Special Issue "Polymer Adsorption at Interfaces"

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360). This special issue belongs to the section "Polymer Physics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Peter Griffiths
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Pharmaceutical, Chemical and Environmental Sciences, University of Greenwich, London, United Kingdom
Interests: formulation, polymer–surfactant mixtures, polymer–particle interactions, polymer complexation, self-assembly, pulsed-gradient spin-echo NMR, neutron scattering
Dr. Omar Mansour
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Leicester School of Pharmacy, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester, LE1 9BH, United Kingdom
Interests: formulation, colloid science, foams, gels, drug delivery, neutron scattering, NMR

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Polymers are ubiquitous in formulations because of their ability to structure at and control the characteristics of interfaces. These interfaces may be those between different phases, for example, the air–liquid interface, or between like phases, such as in bonded films and plastics. Accordingly, there is a vast number of man-made and natural polymers, designed and synthesised to possess application-specific tailored architectures and properties to localise surface- or interface-bound properties. In many instances, the bulk of the material may itself be polymeric.

This Special Issue aims to celebrate the humble “polymer”. Articles—reviews, opinions, and highlights, as well as new studies—are invited for any area of science or technology involving polymer adsorption, from both experimental and theoretical perspectives. The Special Issue will be broken down in terms of the nature of the interface, viz., solid–liquid, liquid–liquid, air–liquid, and solid–solid.

Prof. Peter Griffiths
Dr. Omar Mansour
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Polymers is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Deposition
  • Emulsification
  • Stabilisation
  • Segregation
  • Aggregation
  • Annealing
  • Self-healing
  • Dispersal
  • Coatings

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Scalable Fabrication of Highly Flexible Porous Polymer-Based Capacitive Humidity Sensor Using Convergence Fiber Drawing
Polymers 2019, 11(12), 1985; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11121985 - 02 Dec 2019
Abstract
In this study, we fabricated a highly flexible fiber-based capacitive humidity sensor using a scalable convergence fiber drawing approach. The sensor’s sensing layer is made of porous polyetherimide (PEI) with its porosity produced in situ during fiber drawing, whereas its electrodes are made [...] Read more.
In this study, we fabricated a highly flexible fiber-based capacitive humidity sensor using a scalable convergence fiber drawing approach. The sensor’s sensing layer is made of porous polyetherimide (PEI) with its porosity produced in situ during fiber drawing, whereas its electrodes are made of copper wires. The porosity induces capillary condensation starting at a low relative humidity (RH) level (here, 70%), resulting in a significant increase in the response of the sensor at RH levels ranging from 70% to 80%. The proposed humidity sensor shows a good sensitivity of 0.39 pF/% RH in the range of 70%–80% RH, a maximum hysteresis of 9.08% RH at 70% RH, a small temperature dependence, and a good stability over a 48 h period. This work demonstrates the first fiber-based humidity sensor fabricated using convergence fiber drawing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Adsorption at Interfaces)
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Open AccessArticle
Polymer Stabilized Liquid Crystal Smart Window with Flexible Substrates Based on Low-Temperature Treatment of Polyamide Acid Technology
Polymers 2019, 11(11), 1869; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11111869 - 13 Nov 2019
Abstract
Polymer stabilized liquid crystal (PSLC) devices can be used as smart privacy windows that switch between transparent and opaque states. The polyimide alignment layer of a PSLC device is usually obtained by the treatment of polyamide acid (PAA) with temperatures over 200 °C. [...] Read more.
Polymer stabilized liquid crystal (PSLC) devices can be used as smart privacy windows that switch between transparent and opaque states. The polyimide alignment layer of a PSLC device is usually obtained by the treatment of polyamide acid (PAA) with temperatures over 200 °C. This hinders the fabrication of PSLC devices on flexible substrates, which melt at these high temperatures. In this work, the fabrication of a PSLC alignment layer using a lower temperature that is compatible with most flexible substrates, is demonstrated. It was found that the treatment of PAA at 150 °C could generate the same alignment for liquid crystals. Based on this, a PSLC device was successfully fabricated on a flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate, demonstrating excellent electro-optic performances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Adsorption at Interfaces)
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Open AccessArticle
AgBr/BiOBr Nano-Heterostructure-Decorated Polyacrylonitrile Nanofibers: A Recyclable High-Performance Photocatalyst for Dye Degradation under Visible-Light Irradiation
Polymers 2019, 11(10), 1718; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11101718 - 19 Oct 2019
Abstract
Macrostructural flexible photocatalysts have been proven to have desirable recyclable properties during the photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants in water. However, the photocatalytic activities of these photocatalysts are often unsatisfactory due to the fast recombination of charge carriers and the limited surface active [...] Read more.
Macrostructural flexible photocatalysts have been proven to have desirable recyclable properties during the photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants in water. However, the photocatalytic activities of these photocatalysts are often unsatisfactory due to the fast recombination of charge carriers and the limited surface active sites. Herein, we developed a novel flexible photocatalyst of AgBr/BiOBr/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) composite mats (CMs) through the controllable assembly of AgBr/BiOBr nano-heterostructures on electrospun polyacrylonitrile nanofibers (PAN NFs) via a three-step synthesis route. The component ratio of AgBr to BiOBr in the CMs could be easily adjusted by controlling the in situ ion exchange process. The charge–transfer process occurring at the interface of the AgBr/BiOBr nano-heterostructures strongly hindered the recombination of photoinduced electron–hole pairs, thereby effectively enhancing the photocatalytic activity of the AgBr/BiOBr/PAN CMs. Meanwhile, the unique hierarchical inorganic/organic heterostructure of the AgBr/BiOBr/PAN CMs not only led to good flexibility, but also provided an abundance of active sites for photocatalytic reactions. Upon visible-light irradiation, AgBr/BiOBr/PAN CMs with an optimal ratio of AgBr to BiOBr components exhibited both enhanced photocatalytic activity and excellent separability during the degradation of methyl orange in water compared to the BiOBr/PAN CMs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Adsorption at Interfaces)
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Open AccessArticle
Quantitively Characterizing the Chemical Composition of Tailored Bagasse Fiber and Its Effect on the Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Polylactic Acid-Based Composites
Polymers 2019, 11(10), 1567; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11101567 - 26 Sep 2019
Abstract
Natural fiber reinforced polymer-based composites have been growing into a type of green composites. The properties of natural fiber reinforced polymer-based composites are closely related to the structure of natural fibers. Bagasse fiber (BF) is one of the most used natural fibers for [...] Read more.
Natural fiber reinforced polymer-based composites have been growing into a type of green composites. The properties of natural fiber reinforced polymer-based composites are closely related to the structure of natural fibers. Bagasse fiber (BF) is one of the most used natural fibers for preparing natural fiber reinforced polymer-based composites. However, few examples of previous research touch on the quantitatively characterization of structure of BF and its effect on the properties of BF reinforced polymer-based composites. In this work, four kinds of BF including untreated BF (UBF), alkali treated BF (ABF), BF modified by silane coupling agent (SBF), and BF modified combining alkali treatment with silane coupling agent (ASBF) were prepared and melting blended with polylactic acid (PLA) to prepare PLA/BF composites. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermogravimetry (TGA) and mechanical properties testing were used to characterize and analyze the structure and properties of modified BF and its reinforced PLA-based composites. Results showed that the used methods changed the structure of BF and their bonding modes. The surface energies of UBF, ABF, SBF, and ASBF were 19.8 mJ/m2, 34.7 mJ/m2, 12.3 mJ/m2, and 21.6 mJ/m2, respectively. The O/C ratios of UBF, ABF, SBF and, ASBF are 0.48, 0.53, 0.47, and 0.51. Due to the synergistic effect of alkali treatment and silane coupling agent modification on the surface chemical properties, the content of silicon elements on the surface of ASBF (4.15%) was higher than that of ASBF (2.38%). However, due to the destroying of alkali treatment on the microstructure of BF, the alkali treatment had no prominently synergetic effect with coupling agent modification on the mechanical properties of PLA/BF composites. Alkali treatment removed the small molecular compounds from BF, decreased its thermal stability, and increased the crystalline region and crystallinity of cellulose. Meanwhile, alkali treatment made BF fibrillated and increased its contactable active area with the coupling agents, but destructed the nature structure of BF. The silane coupling agent played a more important role than alkali treatment did in improving the interfacial compatibility of PLA/BF composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Adsorption at Interfaces)
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Open AccessArticle
Bentonite Modified by Allylamine Polymer for Adsorption of Amido Black 10B
Polymers 2019, 11(3), 502; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11030502 - 15 Mar 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The main object of this work is to remove Amido black 10B using a new type of bentonite-based adsorbent with cationic groups by the modification of polyallyl amines between the interlayers of bentonite. Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, and scanning electron [...] Read more.
The main object of this work is to remove Amido black 10B using a new type of bentonite-based adsorbent with cationic groups by the modification of polyallyl amines between the interlayers of bentonite. Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the functionalized bentonite. A series of batch adsorption experiments were performed. The maximum adsorption amount was 144.08 mg g−1 when the pH was 2 and the contact time was 120 min. In addition, the equilibrium isotherm data were analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models, while only the Langmuir model could provide a high correlation. Therefore, this study provided a new functionalized bentonite as a low-cost adsorbent for dye removal from water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Adsorption at Interfaces)
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis of Diblock Polyampholyte PAMPS-b-PMAPTAC and Its Adsorption on Bentonite
Polymers 2019, 11(1), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11010049 - 30 Dec 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
To study the adsorption of polyampholyte on bentonite (Bent), a block polyampholyte, PAMPS-b-PMAPTAC, comprised of 2-Acrylamido-2-Methylpropane Sulfonic Acid (AMPS) units and Methacrylamido Propyl Trimethyl Ammonium Chloride (MAPTAC) units, was synthesized using reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization (RAFT) method. The block polyampholyte samples were [...] Read more.
To study the adsorption of polyampholyte on bentonite (Bent), a block polyampholyte, PAMPS-b-PMAPTAC, comprised of 2-Acrylamido-2-Methylpropane Sulfonic Acid (AMPS) units and Methacrylamido Propyl Trimethyl Ammonium Chloride (MAPTAC) units, was synthesized using reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization (RAFT) method. The block polyampholyte samples were characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR and Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC). The microstructure of block polyampholyte and random polyampholyte in deionized water indicated that uneven distribution of charged groups increased the entanglement of polymer chains. Addition of salt weakened the electrostatic interactions among charged groups, and, therefore, increased the zeta potential of polyampholyte in aqueous solutions. The adsorptive behaviors of PAMPS-b-PMAPTAC on Bent were studied using elemental analysis, and the effects of external factors were considered. The adsorption equilibrium of polymers on Bent was reached after 12 h. Increased temperature and increased salinity exerted a positive and negative effect on the adsorption of polyampholyte, respectively. The molecular weight played as the decisive factor for the adsorption of polyampholyte in the absence of NaCl, while the content of cationic groups acted as the main factor in the presence of NaCl. Block polyampholyte exhibited higher adsorption than random polyampholyte in the absence of salt. XRD results also indicated that block polyampholyte had a better intercalation effect than random polyampholyte. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Adsorption at Interfaces)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Characterization and Application of PVDF and Its Copolymer Films Prepared by Spin-Coating and Langmuir–Blodgett Method
Polymers 2019, 11(12), 2033; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11122033 - 08 Dec 2019
Abstract
Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and its copolymers are key polymers, displaying properties such as flexibility and electroactive responses, including piezoelectricity, pyroelectricity, and ferroelectricity. In the past several years, they have been applied in numerous applications, such as memory, transducers, actuators, and energy harvesting and [...] Read more.
Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and its copolymers are key polymers, displaying properties such as flexibility and electroactive responses, including piezoelectricity, pyroelectricity, and ferroelectricity. In the past several years, they have been applied in numerous applications, such as memory, transducers, actuators, and energy harvesting and have shown thriving prospects in the ongoing research and commercialization process. The crystalline polymorphs of PVDF can present nonpolar α, ε phase and polar β, γ, and δ phases with different processing methods. The copolymers, such as poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)), can crystallize directly into a phase analogous to the β phase of PVDF. Since the β phase shows the highest dipole moment among polar phases, many reproducible and efficient methods producing β-phase PVDF and its copolymer have been proposed. In this review, PVDF and its copolymer films prepared by spin-coating and Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) method are introduced, and relevant characterization techniques are highlighted. Finally, the development of memory, artificial synapses, and medical applications based on PVDF and its copolymers is elaborated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Adsorption at Interfaces)
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