Floral Biology 3.0

A special issue of Plants (ISSN 2223-7747). This special issue belongs to the section "Plant Development and Morphogenesis".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 July 2024 | Viewed by 1386

Special Issue Editor

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Pécs, Rókus utca 2, H-7624 Pécs, Hungary
Interests: floral and pollination biology of medicinal plants and fruit trees; chemical composition of floral nectar and honey; bioactivity of honey
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Floral biology covers a wide array of topics, including the morphology and anatomy of floral parts, pollination by different pollen vectors, the floral rewards pollen and nectar, as well as the reproductive strategies of a plant species.

This field raises important issues such as the close relationship between flower structure and function, the adaptation of plants to pollinators with their floral traits, the backgrounds and consequences of floral polymorphisms, including the issue of incompatibility, as well as the balance between fitness and resource allocation. In addition, floral biology has numerous practical implications: flower traits affect fruit yield and quality, which are essential in horticulture and crop production; the survival of bee colonies and honey production are determined by the quantity and quality of floral nectar and pollen; flowers can be important sources of medicinally significant chemical substances; floriculture requires breeding new varieties; and there is a growing interest in edible flowers, which in turn raises safety issues.

The study of floral biology requires a multidisciplinary approach, involving anatomy, biochemistry, botany, ethology, entomology, molecular biology, and analytical chemistry. In accordance, this Special Issue will cover a wide variety of areas connected to any aspect of floral biology, aiming to contribute to our overall knowledge of plant diversity and the importance of adaptation to changing circumstances.

Plants will soon be publishing the third edition of the Special Issue on “Floral Biology”. In this Special Issue, original research papers, reviews, methodological papers, and perspectives focusing on various aspects of floral biology are most welcome.

Dr. Agnes Farkas
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Plants is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • bee
  • compatibility
  • nectar
  • nectary
  • pollen
  • pollination
  • pollen vector
  • reproductive biology
  • resource
  • reward

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

17 pages, 2315 KiB  
Article
Two Growing-Season Warming Partly Promoted Growth but Decreased Reproduction and Ornamental Value of Impatiens oxyanthera
Plants 2024, 13(4), 511; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants13040511 - 12 Feb 2024
Viewed by 438
Abstract
Climate warming profoundly affects the vegetative growth, flowering phenology and sexual reproduction of plants; therefore, it affects the ornamental value of wild flowers. Despite this, the extent and mechanism of the impact remain unclear. Here, we conducted a warming experiment for two growing [...] Read more.
Climate warming profoundly affects the vegetative growth, flowering phenology and sexual reproduction of plants; therefore, it affects the ornamental value of wild flowers. Despite this, the extent and mechanism of the impact remain unclear. Here, we conducted a warming experiment for two growing seasons (increases of 1.89 °C in 2017 and 2.37 °C in 2018) with infrared heaters to examine the effects of warming on the ornamental value of the wild flower Impatiens oxyanthera, endemic to China, in Mount Emei. We evaluated the comprehensive ornamental value based on plant morphology and flowering characteristics using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and disentangled the impact of the two traits on ornamental value using principal component analysis (PCA) and the partial least squares structural equation model (PLS-SEM) under ambient and warming treatments. We hypothesized that warming would reduce the ornamental value of I. oxyanthera in terms of plant morphology and flowering traits. Our results showed that warming significantly decreased plant height and crown width and increased branch number and single-leaf area. Warming also decreased vexillum length, corolla tube length, nectar spur length and pedicel length. In addition, warming shortened flowering duration per plant and reduced flower number, while there was no significant effect on flower longevity and flower color at full-bloom stage between the control and warming treatment. Therefore, the comprehensive ornamental value under warming was lower than that under the control. Pedicel length, flower color, flower longevity and flowering duration per plant were the main factors affecting the comprehensive ornamental value. The PLS-SEM showed that warming had an indirect negative effect on ornamental value via direct negative effects on flowering traits. Collectively, these results indicate that, although promoting vegetative growth, short-term warming significantly decreased the ornamental value of I. oxyanthera due to warming-caused smaller flowers and shorter flowering duration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Floral Biology 3.0)
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20 pages, 7234 KiB  
Article
Multi-Omics Analysis Revealed the AGR-FC.C3 Locus of Brassica napus as a Novel Candidate for Controlling Petal Color
Plants 2024, 13(4), 507; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants13040507 - 11 Feb 2024
Viewed by 437
Abstract
Variations in the petal color of Brassica napus are crucial for ornamental value, but the controlled loci for breeding remain to be unraveled. Here, we report a candidate locus, AGR-FC.C3, having conducted a bulked segregant analysis on a segregating population with different [...] Read more.
Variations in the petal color of Brassica napus are crucial for ornamental value, but the controlled loci for breeding remain to be unraveled. Here, we report a candidate locus, AGR-FC.C3, having conducted a bulked segregant analysis on a segregating population with different petal colors. Our results showed that the locus covers 9.46 Mb of the genome, harboring 951 genes. BnaC03.MYB4, BnaC03.MYB85, BnaC03.MYB73, BnaC03.MYB98, and BnaC03.MYB102 belonging to MYB TFs families that might regulate the petal color were observed. Next, a bulk RNA sequencing of white and orange-yellow petals on three development stages was performed to further identify the possible governed genes. The results revealed a total of 51 genes by overlapping the transcriptome data and the bulked segregant analysis data, and it was found that the expression of BnaC03.CCD4 was significantly up-regulated in the white petals at three development stages. Then, several novel candidate genes such as BnaC03.ENDO3, BnaC03.T22F8.180, BnaC03.F15C21.8, BnaC03.Q8GSI6, BnaC03.LSD1, BnaC03.MAP1Da, BnaC03.MAP1Db, and BnaC03G0739700ZS putative to controlling the petal color were identified through deeper analysis. Furthermo re, we have developed two molecular markers for the reported functional gene BnaC03.CCD4 to discriminate the white and orange-yellow petal colors. Our results provided a novel locus for breeding rapeseed with multi-color petals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Floral Biology 3.0)
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18 pages, 5128 KiB  
Article
Hormonal Regulation and Transcriptomic Insights into Flower Development in Hydrangea paniculata ‘Vanilla Strawberry’
Plants 2024, 13(4), 486; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants13040486 - 08 Feb 2024
Viewed by 396
Abstract
Understanding the molecular mechanisms that regulate flower growth, development, and opening is of paramount importance, yet these processes remain less explored at the genetic level. Flower development in Hydrangea paniculata ‘Vanilla Strawberry’ is finely tuned through hormonal signals, yet the genetic underpinnings are [...] Read more.
Understanding the molecular mechanisms that regulate flower growth, development, and opening is of paramount importance, yet these processes remain less explored at the genetic level. Flower development in Hydrangea paniculata ‘Vanilla Strawberry’ is finely tuned through hormonal signals, yet the genetic underpinnings are not well defined. This study addresses the gap by examining the influence of gibberellic acid (GA3), salicylic acid (SA), and ethylene (ETH) on the flowering traits and underlying molecular responses. Treatment with 100 mg/L SA significantly improved chlorophyll content and bolstered the accumulation of soluble sugars and proteins, advancing the flowering onset by 6 days and lengthening the flowering period by 11 days. Concurrently, this treatment enhanced inflorescence dimensions, increasing length, width, and petal area by 22.76%, 26.74%, and 27.45%, respectively. Contrastingly, 100 mg/L GA3 expanded inflorescence size but postponed flowering initiation and decreased inflorescence count. Higher concentrations of SA and GA3, as well as any concentration of ETH, resulted in delayed flowering and inferior inflorescence attributes. A physiological analysis over 50 days revealed that these regulators variably affected sugar and protein levels and modified antioxidant enzyme activities. An RNA-seq analysis during floral development highlighted significant transcriptomic reprogramming, with SA treatment downregulating Myb transcription factors, implicating them in the modulation of flowering timing and stress adaptation. These findings illuminate the complex interplay between hormonal treatments, gene expression, and flowering phenotypes in Hydrangea paniculata, offering valuable perspectives for ornamental horticulture optimization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Floral Biology 3.0)
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