Uses & Efficient Valorisation of Plant Biomass in Biorefinery Context

A special issue of Plants (ISSN 2223-7747). This special issue belongs to the section "Phytochemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 November 2022) | Viewed by 13149

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Latvian State Institute of Wood Chemistry, Dzerbenes street 27, LV-1006 Riga, Latvia
Interests: plant biomass; extraction; analitycal chemistry; antioxidant activity; phytochemical screening; analitycal approaches; chemical characterisation; target compounds; method development
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Guest Editor
Faculty of chemistry, University of Latvia, Jelgavas street 1, LV-1004 Riga, Latvia
Interests: analytical chemistry; phytochemistry; food science; plant science
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Plant biomass is a very important, valuable and abundant renewable resource that can be converted into several types of high-value-added products, including chemicals, biofuels and advanced materials. Currently, only a small part of the world's plant biomass is processed into value-added products. Despite significant progress toward the research of biobased products, today’s biorefineries are far from achieving their intended goal of total biomass valorization and effective product development. Their research has been developing rapidly in recent years. In order to obtain this added value from plant biomass in the production of fuels and various valuable chemical compounds, it is necessary to find the best effective approaches to valorization plant biomass especially unused plant biomass and to obtain products with versatile properties for their application in various fields. Valorisation of plant biomass in different ways, including the extraction to obtain extractives, use residues in various processing operations, such as pellets etc, makes it possible to maximize the added value of the total raw material.

This Special Issue aims is to increase knowledge about the possibilities of uses & valorisation of plant biomass with an emphasis on the obtaining, as much as possible, added value from plant biomass in biorefinery context.

Dr. Maris Lauberts
Prof. Dr. Arturs Viksna
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • plant biomass
  • valorization
  • biorefinery extraction
  • value added products
  • antioxidant activity
  • unused plant biomass
  • analytical approaches
  • chemical characterization
  • target compounds
  • method development

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

23 pages, 4049 KiB  
Article
Valorization of Bioactive Compounds from By-Products of Matricaria recutita White Ray Florets
by Ilva Nakurte, Marta Berga, Laura Pastare, Liene Kienkas, Maris Senkovs, Martins Boroduskis and Anna Ramata-Stunda
Plants 2023, 12(2), 396; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12020396 - 14 Jan 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1981
Abstract
In this research, we have reported the valorization possibilities of Matricaria recutita white ray florets using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with CO2. Experiments were conducted at temperatures of 35–55 °C and separation pressures of 5–9 MPa to evaluate their impact on [...] Read more.
In this research, we have reported the valorization possibilities of Matricaria recutita white ray florets using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with CO2. Experiments were conducted at temperatures of 35–55 °C and separation pressures of 5–9 MPa to evaluate their impact on the chemical composition and biological activity of the extracts. The total obtained extraction yields varied from 9.76 to 18.21 g 100 g−1 DW input. The greatest extraction yield obtained was at 9 MPa separation pressure and 55 °C in the separation tank. In all obtained extracts, the contents of total phenols, flavonoids, tannins, and sugars were determined. The influence of the supercritical CO2 extraction conditions on the extract antioxidant capacity was evaluated using the quenching activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The chemical composition of the extracts was identified using both gas and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry methods, whereas analyses of major and minor elements as well as heavy metals by microwave plasma atomic emission spectrometer were provided. Moreover, extracts were compared with respect to their antimicrobial activity, as well as the cytotoxicity and phototoxicity of the extracts. The results revealed a considerable diversity in the phytochemical classes among all extracts investigated in the present study and showed that the Matricaria recutita white ray floret by-product possesses cytotoxic and proliferation-reducing activity in immortalized cell lines, as well as antimicrobial activity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper presenting such comprehensive data on the chemical profile, antioxidant properties, and biological properties of SFE derived from Matricaria recutita white ray florets. For the first time, these effects have been studied in processing by-products, and the results generated in this study provide valuable preconditions for further studies in specific test systems to fully elucidate the mechanisms of action and potential applications, such as potential use in cosmetic formulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Uses & Efficient Valorisation of Plant Biomass in Biorefinery Context)
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13 pages, 1113 KiB  
Article
Application of Baltic Pine (Pinus sylvestris) Needle Extract as a Gut Microbiota-Modulating Feed Supplement for Domestic Chickens (Gallus gallus)
by Juris Rubens, Juris Kibilds, Martins Jansons, Inga Piginka-Vjaceslavova, Ilze Barene, Irena Daberte, Laima Liepa, Aija Malniece, Arturs Rubens, Vytaute Starkute, Egle Zokaityte, Modestas Ruzauskas, Elena Bartkiene, Vadims Bartkevics and Iveta Pugajeva
Plants 2023, 12(2), 297; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12020297 - 8 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2065
Abstract
The valorization of wood industry residues is very desirable from a circular economy perspective. Pine needle extracts are known for their health-promoting properties and therefore can be used as herbal remedies and nutritional supplements. Since the withdrawal of antibiotics as growth promoters in [...] Read more.
The valorization of wood industry residues is very desirable from a circular economy perspective. Pine needle extracts are known for their health-promoting properties and therefore can be used as herbal remedies and nutritional supplements. Since the withdrawal of antibiotics as growth promoters in the European Union, natural feed additives that improve poultry health and production are needed. It was proposed that pine needle extract could be a good alternative to antibiotic usage at sub-therapeutic concentrations. The results relevant to our assumption could be obtained by using domestic chickens as an in vivo model for the evaluation of gut microbiota-altering properties of pine needle extract as an herbal supplement. We tested the antimicrobial effects of Baltic pine (Pinus sylvestris) needle extract. Then, we used chicken (Gallus gallus) that received feed supplemented with two different concentrations of the extract for 40 days to evaluate the changes in gut microbiota using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. This preliminary study demonstrated trends toward dose-dependent desirable changes in broiler microbiome, such as a reduction in the relative abundance of Campylobacter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Uses & Efficient Valorisation of Plant Biomass in Biorefinery Context)
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14 pages, 2149 KiB  
Article
Spent Coffee Grounds Valorization in Biorefinery Context to Obtain Valuable Products Using Different Extraction Approaches and Solvents
by Maris Lauberts, Inese Mierina, Matiss Pals, Mohammed Ammar Abdul Latheef and Andrei Shishkin
Plants 2023, 12(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12010030 - 22 Dec 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2983
Abstract
The valuable products that can be isolated from spent coffee ground (SCG) biomass consist of a high number of bioactive components, which are suitable for further application as raw materials in various production chains. This paper presents the potential value of the SCG [...] Read more.
The valuable products that can be isolated from spent coffee ground (SCG) biomass consist of a high number of bioactive components, which are suitable for further application as raw materials in various production chains. This paper presents the potential value of the SCG obtained from large and local coffee beverage producers, for the production of valuable, biologically active products. Despite its high potential, SCG has not been utilized to its full potential value, but is instead discarded as waste in landfills. During its decomposition, SCG emits a large amount of CO2 and methane each year. The main novelty of our work is the implementation of sequential extraction with solvents of increased polarity that allows for the maximal removal of the available extractives. In addition, we have compared different extraction techniques, such as conventional and Soxhlet extraction, with more effective accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), which has seen relatively little use in terms of SCG extraction. By comparing these extraction methods and highlighting the key differences between them in terms of extraction yield and obtained extract composition, this work offers key insights for further SCG utilization. By using sequential and one-step accelerated solvent extraction, it is possible to obtain a significant number of extractives from SCG, with a yield above 20% of the starting biomass. The highest yield is for coffee oil, which is obtained with n-hexane ranging between 12% and 14% using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) according to the scheme: n-hexane→ethyl acetate→60% ethanol. Using single-stage extraction, increasing the ethanol concentration also increases the total phenolic content (TPC) and it ranges between 18.7–23.9 Gallic acid equivalent (GAE) mg/g. The iodine values in the range of 164–174 using ASE and Soxhlet extraction shows that the hexane extracts contain a significant amount of unsaturated fatty acids; coffee oils with a low acid number, in the range of 4.74–6.93, contain few free fatty acids. The characterization of separated coffee oil has shown that it mainly consists of linoleic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid and a small number of phenolic-type compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Uses & Efficient Valorisation of Plant Biomass in Biorefinery Context)
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20 pages, 2533 KiB  
Article
Procyanidins from Cranberry Press Residues—Extraction Optimization, Purification and Characterization
by Linards Klavins, Ingus Perkons, Marcis Mezulis, Arturs Viksna and Maris Klavins
Plants 2022, 11(24), 3517; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11243517 - 14 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1886
Abstract
Procyanidins are a polyphenolic group that can be found in a variety of foods such as chocolate, tea, cranberries and others. Type A procyanidins can be found in a handful of sources and one of the richest sources are American cranberries. These compounds [...] Read more.
Procyanidins are a polyphenolic group that can be found in a variety of foods such as chocolate, tea, cranberries and others. Type A procyanidins can be found in a handful of sources and one of the richest sources are American cranberries. These compounds possess antioxidative, anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities and are most widely used as prevention for urinary tract infections. Cranberries are utilized for jam and juice production, and the latter produces industrial food waste press residues. Press residues contain free and bound procyanidins which can be extracted for use as nutraceuticals. In this study, the extraction of cranberry press residues has been optimized using RSM and the resulting extracts have been purified and fractionated. The obtained procyanidin fractions have been investigated for their antioxidative potential and analyzed using LC-ESI-FTICR-HRMS to determine individual procyanidins. The optimization showed that the optimal extraction can be conducted using acetone in a concentration of 53% without the addition of an acidifying agent. Strong correlation was observed for procyanidin contents and their antioxidative activity using DPPH, ABTS and FRAP methods. The purified fractions contained 78 individual (65 Type A) procyanidins with the degree of polymerization of up to 9. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Uses & Efficient Valorisation of Plant Biomass in Biorefinery Context)
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18 pages, 2675 KiB  
Article
Combined Thermomechanical–Biological Treatment for Corn By-Product Valorization into Added-Value Food (Feed) Material
by Elena Bartkiene, Vytaute Starkute, Egle Zokaityte, Dovile Klupsaite, Vadims Bartkevics, Gintare Zokaityte, Darius Cernauskas, Modestas Ruzauskas, Romas Ruibys and Arturs Viksna
Plants 2022, 11(22), 3080; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11223080 - 14 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1405
Abstract
The aim of this study was to apply the combined thermomechanical–biological treatment for corn processing by-product (CPBP) valorization to added-value food and feed material. The mechanical–thermal pre-treatment was performed by applying the extrusion technique. Extruded CPBPs (14, 16, and 18% moisture) were further [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to apply the combined thermomechanical–biological treatment for corn processing by-product (CPBP) valorization to added-value food and feed material. The mechanical–thermal pre-treatment was performed by applying the extrusion technique. Extruded CPBPs (14, 16, and 18% moisture) were further biodegraded with Lactiplantibacillus plantarum-LUHS122 (Lpl), Liquorilactobacillus uvarum-LUHS245 (Lu), Lacticaseibacillus casei-LUHS210 (Lc), and Lacticaseibacillus paracasei-LUHS244 (Lpa). Acidity parameters, microbial characteristics, sugars concentration, amino and fatty acids profile, biogenic amines (BA), and antibacterial and antifungal properties of CPBP were analyzed. Fermented CPBP had a reduced count of mould/yeast. A significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05) count of total enterobacteria was found in most of the extruded–fermented CPBP. Fermentation of extruded CPBP (moisture of 16 and 18%) increased valine and methionine content. Cadaverine and spermidine were not found after treatment of CPBP, and the lowest content of BA was found in the extruded–fermented (Lpa, moisture 18%) CPBP. Applied treatment had a significant effect on most of the fatty acids. CPBP fermented with Lpl, Lu, and Lpa displayed inhibition properties against 3 of the 10 tested pathogenic/opportunistic bacterial strains. Extruded–fermented (Lu, Lc, and Lpa moisture of 14 and 18%) CPBP showed antifungal activity against Rhizopus. Extruded–fermented (14% moisture, Lpl) CPBP inhibited Rhizopus and Aspergillus fumigatus. In conclusion, combined treatment can improve certain parameters and properties of CPBP in order to produce safer and more nutritious ingredients for food and feed industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Uses & Efficient Valorisation of Plant Biomass in Biorefinery Context)
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20 pages, 2664 KiB  
Article
Microwave-Assisted Water Extraction of Aspen (Populus tremula) and Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) Barks as a Tool for Their Valorization
by Matiss Pals, Liga Lauberte, Jevgenija Ponomarenko, Maris Lauberts and Alexander Arshanitsa
Plants 2022, 11(12), 1544; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11121544 - 9 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1897
Abstract
The barks of aspen (Populus tremula) and pine (Pinus sylvestris) are byproducts of wood processing, characterized by their low economic value. In the present study, microwave-assisted one-cycle water extraction was explored as a tool for the valorization of this biomass [...] Read more.
The barks of aspen (Populus tremula) and pine (Pinus sylvestris) are byproducts of wood processing, characterized by their low economic value. In the present study, microwave-assisted one-cycle water extraction was explored as a tool for the valorization of this biomass as a source of biologically active compounds. The microwave extractor of the original construction equipped with a pressurized extraction chamber and a condenser section was used. The microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), specially including dynamic dielectric heating up to 70 °C followed by 30 min of isothermal heating, promoted the isolation of salicin from aspen bark, allowing for the obtention of a two-times-higher free salicin concentration in water extracts (−14% vs. 7%) reached by multi-cycle accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), which is an advanced technique used as a reference. The MAE of pine bark with dynamic heating up to 90–130 °C, avoiding the isothermal heating step, allowed for the obtention of a 1.7-times-higher concentration of proantocyanidin dimers-tetramers, a 1.3-times-higher concentration of catechin and a 1.2-times-higher concentration of quinic acid in water extracts in comparison to a more time- and solvent-consuming ASE performed at the same temperature. The biological activity of the obtained extracts was characterized in terms of their ability to inhibit xahntine oxidase enzyme, which is a validated target for the therapeutic treatment of hyperuricemia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Uses & Efficient Valorisation of Plant Biomass in Biorefinery Context)
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