Special Issue "Nonlinear Fiber Optics"

A special issue of Photonics (ISSN 2304-6732).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 June 2015).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Francesco Prudenzano
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Electrical and Information Engineering, Polytechnic University of Bari, Via Orabona, 4-70125 Bari, Italy
Interests: rare earth doped fiber laser and amplifier; photonic crystal fibers (PCF); substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) devices; microresonators; optical and microwave device modeling and characterization
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

High power and highly confined light beams, generated by fiber lasers and other modern light sources, have allowed and encouraged the spread of research investigations in nonlinear optics. Moreover, during the last decade, the increasing demands of modern society for higher capacity fiber optical data communication have led us very close to the nonlinear capacity limit of single-mode fibers. As a consequence, worldwide researchers are now focusing their work on increasing the per-fiber capacity in optical communication systems. A promising strategy is the exploitation of nonlinear effects.  For example, the nonlinear effects in microstructured fibers continue to attract a strong interest. Holey fibers (HFs), photonic crystal fibers (PCFs), and photonic band gap fiber (PBGFs) can be properly designed to obtain a narrow core surrounded by a cladding containing a large number of air holes. These and a variety of other microstructured fiber cross sections can enable nonlinear effects in reduced propagation length, allowing a number of feasible applications that are also related to dispersion property handling. Therefore, nonlinear fiber optics is a key topic in the design of modern high-capacity lightwave communication systems and in a number of other devices and systems.

This Special Issue is intended to encourage researchers worldwide to contribute original research articles as well as review articles that explore advances in nonlinear fiber optics: materials, design, and characterization.

Potential topics include, but are not limited to:

Nonlinear fiber optic technology: material and fabrication, nonlinear glasses, microstructured fibers, highly nonlinear fibers; pulse propagation in nonlinear optical fibers: optical solitons, pulse shaping, pulse compression, pulse broadening, supercontinuum generation; dispersion handling, group velocity dispersion effect, slow light propagation, self phase modulation; nonlinear birefringence, low and high birefringence; Kerr effect, cross-phase modulation, four wave mixing, wavelength conversion, parametric amplification; stimulated Raman scattering, stimulated Brillouin scattering.

Prof. Francesco Prudenzano
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • nonlinear fiber optic technology
  • nonlinear microstructured fibers
  • dispersion handling
  • pulse propagation and shaping
  • nonlinear birefringence
  • four wave mixing
  • parametric amplification
  • slow light
  • stimulated raman scattering
  • stimulated brillouin scattering

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Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Four-Wave Optical Parametric Amplification in a Raman-Active Gas
Photonics 2015, 2(3), 933-945; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics2030933 - 31 Aug 2015
Abstract
Four-wave optical parametric amplification (FWOPA) in a Raman-active medium is experimentally investigated by use of an air-filled hollow fiber. A femtosecond pump pulse shorter than the period of molecular motion excites the coherent molecular motion of the Raman-active molecules during the parametric amplification [...] Read more.
Four-wave optical parametric amplification (FWOPA) in a Raman-active medium is experimentally investigated by use of an air-filled hollow fiber. A femtosecond pump pulse shorter than the period of molecular motion excites the coherent molecular motion of the Raman-active molecules during the parametric amplification of a signal pulse. The excited coherent motion modulates the frequency of the signal pulse during the parametric amplification, and shifts it to lower frequencies. The magnitude of the frequency redshift depends on the pump intensity, resulting in intensity-dependent spectral characteristics that are different from those in the FWOPA induced in a noble-gas-filled hollow fiber. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nonlinear Fiber Optics)
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Open AccessArticle
Four-Wave Mixing of a Laser and Its Frequency-Doubled Version in a Multimode Optical Fiber
Photonics 2015, 2(3), 906-915; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics2030906 - 27 Aug 2015
Cited by 8
Abstract
It is shown that it is possible to couple a laser beam and its frequency-doubled daughter into a multimode optical fiber through the four-wave mixing nonlinear process and generate a new wavelength. The frequency-doubled daughter can be generated in an external crystal with [...] Read more.
It is shown that it is possible to couple a laser beam and its frequency-doubled daughter into a multimode optical fiber through the four-wave mixing nonlinear process and generate a new wavelength. The frequency-doubled daughter can be generated in an external crystal with a large second order nonlinearity. It is argued that while this possibility is within the design parameter range of conventional multimode optical fibers, it necessitates a lower-bound for the core-cladding refractive index contrast of the multimode optical fiber. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nonlinear Fiber Optics)
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Open AccessArticle
Dynamics of a Low-Dimensional Model for Short Pulse Mode Locking
Photonics 2015, 2(3), 865-882; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics2030865 - 03 Aug 2015
Cited by 3
Abstract
Emerging ultra-fast mode-locked lasers are now capable of generating pulses in the few to sub-femtosecond regime. Using recent theoretical innovations around the short pulse equation, we characterize the mode locking dynamics using a low-dimensional representation of the pulse parameters. The theory is formulated [...] Read more.
Emerging ultra-fast mode-locked lasers are now capable of generating pulses in the few to sub-femtosecond regime. Using recent theoretical innovations around the short pulse equation, we characterize the mode locking dynamics using a low-dimensional representation of the pulse parameters. The theory is formulated using a variational approach, since linearization of the exact solution is not tractable. The dominant dynamics can be characterized in a geometrical way using phase-plane analysis. Of note is our ability to determine the underlying bifurcations that occur due to changes in the fiber laser cavity parameters, including the onset of the multi-pulsing instability. The theory can aid in design principles for generating robust and highly-stable mode-locked pulses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nonlinear Fiber Optics)
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Open AccessArticle
Dynamics of a Dispersion-Managed Passively Mode-Locked Er-Doped Fiber Laser Using Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes
Photonics 2015, 2(3), 808-824; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics2030808 - 21 Jul 2015
Cited by 10
Abstract
We investigated the dynamics of a dispersion-managed, passively mode-locked, ultrashort-pulse, Er-doped fiber laser using a single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) device. A numerical model was constructed for analysis of the SWNT fiber laser. The initial process of passive mode-locking, the characteristics of the output [...] Read more.
We investigated the dynamics of a dispersion-managed, passively mode-locked, ultrashort-pulse, Er-doped fiber laser using a single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) device. A numerical model was constructed for analysis of the SWNT fiber laser. The initial process of passive mode-locking, the characteristics of the output pulse, and the dynamics inside the cavity were investigated numerically for soliton, dissipative-soliton, and stretched-pulse mode-locking conditions. The dependencies on the total dispersion and recovery time of the SWNTs were also examined. Numerical results showed similar behavior to experimental results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nonlinear Fiber Optics)
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Open AccessArticle
Multi-Format Wavelength Conversion Using Quantum Dash Mode-Locked Laser Pumps
Photonics 2015, 2(2), 527-539; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics2020527 - 14 May 2015
Cited by 2
Abstract
We investigate and compare the performance of wavelength conversion for two different non-return-to-zero (NRZ) modulation formats at 40 Gb/s: on off keying (OOK) and differential phase-shift keying (DPSK). To achieve wide wavelength coverage and integrability, we use a dual pump scheme exploiting four-wave [...] Read more.
We investigate and compare the performance of wavelength conversion for two different non-return-to-zero (NRZ) modulation formats at 40 Gb/s: on off keying (OOK) and differential phase-shift keying (DPSK). To achieve wide wavelength coverage and integrability, we use a dual pump scheme exploiting four-wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifiers. For phase stability, we use a quantum-dash mode-locked laser (QD-MLL) as a multi-wavelength source for the dual pumps, with tunability provided by the output filter. The significant sidelobes of the DPSK spectrum (relative to OOK) require the balancing of the pump proximity to the original signal (facilitating high conversion efficiency) with the signal degradation from the pump spectrum overlapping the converted DPSK signal. We achieve a conversion efficiency near –3.6 dB for OOK and –5.4 dB for DPSK across a 12 nm tuning range with low input powers (1 dBm). We measure bit error rate (BER) and obtain error free transmission (BER < 109) with a power penalty less than 2 dB for OOK and 3 dB for DPSK. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nonlinear Fiber Optics)
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Open AccessArticle
Performance Analysis of a Hybrid Raman Optical Parametric Amplifier in the O- and E-Bands for CWDM PONs
Photonics 2014, 1(4), 473-487; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics1040473 - 01 Dec 2014
Cited by 1
Abstract
We describe a hybrid Raman-optical parametric amplifier (HROPA) operating at the O- and E-bands and designed for coarse wavelength division multiplexed (CWDM) passive optical networks (PONs). We present the mathematical model and simulation results for the optimization of this HROPA design. Our analysis [...] Read more.
We describe a hybrid Raman-optical parametric amplifier (HROPA) operating at the O- and E-bands and designed for coarse wavelength division multiplexed (CWDM) passive optical networks (PONs). We present the mathematical model and simulation results for the optimization of this HROPA design. Our analysis shows that separating the two amplification processes allows for optimization of each one separately, e.g., proper selection of pump optical powers and wavelengths to achieve maximum gain bandwidth and low gain ripple. Furthermore, we show that the proper design of optical filters incorporated in the HROPA architecture can suppress idlers generated during the OPA process, as well as other crosstalk that leaks through the passive optical components. The design approach enables error free performance for all nine wavelengths within the low half of the CWDM band, assigned to upstream traffic in a CWDM PON architecture, for all possible transmitter wavelength misalignments (±6 nm) from the center wavelength of the channel band. We show that the HROPA can achieve error-free performance with a 170-nm gain bandwidth (e.g., 1264 nm–1436 nm), a gain of >20 dB and a gain ripple of <4 dB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nonlinear Fiber Optics)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Temperature and Axial Strain on Four-Wave Mixing Parametric Frequencies in Microstructured Optical Fibers Pumped in the Normal Dispersion Regime
Photonics 2014, 1(4), 404-411; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics1040404 - 29 Oct 2014
Cited by 4
Abstract
A study of the effect of temperature and axial strain on the parametric wavelengths produced by four-wave mixing in microstructured optical fibers is presented. Degenerate four-wave mixing was generated in the fibers by pumping at normal dispersion, near the zero-dispersion wavelength, causing the [...] Read more.
A study of the effect of temperature and axial strain on the parametric wavelengths produced by four-wave mixing in microstructured optical fibers is presented. Degenerate four-wave mixing was generated in the fibers by pumping at normal dispersion, near the zero-dispersion wavelength, causing the appearance of two widely-spaced four-wave mixing spectral bands. Temperature changes, and/or axial strain applied to the fiber, affects the dispersion characteristics of the fiber, which can result in the shift of the parametric wavelengths. We show that the increase of temperature causes the signal and idler wavelengths to shift linearly towards shorter and longer wavelengths, respectively. For the specific fiber of the experiment, the band shift at rates ­–0.04 nm/ºC and 0.3 nm/ºC, respectively. Strain causes the parametric bands to shift in the opposite way. The signal band shifted 2.8 nm/me and the idler -5.4 nm/me. Experimental observations are backed by numerical simulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nonlinear Fiber Optics)
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Open AccessArticle
Asymmetric Wave Propagation Through Saturable Nonlinear Oligomers
Photonics 2014, 1(4), 390-403; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics1040390 - 27 Oct 2014
Cited by 2
Abstract
In the present paper we consider nonlinear dimers and trimers (more generally, oligomers) embedded within a linear Schrödinger lattice where the nonlinear sites are of saturable type. We examine the stationary states of such chains in the form of plane waves, and analytically [...] Read more.
In the present paper we consider nonlinear dimers and trimers (more generally, oligomers) embedded within a linear Schrödinger lattice where the nonlinear sites are of saturable type. We examine the stationary states of such chains in the form of plane waves, and analytically compute their reflection and transmission coefficients through the nonlinear oligomer, as well as the corresponding rectification factors which clearly illustrate the asymmetry between left and right propagation in such systems. We examine not only the existence but also the dynamical stability of the plane wave states. Lastly, we generalize our numerical considerations to the more physically relevant case of Gaussian initial wavepackets and confirm that the asymmetry in the transmission properties also persists in the case of such wavepackets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nonlinear Fiber Optics)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Sensitivity Enhancement for Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors by Four Wave Mixing
Photonics 2015, 2(2), 426-439; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics2020426 - 16 Apr 2015
Cited by 4
Abstract
All-optical signal processing based on four wave mixing (FWM) in a highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF) to enhance the sensitivity of a fiber sensor is demonstrated and comprehensively reviewed in this paper. The principle is based on the frequency chirp magnification (FCM) by FWM. [...] Read more.
All-optical signal processing based on four wave mixing (FWM) in a highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF) to enhance the sensitivity of a fiber sensor is demonstrated and comprehensively reviewed in this paper. The principle is based on the frequency chirp magnification (FCM) by FWM. Degenerated FWM, cascaded two-stage FWM and pump-pulsed FWM with optical parametric amplification (OPA) are experimentally utilized for magnifying the frequency chirp. By using the pump pulse modulation to increase the peak power, OPA can be induced with the use of a dispersion-optimized HNLF. Therefore, ultra-highly efficient FWM can be realized due to the high peak power and OPA. By using the fiber Bragg grating (FBG) laser as the FWM pump, the wavelength drift of the FBG can thus be magnified due to the FCM. We obtain a sensing performance of 13.3 pm/με strain sensitivity and 141.2 pm/°C temperature sensitivity for a conventional FBG, which has an intrinsic strain sensitivity of only ~1 pm/με and an intrinsic temperature sensitivity of only ~10 pm/°C, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nonlinear Fiber Optics)
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Open AccessReview
All Optical Signal-Processing Techniques Utilizing Four Wave Mixing
Photonics 2015, 2(1), 200-213; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics2010200 - 10 Feb 2015
Cited by 7
Abstract
Four Wave Mixing (FWM) based optical signal-processing techniques are reviewed. The use of FWM in arithmetical operation like subtraction, wavelength conversion and pattern recognition are three key parts discussed in this paper after a brief introduction on FWM and its comparison with other [...] Read more.
Four Wave Mixing (FWM) based optical signal-processing techniques are reviewed. The use of FWM in arithmetical operation like subtraction, wavelength conversion and pattern recognition are three key parts discussed in this paper after a brief introduction on FWM and its comparison with other nonlinear mixings. Two different approaches to achieve correlation are discussed, as well as a novel technique to realize all optical subtraction of two optical signals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nonlinear Fiber Optics)
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