conditions for this workforce are needed to reduce burnout by improving wellbeing and work-related quality of life. Full article
10 pages, 512 KiB  
Article
More Relaxed but Less Helpful: The Relationship between Stress, Age, and Self-Reported Prosocial Behavior during the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Maggie W. Harris, Kaileigh A. Byrne, Cynthia L. S. Pury, Robin M. Kowalski and Yizhou Liu
Psych 2022, 4(4), 833-842; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych4040061 - 01 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1958
Abstract
(1) Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has collectively increased stress levels, with individuals making difficult choices between protecting themselves and helping others. Previous research has shown that people engage in more prosocial, or helping, behavior as they age and in moments of acute stress, [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has collectively increased stress levels, with individuals making difficult choices between protecting themselves and helping others. Previous research has shown that people engage in more prosocial, or helping, behavior as they age and in moments of acute stress, but it is unclear how c stress has influenced perceived changes in prosocial behavior in the later stages of the pandemic and whether this varies across the lifespan. (2) Methods: The current study explored how perceived stress, age, and gender impact participants’ reports of perceived changes in their prosocial behavior due to the pandemic using survey questions administered through an online subject pool (n = 201). (3) Results: Hierarchical linear regression results revealed results indicated a significant main effect of perceived stress (β = −0.166, p = 0.021) and age (β = −0.217, p = 0.003) but not gender (β = −0.062, p = 0.370) on perceptions of how one’s prosocial behavior was affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. (4) Conclusions: Study findings showed that older adults and individuals with higher levels of perceived stress reported a decrease in their prosocial behavior, which supported our hypotheses. These findings provide unique insight into the influence of a long-term health crisis on different groups of people’s participation in prosocial behavior, with implications for mental health and community engagement during a pandemic. Full article
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14 pages, 614 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Personality Traits on Specific Coping Styles and the Development of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms following Acute Coronary Syndrome: A Cluster Analytic Approach
by Mary Princip, Roland von Känel, Claudia Zuccarella-Hackl, Rebecca E. Meister-Langraf, Hansjörg Znoj, Jean-Paul Schmid, Jürgen Barth, Ulrich Schnyder, Lucia Jimenez-Gonzalo and Katharina Ledermann
Psych 2022, 4(4), 774-787; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych4040057 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1741
Abstract
Objective: A growing body of literature suggests a relationship between personality traits and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms after acute coronary events (ACS). However, specific personality profiles have not been examined in patients after ACS. Thus, the aim of the present study was [...] Read more.
Objective: A growing body of literature suggests a relationship between personality traits and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms after acute coronary events (ACS). However, specific personality profiles have not been examined in patients after ACS. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine personality profiles created from response patterns on the resilience, alexithymia and type D personality (TDP) scales and to examine associations with PTSD symptoms, symptom clusters and coping styles among a sample of ACS patients. Methods: A cluster analytic approach was utilized to identify risk profiles based on personality variables and a series of ANOVAs in 154 patients. Post hoc analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between each profile, and interviewer-rated PTSD symptoms and different coping styles. Results: The analyses indicated a three-cluster solution, including low- (high resilience, low alexithymia and non-TDP), medium- (average resilience, average alexithymia and non-TDP) and high-risk (low resilience, high alexithymia and TDP) profiles. Clusters differed significantly in all three coping subscales. At 3-month follow up, clusters differed significantly in all three PTSD subscales (re-experiencing, avoidance and hyperarousal). At 12-month follow up, the differences remained significant for the hyperarousal subscale only. Conclusions: The personality profiles identified and the respective associations to PTSD symptoms and coping strategies highlight the potential impact for the psychological adjustment following ACS. Full article
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14 pages, 1779 KiB  
Article
Geelong Cyber Cats: Evaluation of an Intervention to Prevent Cyberbullying Behaviours
by Bianca Klettke, Elizabeth Mary Clancy, Dominika Howard and Keith Gregory
Psych 2022, 4(4), 733-746; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych4040054 - 04 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1411
Abstract
Cyberbullying behaviours can result in serious adverse mental health outcomes. We report evaluation findings from the Geelong Cyber Cats, a one-day community-based cyberbullying prevention intervention targeting Year 7 adolescents. The longitudinal, mixed-methods evaluation involved students completing surveys at baseline (N = 309), intervention [...] Read more.
Cyberbullying behaviours can result in serious adverse mental health outcomes. We report evaluation findings from the Geelong Cyber Cats, a one-day community-based cyberbullying prevention intervention targeting Year 7 adolescents. The longitudinal, mixed-methods evaluation involved students completing surveys at baseline (N = 309), intervention completion (N = 316), and 3-month follow-up (N = 154). Controls (N = 58) who had not attended the intervention completed follow-up surveys. We measured behaviours, attitudes, and intentions regarding cyberbullying, and mental health. Positive attitudes towards cyberbullying significantly reduced from baseline to post intervention, with some rebound at follow-up. There was a significant reduction in experiences of cyberbullying victimisation, perpetration, and witnessing for participants at follow-up. Mental health improved from baseline to follow-up although not significantly. Confidence in responding to cyberbullying significantly improved post-intervention, with a loss of some gains at follow-up but remaining improvement compared to baseline. There were significant increases in post- intervention intentions, including being kind, careful and safe, and disengagement from problematic applications or social media platforms. Participants were positive about the intervention impact on understanding cyberbullying, and increased motivation and confidence to respond. Content about responding to cyberbullying, and helping others, was perceived the most helpful. The intervention demonstrates benefits to cyberbullying attitudes, behaviours and mental health. Full article
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16 pages, 355 KiB  
Article
Cognitive Subjective Well-Being during the Second Lockdown in Portugal: The Predictive Role of Sociodemographic and Psychopathological Dimensions
by Maria Manuela Peixoto, Mariana Sousa, Sara Cruz and Olga Cunha
Psych 2022, 4(4), 717-732; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych4040053 - 03 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1528
Abstract
The negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on well-being has been widely described. However, studies on how country-specific characteristics influenced the impacts of the pandemic experience on cognitive subjective well-being are still needed. This study examined the predictive role of sociodemographic characteristics and [...] Read more.
The negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on well-being has been widely described. However, studies on how country-specific characteristics influenced the impacts of the pandemic experience on cognitive subjective well-being are still needed. This study examined the predictive role of sociodemographic characteristics and psychopathological dimensions on cognitive subjective well-being during the second lockdown period in Portugal. An online sample of 332 adults completed a series of self-report instruments between April and July 2021, covering the period from 15 January to 15 March 2021. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that being married or living in a civil union, not having/or living with children, not living with/or caring for an elderly person, and not being infected with the SARS-CoV-2 were significant and positive predictors of higher cognitive subjective well-being. In contrast, a non-heterosexual sexual orientation; isolation due to COVID-19; and higher levels of depression, anxiety, and stress, along with repetitive negative thinking, were significant predictors of negative cognitive subjective well-being during the second lockdown in Portugal. The importance of developing promotional, preventive, and remedial interventions focused on specific country and individual characteristics for poor cognitive subjective well-being for promoting mental health and well-being during this critical period and similar future crisis events is discussed. Full article
11 pages, 910 KiB  
Article
Risk Factors and Changes in Depression and Anxiety over Time in New Zealand during COVID-19: A Longitudinal Cohort Study
by Mikaela Law, Norina Gasteiger, Kavita Vedhara, Adam Massey, Ru Jia, Kieran Ayling, Trudie Chalder, Carol Coupland and Elizabeth Broadbent
Psych 2022, 4(4), 706-716; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych4040052 - 03 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2557
Abstract
This longitudinal study investigated changes in and risk factors for anxiety and depression during the COVID-19 pandemic in a New Zealand cohort. Online surveys were distributed to 681 participants at three time-points: May 2020 (Time 1), August–September 2020 (Time 2), and March–April 2021 [...] Read more.
This longitudinal study investigated changes in and risk factors for anxiety and depression during the COVID-19 pandemic in a New Zealand cohort. Online surveys were distributed to 681 participants at three time-points: May 2020 (Time 1), August–September 2020 (Time 2), and March–April 2021 (Time 3). Participants completed measures of anxiety and depression, alongside measures of possible risk/protective factors. A total of 261 participants completed all three surveys and were included in analyses. Depression and anxiety reduced over time; however, levels were still significantly higher than pre-pandemic norms. Being younger, having a prior mental health disorder, experiencing negative life events due to COVID-19, and being a pet owner were risk factors for poorer depression and anxiety, whereas having higher positive mood was protective. This study demonstrates persisting negative effects of the pandemic on anxiety and depression in a context of low transmission and highlights the importance of providing psychological help to those most at risk. Full article
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11 pages, 441 KiB  
Article
Study of Impact of COVID-19 on Mental Health and Wellbeing of Staff Working in a Forensic Mental Health Service
by Heather Baker, Sikander Singh Gill, Anne Aboaja, Swapan Kole and Amanda E. Perry
Psych 2022, 4(4), 695-705; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych4040051 - 03 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1478
Abstract
This study explored the impact of COVID-19 on the mental health and wellbeing and trust support of Tees Esk and Wear Valleys (TEWV) NHS forensic staff using an online google survey during the second wave of the pandemic. Survey respondents were a voluntary [...] Read more.
This study explored the impact of COVID-19 on the mental health and wellbeing and trust support of Tees Esk and Wear Valleys (TEWV) NHS forensic staff using an online google survey during the second wave of the pandemic. Survey respondents were a voluntary cross-sectional sample of 246 TEWV staff working in the forensic directorate staff; this included males (n = 60, 24.5%); with the majority of staff aged between 36–50 years (n = 99, 40.2%) and 50 years or older (n = 80, 32.5%). The results showed that staff working at home and on the front line were both affected by depression, stress and anxiety. Those most at risk were younger staff members. We concluded that the mental health and well-being of staff working should be a priority. It is important to consider targeted support that should be aimed at younger staff members to provide an open culture enabling for those who want support to have readily available signposted resources. Staff working in different settings may have experienced a different impact of COVID-19 on their mental health and wellbeing, and whilst some interventions might be successfully applied across the service, it would be beneficial to understand the unique needs of staff working in specific settings. Full article
10 pages, 242 KiB  
Article
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among Funeral Directors after the First Wave of COVID-19 in Belgium
by Roel Van Overmeire, Lara Vesentini and Johan Bilsen
Psych 2022, 4(3), 605-614; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych4030046 - 15 Sep 2022
Viewed by 2036
Abstract
(1) Background: Studies have shown that healthcare workers have an increased chance of developing post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, funeral directors have not yet been studied, despite facing many of the same possible causes of PTSS as healthcare workers. [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Studies have shown that healthcare workers have an increased chance of developing post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, funeral directors have not yet been studied, despite facing many of the same possible causes of PTSS as healthcare workers. (2) Methods: An online survey was spread to directors of funeral home organization DELA in Belgium (n = 287). The validated scale PCL-5 was used to assess PTSS. Additionally, fear of being infected, fear of infecting family or friends and demographic factors (age, gender, living situations, work experience) were asked. Respondents were asked to indicate if they thought of the COVID-19 period when completing the PCL-5. In addition, with a self-made question, respondents were also asked to compare their current stress-levels with those before COVID-19. (3) Results: 107 respondents were included in the study. Thirteen respondents were above the threshold for possible PTSD-diagnosis, but only four fulfilled the criteria of completing the PCL-5 with COVID-19 in mind. PTSS-scores were significantly associated with a fear of being infected (p = 0.006). Almost a majority (49.5%) of the respondents felt more stress during the period of completing the survey than the period before COVID-19, though 33.6% felt no change. (4) Conclusions: Though the PTSS-symptom rates were lower than for healthcare workers, this study does show that there should be attention for the mental health of funeral directors in the aftermath of COVID-19. Full article
16 pages, 887 KiB  
Article
Meaning-Making among Drug Addicts during Drug Addiction Recovery from the Perspective of the Meaning-Making Model
by Tri Iswardani, Zahrasari Lukita Dewi, Winarini Wilman Mansoer and Irwanto Irwanto
Psych 2022, 4(3), 589-604; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych4030045 - 13 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3049
Abstract
(1) Background: This study aimed to explore the dynamics of meaning-making among drug addicts during drug addiction recovery by using a case study approach. The participants were five male recovering addicts, aged 26 to 49 years, who had been abstinent for 4 to [...] Read more.
(1) Background: This study aimed to explore the dynamics of meaning-making among drug addicts during drug addiction recovery by using a case study approach. The participants were five male recovering addicts, aged 26 to 49 years, who had been abstinent for 4 to 17 years; (2) Methods: Data collection consisted of in-depth interviews. Data were analyzed using the Adverse Childhood Experience (ACE) Questionnaire, Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ), Beck’s Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), and recovery stage criteria based on the Developmental Model of Recovery (DMR). (3) Results: The results showed that meaning making was an ongoing process before and during the use of drugs and recovery. Drug use was a coping strategy to overcome distress caused by ACE, which was perceived as a stressful event and brought up an implicit meaning of ACE. This initial meaning played an essential role in initiating the dynamics of the subsequent meaning-making process. A similar mechanism using non-constructive adaptation processes other negative impacts of drug use. They created more distress and developed false-positive beliefs, which resulted in continued drug use. Symptoms of depression occur during drug use, which drags the addict to the lowest point in life (hitting rock bottom), and addicts perceive it as a turning point for seeking treatment and attaining recovery. In complete recovery, reappraising the meaning of the stressors experienced throughout life makes new constructive meaning. Creating a constructive meaning of earliest traumatic experiences played an important role in preventing relapse and ensuring the success of recovery from drug addiction. Full article
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14 pages, 4861 KiB  
Article
“We Are Running Out of Time”: Temporal Orientation and Information Seeking as Explanatory Factors of Climate Anxiety among Young People
by Kévin Nadarajah, Jean-Charles David, Laurent Brun, Stéphanie Bordel, Lisa Moyon, David Le Foll, Sylvain Delouvée and Alain Somat
Psych 2022, 4(3), 560-573; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych4030043 - 06 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2885
Abstract
(1) Background: Climate change is a major threat to human health and new research is highlighting its effects on physical health. However, there is still little research on the psychological effects, particularly on young people, who seem to be disproportionately affected. (2) Objectives: [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Climate change is a major threat to human health and new research is highlighting its effects on physical health. However, there is still little research on the psychological effects, particularly on young people, who seem to be disproportionately affected. (2) Objectives: In this context, we conducted a study focusing on the young adult population to identify psychosocial and behavioral factors that may modulate the intensity of this anxiety. (3) Method: A cross-sectional study by questionnaire was carried out on a sample of 369 young French adults. Data were analyzed via structural equation modelling. (4) Results: The main results suggest that: (1) CFC and information seeking predict climate anxiety, which in turn predicts the emotional consequences of exposure to information about the negative consequences of climate change; (2) information seeking moderates the effects of CFC on climate anxiety. (5) Conclusions: This study highlights both the role of temporal orientation and information seeking on the climate anxiety experienced by young adults. These results provide an interesting lever for health professionals to work with this population who may be more vulnerable to climate anxiety than others. Full article
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11 pages, 270 KiB  
Article
The Relationship between Quality of Life and Physical Exercise with Depression and Perceived Stress during the Second COVID-19 Lockdown in Greece
by Pavlos Kolias and Ourania Pliafa
Psych 2022, 4(3), 549-559; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych4030042 - 05 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1647
Abstract
Anxiety, depression, and psychological stress were the most common mental health issues that surfaced during and after the COVID-19 lockdowns. The aim of this paper is to investigate the psychological impact of the second COVID-19 lockdown on the Greek population. A cross-sectional anonymous [...] Read more.
Anxiety, depression, and psychological stress were the most common mental health issues that surfaced during and after the COVID-19 lockdowns. The aim of this paper is to investigate the psychological impact of the second COVID-19 lockdown on the Greek population. A cross-sectional anonymous study was designed, which measured perceived stress, depression symptoms, physical activity, and quality of life. The sample was collected during the period of the second lockdown and consisted of 330 adult individuals (219 females and 111 males) with a mean age of 34.3 years, who were located in Greece. Four scales were applied to measure the constructs, the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14), Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI), Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF), and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). The main findings suggest that depression and perceived stress were more prevalent during the second lockdown compared to previous time periods. The psychological impact was elevated for women and younger individuals. Unemployed people dealt with more stress compared to full-time working individuals. The two quality-of-life domains, physical and psychological health, were negatively correlated with perceived stress and depression. We suggest targeted interventions in order to support the most vulnerable groups and enhance their well-being. Full article
12 pages, 422 KiB  
Article
Examining the Experiences of US Dentists during the First Wave of the COVID-19 Pandemic: Implications for Policy and Practice
by Jordan R. Simonovich and Shannon D. Simonovich
Psych 2022, 4(3), 375-386; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych4030031 - 07 Jul 2022
Viewed by 1371
Abstract
(1) Background: As an emerging topic, no known study to date has described interviews with US dentists regarding their experiences during the beginning of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with regard to office closures and their implications for both the dentists and the [...] Read more.
(1) Background: As an emerging topic, no known study to date has described interviews with US dentists regarding their experiences during the beginning of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with regard to office closures and their implications for both the dentists and the patients they serve, especially among dentists in their first decade of work and new to practice ownership roles. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to describe the experiences of early-career US dentists during the initial stages of the COVID-19 pandemic. (2) Methods: This study utilized a semi-structured interview protocol and employed qualitative descriptive methodology. SPSS 26 and NVivo12 were utilized for data analysis. (3) Results: In April 2020, a total of 12 early-career US dentists completed the interview study protocol. The study sample majority was male (67%), with a mean age of 32 (range = 30–37) and an average of 6 years of dental practice experience (range = 5–10). Participants completed phone interviews with the research team. In summary, three organizing themes emerged: (1) Dentistry during COVID-19: Experiences during the first wave, (2) Long-term concerns regarding COVID-19, and (3) COVID-19 professional communication and dental research. (4) Conclusions: The chief findings of this study are dentists’ long-term concerns for the profession post-COVID-19. Research must still determine how to best prepare for future infectious disease outbreaks with regards to safeguarding the health of the dental workforce and maintaining the oral health of patient populations. Full article
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Review

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15 pages, 431 KiB  
Review
ADHD Assessment Recommendations for Children in Practice Guidelines: A Systematic Review
by Caroline Power, Nerelie C. Freeman and Shane Costello
Psych 2022, 4(4), 882-896; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych4040065 - 08 Nov 2022
Viewed by 4186
Abstract
Objective: The current review sought to synthesise and evaluate ADHD guidelines to identify recommended procedures for co-occurring and differential diagnosis for ADHD assessments of school aged children. Method: A systematic literature review was conducted by searching PsycInfo, Medline, CINAHL and Web of Science. [...] Read more.
Objective: The current review sought to synthesise and evaluate ADHD guidelines to identify recommended procedures for co-occurring and differential diagnosis for ADHD assessments of school aged children. Method: A systematic literature review was conducted by searching PsycInfo, Medline, CINAHL and Web of Science. A grey literature search was also performed. ADHD guidelines that described a diagnostic process for school aged children, published between 2013 and 2021, by Government organisations or a national professional association, and written in English were included. Results: Each of the six included guidelines were produced by panels consisting primarily of paediatricians and psychiatrists. All guidelines recommended assessing for co-occurring conditions. Five of the guidelines recommended consideration of a differential diagnosis. Five guidelines also recommended referral to a specialist, mental health clinician or psychologist when diagnostic uncertainty exists. Conclusions: Guidelines to assist in the assessment of referred cases were not discovered. There is a need for recommendations to be developed to supplement existing guidelines to aid psychologists and mental health clinicians in a systematic ADHD assessment process, particularly in complex cases. Full article
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30 pages, 1505 KiB  
Review
Challenges and Implications of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Mental Health: A Systematic Review
by Abdullahi Rabiu Abubakar, Maryam Abba Tor, Joyce Ogidigo, Ibrahim Haruna Sani, Adekunle Babajide Rowaiye, Mansur Aliyu Ramalan, Sani Yahaya Najib, Ahmed Danbala, Fatima Adamu, Adnan Abdullah, Mohammed Irfan, Santosh Kumar, Ayukafangha Etando, Sayeeda Rahman, Susmita Sinha and Mainul Haque
Psych 2022, 4(3), 435-464; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych4030035 - 01 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3240
Abstract
The measures put in place to contain the rapid spread of COVID-19 infection, such as quarantine, self-isolation, and lockdown, were supportive but have significantly affected the mental wellbeing of individuals. The primary goal of this study was to review the impact of COVID-19 [...] Read more.
The measures put in place to contain the rapid spread of COVID-19 infection, such as quarantine, self-isolation, and lockdown, were supportive but have significantly affected the mental wellbeing of individuals. The primary goal of this study was to review the impact of COVID-19 on mental health. An intensive literature search was conducted using PsycINFO, PsyciatryOnline, PubMed, and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases. Articles published between January 2020 and June 2022 were retrieved and appraised. Reviews and retrospective studies were excluded. One hundred and twenty-two (122) relevant articles that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were finally selected. A high prevalence of anxiety, depression, insomnia, and post-traumatic stress disorders was reported. Alcohol and substance abuse, domestic violence, stigmatization, and suicidal tendencies have all been identified as direct consequences of lockdown. The eminent risk factors for mental health disorders identified during COVID-19 include fear of infection, history of mental illness, poor financial status, female gender, and alcohol drinking. The protective factors for mental health include higher income levels, public awareness, psychological counseling, social and government support. Overall, the COVID-19 pandemic has caused a number of mental disorders in addition to economic hardship. This strongly suggests the need to monitor the long-term impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health. Full article
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Other

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7 pages, 217 KiB  
Brief Report
Depression, Anxiety, and Traumatic Stress Symptoms among Emergency Service Workers in Finland after a Post-Critical Incident Seminar—A Pilot Study
by Sanna Korpela and Hilla Nordquist
Psych 2023, 5(1), 53-59; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych5010006 - 27 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1143
Abstract
Emergency service workers encounter potentially traumatic incidents as part of their normal work duties. They are, therefore, at an increased risk of symptoms of poor mental health. In the past, post-critical incident seminars (PCIS) were offered to police officers in Finland who had [...] Read more.
Emergency service workers encounter potentially traumatic incidents as part of their normal work duties. They are, therefore, at an increased risk of symptoms of poor mental health. In the past, post-critical incident seminars (PCIS) were offered to police officers in Finland who had suffered mental health consequences from a critical incident at work. Recently, the same seminar has been offered to emergency service workers in Finland. In this pilot study, the effects of PCIS on the symptoms of depression, anxiety, and traumatic stress are tentatively mapped using self-assessment inventories. Fifteen emergency service workers who attended a PCIS in April 2021 filled out the inventories at the beginning of the PCIS and one, three, and six months after the PCIS. All symptoms measured in this study (depression, anxiety, and traumatic stress) decreased after the PCIS, but the clearest decrease was observed in traumatic stress symptoms. Future similar research should use a control group and a larger sample, track mental health symptom scores over a longer period, and compare qualitative and quantitative data to contribute to a richer understanding of this issue. Full article
7 pages, 195 KiB  
Case Report
A Case of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Triggered by the Pandemic
by Ana Costa, Sabrina Jesus, Luís Simões, Mónica Almeida and João Alcafache
Psych 2021, 3(4), 890-896; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych3040055 - 14 Dec 2021
Viewed by 5161
Abstract
Background: The pandemic caused by the sars-cov2 coronavirus can be considered the biggest international public health crisis. Outbreaks of emerging diseases can trigger fear reactions. Strict adherence to the strategies can cause harmful consequences, particularly for people with pathology on the spectrum of [...] Read more.
Background: The pandemic caused by the sars-cov2 coronavirus can be considered the biggest international public health crisis. Outbreaks of emerging diseases can trigger fear reactions. Strict adherence to the strategies can cause harmful consequences, particularly for people with pathology on the spectrum of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Case presentation: We describe the clinical case of a woman, with a history of anxiety disorder, who develops obsessive-compulsive symptoms, she started cognitive behavioral therapy and pharmacological therapy, with appropriate follow-up. Conclusions: The intense focus on the risk of contamination and the adoption of new hygienic behaviors can be internalized as normative and become an enhancing trigger for obsessive thinking and compulsive behaviors. It is an important focus on prevention, early intervention and adequate follow-up, through measures to promote mental health. Full article
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