Cereal Fungal Diseases: Etiology, Breeding, and Integrated Management

A special issue of Plants (ISSN 2223-7747). This special issue belongs to the section "Plant Protection and Biotic Interactions".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2022) | Viewed by 10787

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Institute of Plant Genetics, Breeding and Biotechnology, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Akademicka 15, 20-950 Lublin, Poland
Interests: resistance; powdery mildew; molecular markers; crops; genetic diversity; population structure
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Plant Genetics, Breeding and Biotechnology, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Akademicka 15, 20-950 Lublin, Poland
Interests: plant genetics; biotic; abiotic stress; molecular markers
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Plant Genetics, Breeding and Biotechnology, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Akademicka 15, 20-950 Lublin, Poland
Interests: genetics, plant biotechnology; molecular markers, next-generation sequencing; powdery mildew, oat
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Diseases caused by fungal pathogens contribute to a significant reduction in the yield of cereals. Limiting and combating fungal diseases is a difficult and multilevel process. Effective plant protection methods require the characterization and control of fungal pathogen populations, as well as the identification and characterization of new, effective sources of resistance.

Monitoring changes in pathogen populations allows us to postulate the speed of breaking down resistance genes in plants, while the genetic and molecular characteristics of resistance genes allow planning effective plant protection strategies related to, for example, gene pyramidization.

Therefore, in this Special Edition of Plants, we aim to approach the subject comprehensively, publishing research results in the field of:

  • The etiology of individual fungal diseases;
  • Characteristics and dynamics of changes taking place in the population of pathogens;
  • The diversity of pathogen populations at different levels of genetic information;
  • The interaction of the plant and the pathogen during infection;
  • New sources of resistance; identification, characteristics, methods allowing for their identification;
  • Integrated disease management strategies using agricultural practices.

Prof. Dr. Sylwia Magdalena Okoń
Prof. Dr. Krzysztof Kowalczyk
Dr. Tomasz Ociepa
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • plant genetics
  • resistance
  • virulence
  • cereals
  • molecular biology
  • pathogen populations
  • fungal diseases

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

7 pages, 956 KiB  
Communication
The Use of Real-Time PCR for the Pathogen Quantification in Breeding Winter Wheat Varieties Resistant to Eyespot
by Jana Palicová, Pavel Matušinsky, Veronika Dumalasová, Alena Hanzalová, Ivana Svačinová and Jana Chrpová
Plants 2022, 11(11), 1495; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11111495 - 2 Jun 2022
Viewed by 1533
Abstract
The reaction of twenty-five winter wheat cultivars frequently grown in the Czech Republic to inoculation with Oculimacula yallundae and Oculimacula acuformis was evaluated in small plot trials from 2019 to 2021. The eyespot infection assessment was carried out visually using symptoms on stem [...] Read more.
The reaction of twenty-five winter wheat cultivars frequently grown in the Czech Republic to inoculation with Oculimacula yallundae and Oculimacula acuformis was evaluated in small plot trials from 2019 to 2021. The eyespot infection assessment was carried out visually using symptoms on stem bases and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The cultivars were also tested for the presence of the resistance gene Pch1 using the STS marker Xorw1. Statistical differences were found between cultivars and between years. The lowest mean level of eyespot infection (2019–2021) was visually observed in cultivar Annie, which possessed resistance gene Pch1, and in cultivar Julie. Cultivars Turandot and RGT Sacramento were the most susceptible to eyespot. The method qPCR was able to distinguish two eyespot pathogens. O. yallundae was detected in higher concentrations in inoculated plants compared with O. acuformis. The relationship between the eyespot symptoms and the pathogen’s DNA content in plant tissues followed a moderate linear regression only in 2021. The highest eyespot infection rate was in 2020 due to weather conditions suitable for the development of the disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cereal Fungal Diseases: Etiology, Breeding, and Integrated Management)
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13 pages, 957 KiB  
Article
Virulence Structure and Genetic Diversity of Blumeria graminis f. sp. avenae from Different Regions of Europe
by Magdalena Cieplak, Aleksandra Nucia, Tomasz Ociepa and Sylwia Okoń
Plants 2022, 11(10), 1358; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11101358 - 20 May 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2132
Abstract
The structure and dynamics of changes in pathogen populations can be analysed by assessing the level of virulence and genetic diversity. The aim of the present study was to determine the diversity of Blumeria graminis f. sp. avenae populations. Diversity and virulence of [...] Read more.
The structure and dynamics of changes in pathogen populations can be analysed by assessing the level of virulence and genetic diversity. The aim of the present study was to determine the diversity of Blumeria graminis f. sp. avenae populations. Diversity and virulence of B. graminis f. sp. avenae was assessed based on 80 single-spore isolates collected in different European countries such as Poland (40 isolates), Germany (10), Finland (10), Czech Republic (10) and Ireland (10) using ISSR (Inter-Simple Sequence Repeats) and SCoT (Start Codon Targeted) markers. This work demonstrated differences in virulence of B. graminis f. sp. avenae isolates sampled from different countries. Molecular analysis showed that both systems were useful for assessing genetic diversity, but ISSR markers were superior and generated more polymorphic products, as well as higher PIC and RP values. UPMGA and PCoA divided the isolates into groups corresponding with their geographical origin. In conclusion, the low level of genetic differentiation of the analysed isolates has suggested that the evolution of B. graminis f. sp. Avenae population is slow, and thus the evolutionary potential of the pathogen is low. This work paves the way for future studies on B. graminis f. sp. Avenae population structure and dynamics based on genetic variability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cereal Fungal Diseases: Etiology, Breeding, and Integrated Management)
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25 pages, 3179 KiB  
Article
Silicon Dioxide Nanoparticles Induce Innate Immune Responses and Activate Antioxidant Machinery in Wheat Against Rhizoctonia solani
by Abdelrazek S. Abdelrhim, Yasser S. A. Mazrou, Yasser Nehela, Osama O. Atallah, Ranya M. El-Ashmony and Mona F. A. Dawood
Plants 2021, 10(12), 2758; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10122758 - 14 Dec 2021
Cited by 36 | Viewed by 4332
Abstract
The phytopathogenic basidiomycetous fungus, Rhizoctonia solani, has a wide range of host plants including members of the family Poaceae, causing damping-off and root rot diseases. In this study, we biosynthesized spherical-shaped silicon dioxide nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs; sized between 9.92 and 19.8 [...] Read more.
The phytopathogenic basidiomycetous fungus, Rhizoctonia solani, has a wide range of host plants including members of the family Poaceae, causing damping-off and root rot diseases. In this study, we biosynthesized spherical-shaped silicon dioxide nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs; sized between 9.92 and 19.8 nm) using saffron extract and introduced them as a potential alternative therapeutic solution to protect wheat seedlings against R. solani. SiO2 NPs showed strong dose-dependent fungistatic activity on R. solani, and significantly reduced mycelial radial growth (up to 100% growth reduction), mycelium fresh and dry weight, and pre-, post-emergence damping-off, and root rot severities. Moreover, the impact of SiO2 NPs on the growth of wheat seedlings and their potential mechanism (s) for disease suppression was deciphered. SiO2 NPs application also improved the germination, vegetative growth, and vigor indexes of infected wheat seedlings which indicates no phytotoxicity on treated wheat seedlings. Moreover, SiO2 NPs enhanced the content of the photosynthetic pigments (chlorophylls and carotenoids), induced the accumulation of defense-related compounds (particularly salicylic acid), and alleviated the oxidative stress via stimulation of both enzymatic (POD, SOD, APX, CAT, and PPO) and non-enzymatic (phenolics and flavonoids) antioxidant defense machinery. Collectively, our findings demonstrated the potential therapeutic role of SiO2 NPs against R. solani infection via the simultaneous activation of a multilayered defense system to suppress the pathogen, neutralize the destructive effect of ROS, lipid peroxidation, and methylglyoxal, and maintain their homeostasis within R. solani-infected plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cereal Fungal Diseases: Etiology, Breeding, and Integrated Management)
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17 pages, 30813 KiB  
Article
Durability of Adult Plant Resistance Gene Yr18 in Partial Resistance Behavior of Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Genotypes with Different Degrees of Tolerance to Stripe Rust Disease, Caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici: A Five-Year Study
by Ghady E. Omar, Yasser S. A. Mazrou, Mohammad K. EL-Kazzaz, Kamal E. Ghoniem, Mammduh A. Ashmawy, Amero A. Emeran, Ola I. Mabrouk and Yasser Nehela
Plants 2021, 10(11), 2262; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10112262 - 22 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2043
Abstract
Adult plant resistance in wheat is an achievement of the breeding objective because of its durability in comparison with race-specific resistance. Partial resistance to wheat stripe rust disease was evaluated under greenhouse and field conditions during the period from 2016 to 2021. Misr [...] Read more.
Adult plant resistance in wheat is an achievement of the breeding objective because of its durability in comparison with race-specific resistance. Partial resistance to wheat stripe rust disease was evaluated under greenhouse and field conditions during the period from 2016 to 2021. Misr 3, Sakha 95, and Giza 171 were the highest effective wheat genotypes against Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici races. Under greenhouse genotypes, Sakha 94, Giza 168, and Shandaweel1 were moderately susceptible, had the longest latent period and lowest values of the length of stripes and infection frequency at the adult stage. Partial resistance levels under field conditions were assessed, genotypes Sakha 94, Giza 168, and Shandaweel1 exhibited partial resistance against the disease. Leaf tip necrosis (LTN) was noted positively in three genotypes Sakha 94, Sakha 95, and Shandaweel1. Molecular analyses of Yr18 were performed for csLV34, cssfr1, and cssfr2 markers. Only Sakha 94 and Shandaweel1 proved to carry the Yr18 resistance allele at both phenotypic and genotypic levels. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observed that the susceptible genotypes were colonized extensively on leaves, but on the slow-rusting genotype, the pustules were much less in number, diminutive, and poorly sporulation, which is similar to the pustule of NIL Jupateco73 ‘R’. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cereal Fungal Diseases: Etiology, Breeding, and Integrated Management)
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