Chitosan and Collagen-Based Biomaterials Materials for Biomedical Applications

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomacromolecules, Biobased and Biodegradable Polymers".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 10 June 2024 | Viewed by 6141

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Chitosan and collagen-based materials find many applications in several fields; however, because of their biocompatibility, biomedicine shows the main interest in the new achievements in this field. Both chitosan and collagen can be used in tissue regeneration/engineering for new materials fabrication, e.g., artificial skin and bone graft substitutes. The above-mentioned biopolymers can be used to fabricate dental or soft tissue implants, artificial tendons and blood vessels. The development of new techniques has shown that both chitosan and collagen are good materials for corneal implants, and for the regeneration of nerves, cartilage, skin and other body organs. Due to their hydrophilic character, these biopolymers are employed in hydrogels preparations for both biomedical and cosmetic applications.

Moreover, within the last three decades, increasing interest has been seen in new materials based on blends of chitosan and collagen. Upon blending chitosan with collagen, it is possible to prepare thin films, membranes, hydrogels and sponges. Collagen/chitosan blends show great potential for tissue engineering applications.

The aim of this Special Issue is to present the latest developments in the field of chitosan and collagen-based materials and their current or potential applications in, but not limited to, the areas mentioned above.

Prof. Dr. Alina Sionkowska
Guest Editor

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Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

18 pages, 16310 KiB  
Article
Bioactive Glasses Enriched with Strontium or Zinc with Different Degrees of Structural Order as Components of Chitosan-Based Composite Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering
by Lidia Ciołek, Małgorzata Krok-Borkowicz, Arkadiusz Gąsiński, Monika Biernat, Agnieszka Antosik and Elżbieta Pamuła
Polymers 2023, 15(19), 3994; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15193994 - 4 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 994
Abstract
The development of innovative biomaterials with improved integration with bone tissue and stimulating regeneration processes is necessary. Here, we evaluate the usefulness of bioactive glasses from the SiO2-P2O5-CaO system enriched with 2 wt.% SrO or ZnO in [...] Read more.
The development of innovative biomaterials with improved integration with bone tissue and stimulating regeneration processes is necessary. Here, we evaluate the usefulness of bioactive glasses from the SiO2-P2O5-CaO system enriched with 2 wt.% SrO or ZnO in the manufacturing of chitosan-based scaffolds. Bioglasses produced using the sol-gel method were subjected to thermal treatment in different regimes. Chitosan/bioglass composites were produced with a weight ratio. Bioglasses were evaluated via TG-DTA, FTIR, and SEM-EDS before and after incubation in simulated body fluid (SBF). The release of ions was tested. The cytocompatibility of the composites in contact with MG63 osteoblast-like cells was evaluated. The results showed that the presence of the crystalline phase decreased from 41.2–44.8% for nonmodified bioglasses to 24.2–24.3% for those modified with ZnO and 22.0–24.2% for those modified with SrO. The samples released Ca2+, Zn2+, and/or Sr2+ ions and were bioactive according to the SBF test. The highest cytocompatibility was observed for the composites containing nonmodified bioglasses, followed by those enriched with SrO bioglasses. The least cytocompatible were the composites containing ZnO bioglasses that released the highest amount of Zn2+ ions (0.58 ± 0.07 mL/g); however, those that released 0.38 ± 0.04 mL/g were characterised by acceptable cytocompatibility. The study confirmed that it is feasible to control the biological performance of chitosan/bioglass composites by adjusting the composition and heat treatment parameters of bioglasses. Full article
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20 pages, 15960 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Chitosan on Physicochemical Properties of Whey Protein Isolate Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering Applications
by Martyna Gaweł, Patrycja Domalik-Pyzik, Timothy E. L. Douglas, Katarzyna Reczyńska-Kolman, Elżbieta Pamuła and Kinga Pielichowska
Polymers 2023, 15(19), 3867; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15193867 - 23 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1081
Abstract
New scaffolds, based on whey protein isolate (WPI) and chitosan (CS), have been proposed and investigated as possible materials for use in osteochondral tissue repair. Two types of WPI-based hydrogels modified by CS were prepared: CS powder was incorporated into WPI in either [...] Read more.
New scaffolds, based on whey protein isolate (WPI) and chitosan (CS), have been proposed and investigated as possible materials for use in osteochondral tissue repair. Two types of WPI-based hydrogels modified by CS were prepared: CS powder was incorporated into WPI in either dissolved or suspended powder form. The optimal chemical composition of the resulting WPI/CS hydrogels was chosen based on the morphology, structural properties, chemical stability, swelling ratio, wettability, mechanical properties, bioactivity, and cytotoxicity evaluation. The hydrogels with CS incorporated in powder form exhibited superior mechanical properties and higher porosity, whereas those with CS incorporated after dissolution showed enhanced wettability, which decreased with increasing CS content. The introduction of CS powder into the WPI matrix promoted apatite formation, as confirmed by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses. In vitro cytotoxicity results confirmed the cytocompatibility of CS powder modified WPI hydrogels, suggesting their suitability as cell scaffolds. These findings demonstrate the promising potential of WPI/CS scaffolds for osteochondral tissue repair. Full article
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14 pages, 5902 KiB  
Article
Chitosan-Based Films Containing Rutin for Potential Cosmetic Applications
by Alina Sionkowska, Katarzyna Lewandowska and Marzanna Kurzawa
Polymers 2023, 15(15), 3224; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15153224 - 28 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1492
Abstract
Chitosan is a polysaccharide with film-forming properties. Such properties are widely used for the preparation of beauty masks and wound-healing materials. In this work, chitosan-based films containing hyaluronic acid and rutin have been researched for potential cosmetic applications. Rutin was added to a [...] Read more.
Chitosan is a polysaccharide with film-forming properties. Such properties are widely used for the preparation of beauty masks and wound-healing materials. In this work, chitosan-based films containing hyaluronic acid and rutin have been researched for potential cosmetic applications. Rutin was added to a chitosan solution in lactic acid, and then thin films were fabricated. The structure of the films was studied using FTIR spectroscopy. Surface properties were studied using an AFM microscope. The release of rutin from chitosan-based film was researched by the HPLC method. The properties of the skin, such as elasticity and moisturization, were studied using the Aramo TS 2 apparatus. It was found that the addition of rutin did not have an influence on the chitosan structure but affected its thermal stability. The roughness of the films was bigger after the addition of rutin to chitosan-based films. Skin elasticity and skin moisturization were somewhat improved after the topical application of the proposed chitosan–rutin mask. The maximum release of rutin was found after 20 min at pH 5.5, related to the pH of normal human skin. The average percentage of release from chitosan-based film containing hyaluronic acid was smaller than from chitosan-based films. Full article
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19 pages, 11921 KiB  
Article
Chitosan–Collagen Electrospun Nanofibers Loaded with Curcumin as Wound-Healing Patches
by Maila Castellano, Andrea Dodero, Sonia Scarfi, Serena Mirata, Marina Pozzolini, Eleonora Tassara, Alina Sionkowska, Katarzyna Adamiak, Marina Alloisio and Silvia Vicini
Polymers 2023, 15(13), 2931; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15132931 - 2 Jul 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2107
Abstract
Composite chitosan–collagen nanofibrous mats embedded with curcumin were prepared via a single-step electrospinning procedure and explored as wound-healing patches with superior biological activity. A mild crosslinking protocol consisting of a short exposure to ammonia vapor and UV radiation was developed to ensure proper [...] Read more.
Composite chitosan–collagen nanofibrous mats embedded with curcumin were prepared via a single-step electrospinning procedure and explored as wound-healing patches with superior biological activity. A mild crosslinking protocol consisting of a short exposure to ammonia vapor and UV radiation was developed to ensure proper stability in physiological-like conditions without affecting the intrinsic biocompatibility of chitosan and collagen. The fabricated composite patches displayed a highly porous, homogeneous nanostructure consisting of fibers with an average diameter of 200 nm, thermal stability up to 200 °C, mechanical features able to ensure protection and support to the new tissues, and water-related properties in the ideal range to allow exudate removal and gas exchange. The release kinetic studies carried out in a simulated physiological environment demonstrated that curcumin release was sustained for 72 h when the mats are crosslinked hence providing prolonged bioactivity reflected by the displayed antioxidant properties. Remarkably, combining chitosan and collagen not only ensures prolonged stability and optimal physical–chemical properties but also allows for better-promoting cell adhesion and proliferation and enhanced anti-bacteriostatic capabilities with the addition of curcumin, owing to its beneficial anti-inflammatory effect, ameliorating the attachment and survival/proliferation rates of keratinocytes and fibroblasts to the fabricated patches. Full article
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