Special Issue "Advances in Citrus Research"

A special issue of Plants (ISSN 2223-7747).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 January 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Daniel K. Owens
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Molecular Biosciences and Bioengineering, University of Hawai’i at Manoa, Honolulu, USA
Interests: plant biochemistry; phytochemistry; plant natural products; enzymology; metabolon

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Citrus is an enduring crop that has been cultivated for centuries as a food source due to its nourishing fruit as well as nutritional, health, and other related benefits. Citrus species are indigenous to the subtropical/tropical regions of Asia, Melanesia, and Australia, with domestication being hypothesized to have occurred in ancient times. Subsequent introduction throughout the world likely resulted from human migration and settlement. Citrus remains an important commercial commodity in the modern world, conveying a high value in international trade, with Citrus sinensis (orange) fruit and processed products (e.g., juices, flavorings, cosmetics, air fresheners) accounting for the majority of worldwide production. More than 20 countries cultivate citrus, with Brazil, India, China, Mexico, and the United States typically representing the top orange-producing countries in terms of acreage. In the United States, citrus production is highest overall in Florida, followed by California, Arizona, and Texas, with a commercial value normally greater than $3 billion annually.

Huanglongbing (HLB), also known as citrus greening disease, has had a dramatic impact on the profitability of citrus worldwide by ruining millions of acres of citrus crops, initially by inducing the production of unmarketable fruit and ultimately resulting in tree death. HLB is known to be the result of an extremely damaging bacterial infection spread by an insect vector, the Asian citrus psyllid. HLB was identified in the United States initially in Florida in 1998 and has since spread rapidly across citrus producing states. Much of the recent progress in citrus research has focused on limiting proliferation and overcoming this crippling disease.

Citrus species have a chemical complement rich in nutrients and related compounds such as calcium, magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, ascorbic acid (Vitamin C), folate (Vitamin B9), niacin (Vitamin B3), pyridoxine (Vitamin B6), riboflavin (Vitamin B2), and thiamin (Vitamin B1) that are beneficial for humans. Additionally, citrus contains a broad assortment of bioactive natural products such as alkaloids, carotenoids, coumarins, flavonoids, limonoids, and simple phenolics. Many of these secondary metabolites have identified antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities as well as anticancer, cardiovascular protective, and neuroprotective benefits. These compounds can also have other critical medicinal implications. For example, furanocoumarins have been identified as the primary causative agents of the “grapefruit effect”, whereby certain citrus juices and products can inhibit the action of P450 enzymes, influencing the effective dosage of medications by slowing their normal metabolism to inactive forms. Flavonoid compounds have also been a particular focus for study as, in addition to their medicinal effects, they directly impact the marketability of citrus fruit and products by influencing taste and other organoleptic properties.

Considering the historic as well as modern versatility of citrus, this Special Issue of Plants will examine recent advances in research with these species across a variety of scientific disciplines.

Dr. Daniel K. Owens
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Plants is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


  • agrosecurity
  • biosynthesis
  • crop production
  • metabolic organization
  • natural products
  • pharmacology

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Open AccessArticle
Magnesium-Deficiency Effects on Pigments, Photosynthesis and Photosynthetic Electron Transport of Leaves, and Nutrients of Leaf Blades and Veins in Citrus sinensis Seedlings
Plants 2019, 8(10), 389; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8100389 - 30 Sep 2019
Citrus sinensis seedlings were irrigated with nutrient solution at a concentration of 0 (Mg-deficiency) or 2 (Mg-sufficiency) mM Mg (NO3)2 for 16 weeks. Mg-deficiency-induced interveinal chlorosis, vein enlargement and corkiness, and alterations of gas exchange, pigments, chlorophyll a fluorescence (OJIP) [...] Read more.
Citrus sinensis seedlings were irrigated with nutrient solution at a concentration of 0 (Mg-deficiency) or 2 (Mg-sufficiency) mM Mg (NO3)2 for 16 weeks. Mg-deficiency-induced interveinal chlorosis, vein enlargement and corkiness, and alterations of gas exchange, pigments, chlorophyll a fluorescence (OJIP) transients and related parameters were observed in middle and lower leaves, especially in the latter, but not in upper leaves. Mg-deficiency might impair the whole photosynthetic electron transport, including structural damage to thylakoids, ungrouping of photosystem II (PSII), inactivation of oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) and reaction centers (RCs), increased reduction of primary quinone electron acceptor (QA) and plastoquinone pool at PSII acceptor side and oxidation of PSI end-electron acceptors, thus lowering energy transfer and absorption efficiency and the transfer of electrons to the dark reactions, hence, the rate of CO2 assimilation in Mg-deficiency middle and lower leaves. Although potassium, Mg, manganese and zinc concentration in blades displayed a significant and positive relationship with the corresponding element concentration in veins, respectively, great differences existed in Mg-deficiency-induced alterations of nutrient concentrations between leaf blades and veins. For example, Mg-deficiency increased boron level in the blades of upper leaves, decreased boron level in the blades of lower leaves, but did not affect boron level in the blades of middle leaves and veins of upper, middle and lower leaves. To conclude, Mg-deficiency-induced interveinal chlorosis, vein enlargement, and corkiness, and alterations to photosynthesis and related parameters increased with increasing leaf age. Mg-deficiency-induced enlargement and corkiness of veins were not caused by Mg-deficiency-induced boron-starvation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Citrus Research)
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