Hybrid Polymer-Inorganic Nanocomposite

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360). This special issue belongs to the section "Polymer Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2021) | Viewed by 12112

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Department of Material Engineering, Faculty of Textile, Technical University of Liberec, 460 01 Liberec, Czech Republic
Interests: nanoparticle-rich surface structures; electrospun nanofibrous layers; porous materials surface coating; thermodynamic analysis of aerogels; thermal insulation materials; phase change materials; carbon-based materials; hybrid composite structures; surface coating of fibrous structures; hybrid composites
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Guest Editor
Department of Material Engineering, Technical University of Liberec, Liberec, Czech Republic
Interests: textile materials; sustainability; colorations; finishing; surface modifications
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Guest Editor
Faculty of Engineering and Technology, National Textile University, 37610 Faisalabad, Pakistan
Interests: protective textiles; comfort properties of textiles; advanced materials; textile structures; composites & nano composites; sustainable construction materials; textile machinery and instrument design

Special Issue Information

Nanoparticles are gaining wider importance and increasing utility in many areas of engineering and technology. They have been found to beneficial for enhancing functional properties of materials or reinforcing matrix phase in composites. Hybrid materials are composites consisting at least of two constituents at the nanometer or molecular level. Commonly, one of these compounds is inorganic and the other one organic in nature. In a hybrid composite which contains two or more types of fibers, disadvantages of one type of fiber can be complemented by the other having consequent advantages. A proper material design leads to achievement of a balance in terms of performance and design. The production of polymeric nano composites by the use of nano scale reinforcement fillers has evolved with high level of interest. Nano composites are particle-filled polymers with at least one dimension of the dispersed particle in nanometer scale. Variety of nanoparticles such as fly ash, silica, zinc, alumina, micro and nano-sized silicon carbide, carbon black nanoparticles, calcium carbonate etc. are commonly used as fillers to reinforce polymer nano composites for enhanced material properties. Effect of nano particles is dependent not only on their nature but on their concentration and especially on their relative surface area and dimensions. Some important features of nano composites include mechanical performance, thermal stability, dielectric behavior, excellent tribological properties, and adhesion to most substrates, good corrosion and scratch resistance. Further understanding and research is required to solve the trade-offs between enhancement of some properties and suppression of others based on requirements of application. A compilation of research in the area of Nanocomposite hybrid materials would provide necessary background information to interested researchers.

Prof. Dr. Jiri Militky
Dr. Mohanapriya Venkataraman
Dr. Hafsa Jamshaid
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • nanocomposites, organic- inorganic phases, hybrid textile reinforced composites

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

20 pages, 6623 KiB  
Article
Fabrication of Conductive, High Strength and Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Shielded Green Composites Based on Waste Materials
by Azam Ali, Fiaz Hussain, Muhammad Farrukh Tahir, Majid Ali, Muhammad Zaman Khan, Blanka Tomková, Jiri Militky, Muhammad Tayyab Noman and Musaddaq Azeem
Polymers 2022, 14(7), 1289; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14071289 - 23 Mar 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2373
Abstract
Conventional conductive homopolymers such as polypyrrole and poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT) have poor mechanical properties, for the solution to this problem, we tried to construct hybrid composites with higher electrical properties coupled with high mechanical strength. For this purpose, Kevlar fibrous waste, conductive carbon particles, [...] Read more.
Conventional conductive homopolymers such as polypyrrole and poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT) have poor mechanical properties, for the solution to this problem, we tried to construct hybrid composites with higher electrical properties coupled with high mechanical strength. For this purpose, Kevlar fibrous waste, conductive carbon particles, and epoxy were used to make the conductive composites. Kevlar waste was used to accomplish the need for economics and to enhance the mechanical properties. At first, Kevlar fibrous waste was converted into a nonwoven web and subjected to different pretreatments (chemical, plasma) to enhance the bonding between fiber-matrix interfaces. Similarly, conductive carbon particles were converted into nanofillers by the action of ball milling to make them homogeneous in size and structure. The size and morphological structures of ball-milled particles were analyzed by Malvern zetasizer and scanning electron microscopy. In the second phase of the study, the conductive paste was made by adding the different concentrations of ball-milled carbon particles into green epoxy. Subsequently, composite samples were fabricated via a combination of prepared conductive pastes and a pretreated Kevlar fibers web. The influence of different concentrations of carbon particles into green epoxy resin for electrical conductivity was studied. Additionally, the electrical conductivity and electromagnetic shielding ability of conductive composites were analyzed. The waveguide method at high frequency (i.e., at 2.45 GHz) was used to investigate the EMI shielding. Furthermore, the joule heating response was studied by measuring the change in temperature at the surface of the conductive composite samples, while applying a different range of voltages. The maximum temperature of 55 °C was observed when the applied voltage was 10 V. Moreover, to estimate the durability and activity in service the ageing performance (mechanical strength and moisture regain) of developed composite samples were also analyzed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hybrid Polymer-Inorganic Nanocomposite)
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14 pages, 6423 KiB  
Article
Preparation and Characterization of Electrosprayed Aerogel/Polytetrafluoroethylene Microporous Materials
by Xiaoman Xiong, Mohanapriya Venkataraman, Tao Yang, Jiří Militký and Jakub Wiener
Polymers 2022, 14(1), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14010048 - 23 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2707
Abstract
This paper presents the preparation of aerogel/polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) microporous materials via needleless electrospray technique, by using an aqueous dispersion of polytetrafluoroethylene as the basic spinning liquid. Different contents of aerogel powders were applied to the spinning liquid for electrospraying to investigate the effect [...] Read more.
This paper presents the preparation of aerogel/polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) microporous materials via needleless electrospray technique, by using an aqueous dispersion of polytetrafluoroethylene as the basic spinning liquid. Different contents of aerogel powders were applied to the spinning liquid for electrospraying to investigate the effect on the structural characteristics and various properties of the materials. Cross-section, surface morphology, and particle size distribution of the electrosprayed materials were examined. Surface roughness, hydrophobicity, and thermal conductivity were evaluated and discussed. The results showed that the electrosprayed aerogel/PTFE layers were compact and disordered stacking structures composed of spherical particles with a rough surface. As the aerogel content increased, the electrosprayed materials demonstrated increased surface roughness and improved surface hydrophobicity with a contact angle up to 147.88°. In addition, the successful achievement of thermal conductivity as low as 0.024 (W m−1 K−1) indicated a superior ability of the prepared aerogel/PTFE composites to prevent heat transfer. This study contributes to the field of development of aerogel/PTFE composites via electrospray technique, providing enhanced final performance for potential use as thermal and moisture barriers in textiles or electronic devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hybrid Polymer-Inorganic Nanocomposite)
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13 pages, 4020 KiB  
Article
Sandwich Structures Reflecting Thermal Radiation Produced by the Human Body
by Jiří Militký, Dana Křemenáková, Mohanapriya Venkataraman, Josef Večerník, Lenka Martínková and Jan Marek
Polymers 2021, 13(19), 3309; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13193309 - 28 Sep 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2283
Abstract
Far infrared (FIR) textiles are a new category of functional textiles that have presumptive health and well-being functionality and are closely related to human thermo-physiological comfort. FIR exerts strong rotational and vibrational effects at the molecular level, with the potential to be biologically [...] Read more.
Far infrared (FIR) textiles are a new category of functional textiles that have presumptive health and well-being functionality and are closely related to human thermo-physiological comfort. FIR exerts strong rotational and vibrational effects at the molecular level, with the potential to be biologically beneficial. In general, after absorbing either sunlight or heat from the human body, FIR textiles are designed to transform the energy into FIR radiation with a wavelength of 4–14 μm and pass it back to the human body. FIR textiles can meet increased demand for light, warm, comfortable, and healthy clothing. The main aim of this research is to describe the procedure for creating the FIR reflective textile layer as part of multilayer textile structures that have enhanced thermal protection. To develop the active FIR reflecting surface, the deposition of copper nanolayer on lightweight polyester nonwoven structure Milife, which has beneficial properties of low fiber diameters, good shape stability and comfort, was used. This FIR reflective layer was used as an active component of sandwiches composed of the outer layer, insulation layer, active layer, and inner layer. The suitable types of individual layers were based on their morphology, air permeability, spectral characteristics in the infra-red region, and thermal properties. Reflectivity, transmittance, and emissivity were evaluated from IR measurements. Human skin thermal behavior and the prediction of radiation from the human body dependent on ambient conditions and metabolic rate are also mentioned. The FIR reflective textile layer created, as part of multilayer textile structures, was observed to have enhanced thermal protection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hybrid Polymer-Inorganic Nanocomposite)
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18 pages, 3721 KiB  
Article
New Inverse Emulsion-Polymerized Iron/Polyaniline Composites for Permanent, Highly Magnetic Iron Compounds via Calcination
by Tar-Hwa Hsieh, Lin-Chia Ho, Yen-Zen Wang, Ko-Shan Ho, Cheng-Hsien Tsai and Li-Fan Hung
Polymers 2021, 13(19), 3240; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13193240 - 24 Sep 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1670
Abstract
The hydrophilic initiator potassium persulfate (KPS) was converted into a hydrophobic molecule by complexing with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) at both ends of the molecule (CTAPSu). Inverse emulsion polymerization thus proceeded inside micelles dispersed in the affluent toluene with CTAPSu as the initiator. Polyaniline [...] Read more.
The hydrophilic initiator potassium persulfate (KPS) was converted into a hydrophobic molecule by complexing with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) at both ends of the molecule (CTAPSu). Inverse emulsion polymerization thus proceeded inside micelles dispersed in the affluent toluene with CTAPSu as the initiator. Polyaniline (PANI) formed inside the micelles and entangled with Fe3O4 nanoparticles already esterified with oleic acid (OA). Iron composites consisted of OA-esterified Fe3O4 nanoparticles covered with PANI after de-emulsification. After calcination at 950 °C in an argon atmosphere, the resultant iron compound was a mixture of α-Fe (ferrite) and Fe3C (cementite), as determined by X-ray diffraction. Eventually, the calcined iron compounds (mixtures) demonstrated superparamagnetic properties with a high saturation magnetization (Ms) of 197 emu/g, which decayed to 160 emu/g after exposure to the atmosphere for four months. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hybrid Polymer-Inorganic Nanocomposite)
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13 pages, 14502 KiB  
Article
Significantly Enhanced Dielectric Properties of Ag-Deposited (In1/2Nb1/2)0.1Ti0.9O2/PVDF Polymer Composites
by Wattana Tuichai, Pornsawan Kum-onsa, Supamas Danwittayakul, Jedsada Manyam, Viyada Harnchana, Prasit Thongbai, Nutthakritta Phromviyo and Prinya Chindaprasirt
Polymers 2021, 13(11), 1788; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13111788 - 28 May 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2015
Abstract
The enhanced dielectric permittivity (ε′) while retaining a low loss tangent (tanδ) in silver nanoparticle−(In1/2Nb1/2)0.1Ti0.9O2/poly(vinylidene fluoride) (Ag-INTO/PVDF) composites with different volume fractions of a filler (fAg-INTO) was investigated. The hybrid [...] Read more.
The enhanced dielectric permittivity (ε′) while retaining a low loss tangent (tanδ) in silver nanoparticle−(In1/2Nb1/2)0.1Ti0.9O2/poly(vinylidene fluoride) (Ag-INTO/PVDF) composites with different volume fractions of a filler (fAg-INTO) was investigated. The hybrid particles were fabricated by coating Ag nanoparticles onto the surface of INTO particles, as confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The ε′ of the Ag−INTO/PVDF composites could be significantly enhanced to ~86 at 1 kHz with a low tanδ of ~0.044. The enhanced ε′ value was approximately >8-fold higher than that of the pure PVDF polymer for the composite with fAg-INTO = 0.5. Furthermore, ε′ was nearly independent of frequency in the range of 102–106 Hz. Therefore, filling Ag−INTO hybrid particles into a PVDF matrix is an effective way to increase ε′ while retaining a low tanδ of polymer composites. The effective medium percolation theory model can be used to fit the experimental ε′ values with various fAg-INTO values. The greatly increased ε′ primarily originated from interfacial polarization at the conducting Ag nanoparticle–PVDF and Ag–INTO interfaces, and it was partially contributed by the high ε′ of INTO particles. A low tanδ was obtained because the formation of the conducting network in the polymer was inhibited by preventing the direct contact of Ag nanoparticles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hybrid Polymer-Inorganic Nanocomposite)
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