Special Issue "Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering"

A special issue of Processes (ISSN 2227-9717). This special issue belongs to the section "Biological Processes and Systems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Xudong Cao
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Engineering, University of Ottawa, 770 King Edward Ave., Ottawa ON Canada, K1N 6N5
Interests: biomaterials; drug delivery; microfluidic devices; biosensors
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Eve C. Tsai
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Associate Scientist, Neuroscience Program, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, 1053 Carling Avenue, Ottawa ON, Canada, K1Y 4E9
Interests: neurosurgery; biomaterials; drug delivery; MR imaging; translational medicine; stem cell therapy

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Recently, the emerging field of biomaterials has received a significant amount of attention that has boosted research and development. As a result, many different biomaterials, both naturally occurring and synthetic, have been prepared and manufactured for various potential tissue engineering applications, particularly as tissue engineering scaffolds and drug delivery vehicles. However, translational research that closely links biomaterial and tissue engineering research with real clinical applications is still elusive. In this Special Issue, manuscripts that address basic biomaterial synthesis or processing methods with demonstrated translational potential for real clinical applications are particularly solicited.  

Possible topics include but are not limited to:

New biomaterial synthesis and fabrication methods, delivery systems for both drugs and cells to achieve therapeutic effects using biomaterials as delivery vehicles, biomaterials and nanomaterials for tissue engineering applications, particularly in non-invasive and multimodal imaging applications, and novel tissue engineering scaffolds prepared using 3D bioprinting techniques or other methods.

Prof. Xudong Cao
Dr. Eve C. Tsai
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Processes is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Biomaterials
  • Tissue engineering
  • 3D bioprinting
  • Nanomaterials
  • Imaging
  • Stem cells
  • Drug delivery
  • Biomimetic and bioinspired materials

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Article
Development, Characterization and In Vitro Evaluation of Paclitaxel and Anastrozole Co-Loaded Liposome
Processes 2020, 8(9), 1110; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8091110 - 06 Sep 2020
Viewed by 848
Abstract
Paclitaxel (PTX) and anastrozole (ANA) have been frequently applied in breast cancer treatment. PTX is well-known for its anti-proliferative effect meanwhile ANA has just been discovered to act as an estrogen receptor α (ERα) ligand. The combination therapy of PTX and ANA is [...] Read more.
Paclitaxel (PTX) and anastrozole (ANA) have been frequently applied in breast cancer treatment. PTX is well-known for its anti-proliferative effect meanwhile ANA has just been discovered to act as an estrogen receptor α (ERα) ligand. The combination therapy of PTX and ANA is expected to improve treating efficiency, as ANA would act as a ligand binding with the ERα gene expressed in breast cancer cells and thereafter PTX would inhibit the division and cause death to those cancer cells. In this study, liposome-based nanocarriers (LP) were developed for co-encapsulation of PTX and ANA to improve the efficacy of the combined drugs in an Estrogen receptor-responsive breast cancer study. PTX-ANA co-loaded LP was prepared using thin lipid film hydration method and was characterized for morphology, size, zeta potential, drug encapsulation and in vitro drug release. In addition, cell proliferation (WST assay) and IN Cell Analyzer were used for in vitro cytotoxicity studies on a human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7). Results showed that the prepared LP and PTX-ANA-LP had spherical vesicles, with a mean particle size of 170.1 ± 13.5 nm and 189.0 ± 22.1 nm, respectively. Controlled and sustained releases were achieved at 72 h for both of the loaded drugs. The in vitro cytotoxicity study found that the combined drugs showed higher toxicity than each single drug separately. These results suggested a new approach to breast cancer treatment, consisting of the combination therapy of PTX and ANA in liposomes based on ER response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering)
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Article
Electro-Discharge Machining of Zr67Cu11Ni10Ti9Be3: An Investigation on Hydroxyapatite Deposition and Surface Roughness
Processes 2020, 8(6), 635; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8060635 - 26 May 2020
Viewed by 853
Abstract
This study attempts to simultaneously machine and synthesize a biomimetic nanoporous hydroxyapatite coating on the Zr67Cu11Ni10Ti9Be3 bulk metallic glass (BMG) surface. The aim is to investigate and optimize the hydroxyapatite deposition rate and the [...] Read more.
This study attempts to simultaneously machine and synthesize a biomimetic nanoporous hydroxyapatite coating on the Zr67Cu11Ni10Ti9Be3 bulk metallic glass (BMG) surface. The aim is to investigate and optimize the hydroxyapatite deposition rate and the surface roughness during the electro-discharge coating of Zr67Cu11Ni10Ti9Be3 BMG. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder Diffraction (XRD) and Energy-dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) were employed to characterize and analyze the results. Response Surface Methodology using D-optimum custom design approach was utilized to generate the models and optimize the input parameters. A globule nanostructured and nanoporous coating of about 25.2 µm thick, containing mainly Ca, O, and K were ascertained. Further XRD analysis confirmed the deposition of biocompatible oxides (HA, CaZrO3, and ZrO2) and hard ZrC coating on the Zr67Cu11Ni10Ti9Be3 BMG surface. A significant improvement in cell viability was observed in the HA electro-discharge coated BMG specimens. The numerical models for the Hydroxyapatite Deposition Rate (HDR) and Surface Roughness (SR) were developed and experimentally validated using the optimized parameters setting suggested by the software. The achieved average predicted error of 4.94 and 5.09% for the HDR and SR respectively confirmed the excellent reproducibility of the developed models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering)
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Article
Design, Optimization, and Evaluation of Additively Manufactured Vintiles Cellular Structure for Acetabular Cup Implant
Processes 2020, 8(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8010025 - 24 Dec 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1351
Abstract
Cellular materials with very highly regulated micro-architectures are promising applicant materials for orthopedic medical uses while requiring implants or substituting for bone due to their ability to promote increased cell proliferation and osseointegration. This study focuses on the design of an acetabular cup [...] Read more.
Cellular materials with very highly regulated micro-architectures are promising applicant materials for orthopedic medical uses while requiring implants or substituting for bone due to their ability to promote increased cell proliferation and osseointegration. This study focuses on the design of an acetabular cup (AC) cellular implant which was built using a vintiles cellular structure with an internal porosity of 56–87.9% and internal pore dimensions in the range of 600–1200 μm. The AC implant was then optimized for improving mechanical performance to reduce stress shielding by adjusting the porosity to produce stiffness (elastic modulus) to match with the bone, and allowing for bone cell ingrowth. The optimized and non-optimized AC cellular implant was fabricated using the SLM additive manufacturing process. Simulation (finite element analysis, FEA) was carried out and all cellular implants are finally tested under static loading conditions. The result showed that on the finite element model of an optimized implant, cellular has shown 69% higher stiffness than non-optimized. It has been confirmed by experimental work shown that the optimized cellular implant has a 71% higher ultimate compressive strength than the non-optimized counterpart. Finally, we developed an AC implant with mechanical performance adequately close to that of human bone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering)
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Article
Using a Microfluidics System to Reproducibly Synthesize Protein Nanoparticles: Factors Contributing to Size, Homogeneity, and Stability
Processes 2019, 7(5), 290; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7050290 - 15 May 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1944
Abstract
The synthesis of Zein nanoparticles (NPs) using conventional methods, such as emulsion solvent diffusion and emulsion solvent evaporation, is often unreliable in replicating particle size and polydispersity between batch-to-batch syntheses. We have systematically examined the parameters for reproducibly synthesizing Zein NPs using a [...] Read more.
The synthesis of Zein nanoparticles (NPs) using conventional methods, such as emulsion solvent diffusion and emulsion solvent evaporation, is often unreliable in replicating particle size and polydispersity between batch-to-batch syntheses. We have systematically examined the parameters for reproducibly synthesizing Zein NPs using a Y-junction microfluidics chip with staggered herringbone micromixers. Our results indicate that the total flow rate of the fluidics system, relative flow rate of the aqueous and organic phase, concentration of the base material and solvent, and properties of the solvent influence the polydispersity and size of the NPs. Trends such as increasing the total flow rate and relative flow rate lead to a decrease in Zein NP size, while increasing the ethanol and Zein concentration lead to an increase in Zein NP size. The solvent property that was found to impact the size of the Zein NPs formed the most was their hydropathy. Solvents that had a hydropathy index most similar to that of Zein formed the smallest Zein NPs. Synthesis consistency was confirmed within and between sample batches. Stabilizing agents, such as sodium caseinate, Tween 80, and Pluronic F-68, were incorporated using the microfluidics system, necessary for in vitro and in vivo use, into Zein-based NPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering)
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Review

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Review
Reconstruction of Vascular and Urologic Tubular Grafts by Tissue Engineering
Processes 2021, 9(3), 513; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9030513 - 12 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 570
Abstract
Tissue engineering is one of the most promising scientific breakthroughs of the late 20th century. Its objective is to produce in vitro tissues or organs to repair and replace damaged ones using various techniques, biomaterials, and cells. Tissue engineering emerged to substitute the [...] Read more.
Tissue engineering is one of the most promising scientific breakthroughs of the late 20th century. Its objective is to produce in vitro tissues or organs to repair and replace damaged ones using various techniques, biomaterials, and cells. Tissue engineering emerged to substitute the use of native autologous tissues, whose quantities are sometimes insufficient to correct the most severe pathologies. Indeed, the patient’s health status, regulations, or fibrotic scars at the site of the initial biopsy limit their availability, especially to treat recurrence. This new technology relies on the use of biomaterials to create scaffolds on which the patient’s cells can be seeded. This review focuses on the reconstruction, by tissue engineering, of two types of tissue with tubular structures: vascular and urological grafts. The emphasis is on self-assembly methods which allow the production of tissue/organ substitute without the use of exogenous material, with the patient’s cells producing their own scaffold. These continuously improved techniques, which allow rapid graft integration without immune rejection in the treatment of severely burned patients, give hope that similar results will be observed in the vascular and urological fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering)
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Review
Advancements in Canadian Biomaterials Research in Neurotraumatic Diagnosis and Therapies
Processes 2019, 7(6), 336; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7060336 - 03 Jun 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1790
Abstract
Development of biomaterials for the diagnosis and treatment of neurotraumatic ailments has been significantly advanced with our deepened knowledge of the pathophysiology of neurotrauma. Canadian research in the fields of biomaterial-based contrast agents, non-invasive axonal tracing, non-invasive scaffold imaging, scaffold patterning, 3D printed [...] Read more.
Development of biomaterials for the diagnosis and treatment of neurotraumatic ailments has been significantly advanced with our deepened knowledge of the pathophysiology of neurotrauma. Canadian research in the fields of biomaterial-based contrast agents, non-invasive axonal tracing, non-invasive scaffold imaging, scaffold patterning, 3D printed scaffolds, and drug delivery are conquering barriers to patient diagnosis and treatment for traumatic injuries to the nervous system. This review highlights some of the highly interdisciplinary Canadian research in biomaterials with a focus on neurotrauma applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering)
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Review
Biomaterial Implants in Abdominal Wall Hernia Repair: A Review on the Importance of the Peritoneal Interface
Processes 2019, 7(2), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7020105 - 16 Feb 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2404
Abstract
Biomaterials have long been used to repair defects in the clinical setting, which has led to the development of a wide variety of new materials tailored to specific therapeutic purposes. The efficiency in the repair of the defect and the safety of the [...] Read more.
Biomaterials have long been used to repair defects in the clinical setting, which has led to the development of a wide variety of new materials tailored to specific therapeutic purposes. The efficiency in the repair of the defect and the safety of the different materials employed are determined not only by the nature and structure of their components, but also by the anatomical site where they will be located. Biomaterial implantation into the abdominal cavity in the form of a surgical mesh, such as in the case of abdominal hernia repair, involves the contact between the foreign material and the peritoneum. This review summarizes the different biomaterials currently available in hernia mesh repair and provides insights into a series of peculiarities that must be addressed when designing the optimal mesh to be used in this interface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering)
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