Special Issue "Management of Verticillium Wilt Disease"
Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2020.
Interests: biological control; epigenetics; microbial volatile organic conmpounds; plant–microbe interactions; soil-borne diseases
Interests: banana; beneficial endophytes; biological control; integrated disease management; olive; omics; plant–microbe interactions; Pseudomonas; Rhizosphere microbiology; soil-borne diseases
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Special Issue in Forests: Linking Belowground Biodiversity and Ecosystem Function in Woody Agroecosystems
Verticillium wilt disease has been the subject of various investigations throughout many years; however, it remains a major economic challenge in cropping systems across the world. The genus Verticillium consists of phytopathogenic species that cause vascular wilts in plants. The most significant species are V. dahliae, V. albo-atrum, and V. longisporum. The fungus survives in the soil, mainly in the form of microsclerotia, invades the plant through the root system, colonizes the vasculature, and eventually leads to plant death. Due to its prolonged survival in the field in the absence of a host, wide host range, inaccessibility during infection, and limited resistance in host germplasm, the genus Verticillium causes heavy economic losses in annual and perennial crops worldwide.
Verticillium wilt disease management is based on soil fumigation, when no resistant varieties exist, but methyl bromide, the most efficient fumigant, has been banned due to its toxic and adverse environmental effects. Once the pathogen enters the plant, it is inaccessible to chemicals. Therefore, we should consider novel sustainable integrated disease management strategies based on advanced chemical, biochemical, and molecular methodologies. This Special Issue of Plants will highlight cultural practices minimizing the primary Verticillium inoculum in the field, Verticillium–host plant interactions underlying resistance, early detection methods of Verticillium wilt, novel chemicals, biological control agents, and integrated disease management strategies.
Dr. Sotiris Tjamos
Dr. Jesus Mercado-Blanco
Manuscript Submission Information
Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.
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- Verticillium spp.
- detection methods
- chemical control
- biological control
- plant–pathogen interactions
- resistant varieties
- integrated disease management strategies
The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.
Tentative title: Crop rotation modifies soil microbial communities affecting Verticillium dahliae disease in cotton crops
Authors: Vadakattu VSR Gupta, Linda Smith et al.
Abstract: Soilborne diseases such as Verticillium wilt have significant impact on cotton production in Australia. Currently there are limited management options to reduce disease impacts through the selection of genetically resistant cultivars and agrochemical application. Biological disease suppression mediated by soil microorganisms can assist farmers in reducing the disease impacts on cotton production through crop management. We present results from a multi-season field experiment in Australia investigating the impact of crop rotations on microbial diversity and activity and its implications to pathogen and disease suppression. Overall, our results suggest that soil ecological and environmental factors and filtering processes related to substrate quality and availability, spatially and temporally, play a significant role in shaping soil microbial communities and their functionality.
Title: Polyphenolic compounds in the resistance response to the verticillium wilt of hop and their antifungal activity
Authors: Sabina Berne 1; Nataša Kovačević 1; Branka Javornik 1; Sebastjan Radišek 2
Affiliation: 1 Department of Agronomy, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeava 101, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia 2 Slovenian Institute of Hop Research and Brewing, Cesta Žalskega tabora 2, 3310 Žalec, Slovenia
Abstract: Verticillium wilt (VW) of hop is a devastating disease caused by the soil-borne fungi Verticillium nonalfalfae and Verticillium dahliae. To date, despite decades of intense research, breeding of resistant hop varieties remains the most effective measure for controlling this disease. As suggested by QTL mapping and RNA-Seq analyses, the underlying molecular mechanisms of resistance in hop are complex, consisting of preformed and induced defence responses, including the synthesis of diverse phenolic compounds. Here, we determined the total polyphenolic content in root and stem samples of 15 hop varieties in correlation to VW resistance. In addition, we examined the changes in the total polyphenolic content of VW resistant and susceptible hop varieties upon infection with lethal V. nonalfalfae strain T2. Moreover, we measured the antifungal activity of selected commercial phenolic compounds and total polyphenols extracted from resistant and susceptible hop varieties on the growth of lethal (T2) and mild (Rec) strains of V. nonalfalfae. Our results show that the total polyphenol content was higher in hop roots than in stems, with difference being more pronounced at the beginning of hop growing season, and the amount increasing with the duration of growing season. The highest amount of polyphenols was determined in the resistant variety 'Wye Target' but, upon infection, the total polyphenol content decreased in all tested varieties. The highest inhibition of fungal growth was measured upon treatment with p-coumaric acid and tyrosol. The total polyphenolic extracts from resistant and susceptible hop on the growth of mild and lethal isolates of V. nonalfalfae had very similar antifungal activity. In conclusion, appart for the highly resistant variety 'Wye Target', we could not find a good correlation between the polyphenolic content and VW resistance. Contrary, we observed that the total polyphenolic content in all tested hop varieties decreased upon infection with V. nonalfalfae, suggesting fungus likely possesses certain detoxifying mechanisms to counter hop antifungal polyphenolic compounds.
Title: The ethylene biosynthesis genes ACS2 and ACS6 act as negative regulators of disease resistance against Verticillium dahliae
Authors: Eirini G. Poulaki; Danai Gkizi; Sotirios E. Tjamos
Affiliation: Laboratory of Plant Pathology, Agricultural University of Athens, Athens, Greece
Abstract: Verticillium dahliae is one of the most destructive soilborne plant pathogen, since it has a broad host range and there is no chemical disease management. Therefore, there is a need to unravel the molecular interaction between the pathogen and the host plant. For this purpose, we examined the role of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthases (ACSs) upon V. dahliae infection. We observed that the acs2, acs6 and acs2/6 plants are partially resistant to V. dahliae, since the disease severity of the acs mutants was lower than the wt Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 plants. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that acs2, acs6 and acs2/6 plants had lower endophytic levels of V. dahliae than the wt. Therefore, the observed reduction of the disease severity in the acs mutants is rather associated with resistance than tolerance. Furthermore, it was shown that ACS2 and ACS6 were up-regulated upon V. dahliae infection in the root and the above ground tissues of the wt plants.
Title: Verticillium Wilt of Mint in the United States
Authors: Jeremiah K.S. Dung
Affiliation: Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Central Oregon Agricultural Research and Extension Center, Oregon State University, Madras, OR, USA
Abstract: Verticillium wilt, caused by the fungus Verticillium dahliae, is the most important and destructive disease of mint (Mentha spp.) in the United States (U.S.). The disease was first reported from commercial mint fields in the Midwestern U.S. in the 1920’s and, by the 1950’s, the disease was observed in mint producing regions of the U.S. Pacific Northwest. Verticillium wilt continues to be a major limiting factor in commercial peppermint (M. x piperita) and Scotch spearmint (M. x gracilis) production, two of the most important sources of mint oil in the U.S. The perennial aspect of U.S. mint production, coupled with the soilborne, polyetic nature of V. dahliae, makes controlling Verticillium wilt in mint a challenge. Studies investigating the biology and genetics of the fungus, the molecular mechanisms of virulence and resistance, and the role of soil microbiota in modulating host-pathogen interactions are needed to improve our understanding of Verticillium wilt epidemiology and inform novel disease management strategies. This review will discuss the history and importance of Verticillium wilt in commercial U.S. mint production, as well as provide a format to highlight past and recent research advances in an effort to better understand and manage the disease.