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Magnesium-Deficiency Effects on Pigments, Photosynthesis and Photosynthetic Electron Transport of Leaves, and Nutrients of Leaf Blades and Veins in Citrus sinensis Seedlings

1
Institute of Plant Nutritional Physiology and Molecular Biology, College of Resources and Environment, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China
2
Guangxi Key Laboratory of Citrus Biology, Guangxi Academy of Specialty Crops, Guilin 541004, China
3
Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Soil Environmental Health and Regulation, College of Resources and Environment, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China
4
Key Lab of Soil Ecosystem Health and Regulation (Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University), Fujian Province University, Fuzhou 350002, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Plants 2019, 8(10), 389; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8100389
Received: 11 September 2019 / Revised: 23 September 2019 / Accepted: 29 September 2019 / Published: 30 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Citrus Research)
Citrus sinensis seedlings were irrigated with nutrient solution at a concentration of 0 (Mg-deficiency) or 2 (Mg-sufficiency) mM Mg (NO3)2 for 16 weeks. Mg-deficiency-induced interveinal chlorosis, vein enlargement and corkiness, and alterations of gas exchange, pigments, chlorophyll a fluorescence (OJIP) transients and related parameters were observed in middle and lower leaves, especially in the latter, but not in upper leaves. Mg-deficiency might impair the whole photosynthetic electron transport, including structural damage to thylakoids, ungrouping of photosystem II (PSII), inactivation of oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) and reaction centers (RCs), increased reduction of primary quinone electron acceptor (QA) and plastoquinone pool at PSII acceptor side and oxidation of PSI end-electron acceptors, thus lowering energy transfer and absorption efficiency and the transfer of electrons to the dark reactions, hence, the rate of CO2 assimilation in Mg-deficiency middle and lower leaves. Although potassium, Mg, manganese and zinc concentration in blades displayed a significant and positive relationship with the corresponding element concentration in veins, respectively, great differences existed in Mg-deficiency-induced alterations of nutrient concentrations between leaf blades and veins. For example, Mg-deficiency increased boron level in the blades of upper leaves, decreased boron level in the blades of lower leaves, but did not affect boron level in the blades of middle leaves and veins of upper, middle and lower leaves. To conclude, Mg-deficiency-induced interveinal chlorosis, vein enlargement, and corkiness, and alterations to photosynthesis and related parameters increased with increasing leaf age. Mg-deficiency-induced enlargement and corkiness of veins were not caused by Mg-deficiency-induced boron-starvation. View Full-Text
Keywords: Citrus sinensis; leaf blade; magnesium (Mg)-deficiency; OJIP transient; photosynthesis; vein enlargement and corkiness Citrus sinensis; leaf blade; magnesium (Mg)-deficiency; OJIP transient; photosynthesis; vein enlargement and corkiness
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Ye, X.; Chen, X.-F.; Deng, C.-L.; Yang, L.-T.; Lai, N.-W.; Guo, J.-X.; Chen, L.-S. Magnesium-Deficiency Effects on Pigments, Photosynthesis and Photosynthetic Electron Transport of Leaves, and Nutrients of Leaf Blades and Veins in Citrus sinensis Seedlings. Plants 2019, 8, 389.

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