Special Issue "New Perspectives for the Administration of Cannabis for Medical Use: From Traditional to Advanced Formulations. What Next?"

A special issue of Pharmaceutics (ISSN 1999-4923). This special issue belongs to the section "Physical Pharmacy and Formulation".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2022 | Viewed by 5422

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Paola Brusa
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Guest Editor
Department of Drug Science and Technology, University of Turin, Turin, Italy
Interests: regulatory science; health policy; medicinal products; compounding; drug delivery systems; international health cooperation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Francesca Baratta
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Drug Science and Technology, University of Turin, Turin, Italy
Interests: regulatory science; health policy; medicinal products; compounding; drug delivery systems, international health cooperation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Fabio Firenzuoli
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Research and Innovation Center in Phytotherapy and Integrated Medicine (CERFIT), Careggi University Hospital, Via delle Oblate 4, 50141 Florence, Italy
Interests: herbal medicine; clinical phytotherapy; medicinal plants; phytochemistry; herbal pharmacovigilance
Dr. Valentina Maggini
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Research and Innovation Center in Phytotherapy and Integrated Medicine, Careggi University Hospital, Florence, Italy
2. Specialist Trainee in Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology; Guest Researcher at Dept of Biology, University of Florence, 50141 Florence, Italy
Interests: antimicrobial activity of phytocomplexes; essential oils; multidrug-resistance; plant-microbe interactions; in vitro plant models

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Before it became illegal in most parts of the world in the previous century, cannabis was widely used in medicine. In recent years, following the legalization of cannabinoids for medical use in various countries, there has been an exponential increase in its use and a growing interest in this field. Therefore, scientific research on medical cannabis has rapidly advanced, and the ever-increasing number of experimental studies suggests that phytocannabinoids could be useful for various pathological conditions.

The phytocomplex of cannabis plants is composed of over 500 different constituents, of which about a hundred belong to the class of cannabinoids, where minimal differences in their structure can induce very different effects. The molecules of greatest interest for their pharmacological activity are THC and CBD, but recent studies have also focused on the effects of other molecules, such as cannabigerols, cannabichromenes, and also terpenes.

This Special Issue of Pharmaceutics focuses on articles and reviews relating to extractive or advanced formulations based on cannabis for medical use, currently under study for therapeutic purposes. Studies relating to the development of galenic formulations will also be considered.

We look forward to receiving your contributions.

Prof. Dr. Paola Brusa
Dr. Francesca Baratta
Prof. Dr. Fabio Firenzuoli
Dr. Valentina Maggini
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • cannabis
  • formulations
  • medical use
  • cannabinoids
  • terpenes
  • compounding

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Article
Development of Stable Nano-Sized Transfersomes as a Rectal Colloid for Enhanced Delivery of Cannabidiol
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(4), 703; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14040703 - 25 Mar 2022
Viewed by 684
Abstract
Current cannabidiol (CBD) formulations are challenged with unpredictable release and absorption. Rational design of a rectal colloid delivery system can provide a practical alternative. In this study the inherent physiochemical properties of transferosomes were harnessed for the development of a nano-sized transfersomes [...] Read more.
Current cannabidiol (CBD) formulations are challenged with unpredictable release and absorption. Rational design of a rectal colloid delivery system can provide a practical alternative. In this study the inherent physiochemical properties of transferosomes were harnessed for the development of a nano-sized transfersomes to yield more stable release, absorption, and bioavailability of CBD as a rectal colloid. Transfersomes composed of soya lecithin, cholesterol, and polysorbate 80 were synthesized via thin film evaporation and characterized for size, entrapment efficiency (%), morphology, CBD release, ex vivo permeation, and physicochemical stability. The optimized formulation for rectal delivery entrapped up to 80.0 ± 0.077% of CBD with a hydrodynamic particle size of 130 nm, a PDI value of 0.285, and zeta potential of −15.97 mV. The morphological investigation via SEM and TEM revealed that the transfersomes were spherical and unilamellar vesicles coinciding with the enhanced ex vivo permeation across the excised rat colorectal membrane. Furthermore, transfersomes improved the stability of the encapsulated CBD for up to 6 months at room temperature and showed significant promise that the transfersomes promoted rectal tissue permeation with superior stability and afforded tunable release kinetics of CBD as a botanical therapeutic with inherent poor bioavailability. Full article
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Article
Cannabis-Based Oral Emulsion for Medical Purposes to Meet the Needs of Patients: Formulation, Quality and Stability
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(3), 513; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14030513 - 25 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 502
Abstract
Current Italian legislation provides that medical Cannabis can be administered orally as an extract if it has been titrated to determine the concentration of active molecules. In this context, there is a need to provide known and adequate quantities of active ingredients in [...] Read more.
Current Italian legislation provides that medical Cannabis can be administered orally as an extract if it has been titrated to determine the concentration of active molecules. In this context, there is a need to provide known and adequate quantities of active ingredients in order to guarantee uniform therapies that lead to the optimization of risks/benefits. This is fundamental considering that the limited availability on the market of registered Cannabis-based products for medical use means that prescribed therapies are usually prepared as galenic preparations. Consequently, the preparation procedures must be consistent with the instrumentation usually present in the laboratories of community pharmacies. In this context, the purpose of this work was to standardize the preparation procedure for oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions to exploit advantages in terms of ease of administration and dosage adjustment, but also to ensure the palatable organoleptic characteristics of the finished product. For the formulations being studied, in addition to the quality according to the directives set out in the European Pharmacopoeia, the stability was evaluated to assure adequate validity for therapeutic uses. Full article
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Article
An Optimized Terpene Profile for a New Medical Cannabis Oil
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(2), 298; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14020298 - 27 Jan 2022
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Abstract
The purpose of this analytical study was to develop an advanced formulation of medical Cannabis oil (MCO) comparing the chemical profile of different extracts obtained with two existing methods (SIFAP and CALVI) and one original upgraded (CERFIT) method. Preparation methods were applied with [...] Read more.
The purpose of this analytical study was to develop an advanced formulation of medical Cannabis oil (MCO) comparing the chemical profile of different extracts obtained with two existing methods (SIFAP and CALVI) and one original upgraded (CERFIT) method. Preparation methods were applied with varying solvent, temperature, and duration of the decarboxylation and extraction steps. HPLC-MS/MS TSQ and GC/FID-HS analyses were performed to investigate cannabinoid and terpene contents in the three oil extracts. Cannabinoids profile remained comparable between the formulations. CERFIT extracts exhibited a superior quantity of total terpene hydrocarbon forms (e.g., limonene and α-pinene) with no degradation occurrence (i.e., oxidized terpenes not quantifiable). Thus, this new method optimized the phytochemical profile of the MCO presenting a value opportunity to obtain a standardized high-level therapeutic product. Full article
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Review

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Review
“The Two Sides of the Same Coin”—Medical Cannabis, Cannabinoids and Immunity: Pros and Cons Explained
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(2), 389; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14020389 - 10 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1392
Abstract
Cannabis, as a natural medicinal remedy, has long been used for palliative treatment to alleviate the side effects caused by diseases. Cannabis-based products isolated from plant extracts exhibit potent immunoregulatory properties, reducing chronic inflammatory processes and providing much needed pain relief. They are [...] Read more.
Cannabis, as a natural medicinal remedy, has long been used for palliative treatment to alleviate the side effects caused by diseases. Cannabis-based products isolated from plant extracts exhibit potent immunoregulatory properties, reducing chronic inflammatory processes and providing much needed pain relief. They are a proven effective solution for treatment-based side effects, easing the resulting symptoms of the disease. However, we discuss the fact that cannabis use may promote the progression of a range of malignancies, interfere with anti-cancer immunotherapy, or increase susceptibility to viral infections and transmission. Most cannabis preparations or isolated active components cause an overall potent immunosuppressive impact among users, posing a considerable hazard to patients with suppressed or compromised immune systems. In this review, current knowledge and perceptions of cannabis or cannabinoids and their impact on various immune-system components will be discussed as the “two sides of the same coin” or “double-edged sword”, referring to something that can have both favorable and unfavorable consequences. We propose that much is still unknown about adverse reactions to its use, and its integration with medical treatment should be conducted cautiously with consideration of the individual patient, effector cells, microenvironment, and the immune system. Full article
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