Special Issue "Zoonotic Diseases and One Health"

A special issue of Pathogens (ISSN 2076-0817).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2019).

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Marcello Otake Sato
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, Dokkyo Medical University, Mibu, Tochigi, Japan
Interests: One-health; Eco-health; Parasitology; Zoonosis; Eco-epidemiology, surveillance, and control of infectious diseases
Dr. Megumi Sato
Website
Guest Editor
Niigata University, Japan
Interests: Foodborne Parasites
Dr. Poom Adsakwattana
Website
Guest Editor
Mahidol University, Thailand
Interests: Molecular biology and parasitology; Immunology
Dr. Ian Kendrich Fontanilla
Website
Guest Editor
University of the Philippines Diliman, Philippines
Interests: Molecular phylogenetics; Malacology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Humans are part of an ecosystem and understanding our relationship with the environment and with other organisms is a prerequisite to living together sustainably.

Zoonotic diseases are an important issue as they reflect our relationship with other animals in a common environment. Zoonoses are still presented with high occurrence rates, especially in rural communities, with direct and indirect consequences for people. In several cases, zoonosis could cause severe clinical manifestations and is difficult to control and treat. Moreover, the persistent use of drugs for infection control enhances the potential of drug resistance and impacts on the ecosystem balance and food production.

In this regard, it is important for us to understand zoonosis in terms of how it allows ecosystems to transform, adapt and evolve. Eco-health/one-health approaches recognize the interconnections among people, other organisms, and their shared developing environment. Moreover, these holistic approaches encourage stakeholders of various disciplines to collaborate in order to solve problems related to zoonosis.

The reality of climate change necessitates considering new variables in studying diseases, particularly to predict how these changes in the ecosystems can affect human health and how to recognize the boundaries between medicine, veterinary care, environmental and social changes towards healthy and sustainable development.

In this Special Issue of Pathogens, we hope to consolidate studies on basic and applied studies of zoonotic pathogens from various agents with different points of view. Therefore, we invite you to submit original and review articles covering all the important aspects of zoonotic diseases with one-health and eco-health perspectives.

We look forward to your contribution.

Dr. Marcello Otake Sato
Dr. Megumi Sato
Dr. Poom Adsakwattana
Dr. Ian Kendrich Fontanilla
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Zoonoses
  • One-Health
  • Eco-health
  • Infectious diseases
  • Foodborne/Waterborne diseases
  • Molecular biology
  • Eco-epidemiology
  • Diagnosis
  • Alternative strategies
  • Medical Anthropology

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Environmental DNA and Edaphic Factors for the Detection of the Snail Intermediate Host Oncomelania hupensis quadrasi
Pathogens 2019, 8(4), 160; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens8040160 - 23 Sep 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Background: The perpetuation of schistosomiasis japonica in the Philippines depends to a major extent on the persistence of its intermediate host Oncomelania hupensis quadrasi, an amphibious snail. While the malacological survey remains the method of choice in determining the contamination of the environment [...] Read more.
Background: The perpetuation of schistosomiasis japonica in the Philippines depends to a major extent on the persistence of its intermediate host Oncomelania hupensis quadrasi, an amphibious snail. While the malacological survey remains the method of choice in determining the contamination of the environment as evidenced by snails infected with schistosome larval stages, an emerging technology known as environmental DNA (eDNA) detection provides an alternative method. Previous reports showed that O. hupensis quadrasi eDNA could be detected in water, but no reports have been made on its detection in soil. Methods: This study, thus focused on the detection of O. hupensis quadrasi eDNA from soil samples collected from two selected schistosomiasis-endemic barangays in Gonzaga, Cagayan Valley using conventional and TaqMan-quantitative (qPCR) PCRs. Results: The results show that qPCR could better detect O. hupensis quadrasi eDNA in soil than the conventional method. In determining the possible distribution range of the snail, basic edaphic factors were measured and correlated with the presence of eDNA. The eDNA detection probability increases as the pH, phosphorous, zinc, copper, and potassium content increases, possibly indicating the conditions in the environment that favor the presence of the snails. A map was generated to show the probable extent of the distribution of the snails away from the body of the freshwater. Conclusion: The information generated from this study could be used to determine snail habitats that could be possible hotspots of transmission and should, therefore, be targeted for snail control or be fenced off from human and animal contact or from the contamination of feces by being a dumping site for domestic wastes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zoonotic Diseases and One Health) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Molecular Analysis of Canine Filaria and Its Wolbachia Endosymbionts in Domestic Dogs Collected from Two Animal University Hospitals in Bangkok Metropolitan Region, Thailand
Pathogens 2019, 8(3), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens8030114 - 29 Jul 2019
Abstract
Canine filariasis is caused by several nematode species, such as Dirofilaria immitis, Dirofilaria repens, Brugia pahangi, Brugia malayi, and Acanthocheilonema reconditum. Zoonotic filariasis is one of the world’s neglected tropical diseases. Since 2000, the World Health Organization (WHO) [...] Read more.
Canine filariasis is caused by several nematode species, such as Dirofilaria immitis, Dirofilaria repens, Brugia pahangi, Brugia malayi, and Acanthocheilonema reconditum. Zoonotic filariasis is one of the world’s neglected tropical diseases. Since 2000, the World Health Organization (WHO) has promoted a global filarial eradication program to eliminate filariasis by 2020. Apart from vector control strategies, the infection control of reservoir hosts is necessary for more effective filariasis control. In addition, many studies have reported that Wolbachia is necessary for the development, reproduction, and survival of the filarial nematode. Consequently, the use of antibiotics to kill Wolbachia in nematodes has now become an alternative strategy to control filariasis. Previously, a case of subconjunctival dirofilariasis caused by Dirofilaria spp. has been reported in a woman who resides in the center of Bangkok, Thailand. Therefore, our study aimed to principally demonstrate the presence of filarial nematodes and Wolbachia bacteria in blood collected from domestic dogs from the Bangkok Metropolitan Region, Thailand. A total of 57 blood samples from dogs with suspected dirofilariasis who had visited veterinary clinics in Bangkok were collected. The investigations for the presence of microfilaria were carried out by using both microscopic and molecular examinations. PCR was used as the molecular detection method for the filarial nematodes based on the COI and ITS1 regions. The demonstration of Wolbachia was performed using PCR to amplify the FtsZ gene. All positive samples by PCR were then cloned and sequenced. The results showed that the filarial nematodes were detected in 16 samples (28.07%) using microscopic examinations. The molecular detection of filarial species using COI-PCR revealed that 50 samples (87.72%) were positive; these consisted of 33 (57.89%), 13 (22.81%), and 4 (7.02%) samples for D. immitis, B. pahangi, and B. malayi, respectively. While the ITS1-PCR showed that 41 samples (71.93%) were positive—30 samples (52.63%) were identified as containing D. immitis and 11 samples (19.30%) were identified to have B. pahangi, whereas B. malayi was not detected. Forty-seven samples (82.45%) were positive for Wolbachia DNA and the phylogenetic tree of all positive Wolbachia was classified into the supergroup C clade. This study has established fundamental data on filariasis associated with Wolbachia infection in domestic dogs in the Bangkok Metropolitan Region. An extensive survey of dog blood samples would provide valuable epidemiologic data on potential zoonotic filariasis in Thailand. In addition, this information could be used for the future development of more effective prevention and control strategies for canine filariasis in Thailand. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zoonotic Diseases and One Health) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Risk Factors for Zoonotic Tuberculosis at the Wildlife–Livestock–Human Interface in South Africa
Pathogens 2019, 8(3), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens8030101 - 14 Jul 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the risk factors associated with zoonotic tuberculosis in humans and its transmission to people living at the wildlife–livestock–human interface. A questionnaire was administered to collect information on food consumption habits, food handling practices, and knowledge of [...] Read more.
A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the risk factors associated with zoonotic tuberculosis in humans and its transmission to people living at the wildlife–livestock–human interface. A questionnaire was administered to collect information on food consumption habits, food handling practices, and knowledge of zoonotic TB. Sputum samples were also collected from 150 individuals that belonged to households of cattle farmers with or without a bTB infected herd. In addition, 30 milk samples and 99 nasal swabs were randomly collected from cattle in bTB infected herds for isolation of Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis). The sputum samples were screened for TB using the GeneXpert test and this was followed by mycobacterial culture and speciation using molecular techniques. No M. bovis was isolated from TB positive sputum samples and only one sample was confirmed as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). M. bovis was isolated from 6.6% (n = 2/30) milk samples and 9% (n = 9/99) of nasal swabs. Ownership of a bTB infected herd and consumption of milk were recognized as highly significant risk factors associated with a history of TB in the household using multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) and logistic regression. The findings from this study have confirmed the potential for zoonotic TB transmission via both unpasteurized milk and aerosol thus, the role of M. bovis in human TB remains a concern for vulnerable communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zoonotic Diseases and One Health) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Serological Evidence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Spotted Fever Group Rickettsia spp. Exposure in Horses from Central Italy
Pathogens 2019, 8(3), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens8030088 - 26 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia spp. are tick-borne bacteria of veterinary and human concern. In view of the One-Health concept, the present study wanted to evaluate the spreading of these pathogens in horses living in central Italy. In particular, the aim of the investigation [...] Read more.
Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia spp. are tick-borne bacteria of veterinary and human concern. In view of the One-Health concept, the present study wanted to evaluate the spreading of these pathogens in horses living in central Italy. In particular, the aim of the investigation was to verify the exposure to A. phagocytophilum in order to update the prevalence of this pathogen in the equine population from this area, and to spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia spp. to evaluate a possible role of horses in the epidemiology of rickettsiosis. Indirect immunofluorescent assay was carried out to detect antibodies against A. phagocytophilum and SFG (spotted fever group) Rickettsia spp. in blood serum samples collected from 479 grazing horses living in central Italy during the period from 2013 to 2018. One hundred and nine (22.75%) horses were positive for A. phagocytophilum, 72 (15.03%) for SFG Rickettsia spp., and 19 (3.96%) for both antigens. The obtained results confirm the occurrence of A. phagocytophilum in equine populations, and also suggest the involvement of horses in the epidemiology of SFG rickettsiosis. In both cases, in view of the zoonotic aspect of these pathogens and the frequent contact between horses and humans, the monitoring of equine populations could be useful for indication about the spreading of the tick-borne pathogens in a certain geographic area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zoonotic Diseases and One Health) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle
Occurrence of Bovine Cysticercosis in Two Regions of the State of Tocantins-Brazil and the Importance of Pathogen Identification
Pathogens 2019, 8(2), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens8020066 - 20 May 2019
Abstract
Bovine cysticercosis, caused by Taenia saginata metacestodes, is the cause of significant economic losses to the meat production chain by condemnation and downgrading of infected carcasses. It is also a public health issue causing human taeniasis. This study evaluated the occurrence of bovine [...] Read more.
Bovine cysticercosis, caused by Taenia saginata metacestodes, is the cause of significant economic losses to the meat production chain by condemnation and downgrading of infected carcasses. It is also a public health issue causing human taeniasis. This study evaluated the occurrence of bovine cysticercosis at the meat inspection procedures in slaughterhouses of south and north regions of the Tocantins State in Brazil. Specimens identified as cysts of T. saginata were collected and analyzed by molecular (PCR) and histopathological techniques. The cysts were collected from March to December of 2010 in slaughterhouses located in the cities of Alvorada (South) and Araguaína (North). The frequency of cystic lesions during the study was 0.033% (53/164,091) with 69.81% of calcified lesions and 30.9% of live cysts at meat inspection. From 14 samples submitted to molecular analysis, 28.57% (4/14) were positive for T. saginata. The histopathological analysis of the non-T. saginata samples showed lesions suggestive of granuloma and hydatid disease. The results indicated that the identification of the etiological agent is difficult by macroscopic inspection, emphasizing the need to associate specific diagnostic methods at meat inspection in abattoirs. In addition, species-specific PCR would be an effective tool for diagnosis, monitoring, and identifying cysticercosis, assisting the conventional tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zoonotic Diseases and One Health) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessCommunication
Serological and Molecular Investigation on Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Wild Birds
Pathogens 2019, 8(2), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens8020058 - 29 Apr 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate apicomplexan zoonotic parasite that infects humans and other animals and is responsible for toxoplasmosis. This parasite causes one of the most common parasitic infections in humans worldwide. Toxoplasmosis meets the requirements for a One Health Disease due to [...] Read more.
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate apicomplexan zoonotic parasite that infects humans and other animals and is responsible for toxoplasmosis. This parasite causes one of the most common parasitic infections in humans worldwide. Toxoplasmosis meets the requirements for a One Health Disease due to its ability to affect the health of human beings as well as domestic and free ranging animals. Integrating human, domestic animal, and wildlife data could better assess the risk and devise methods of control. A first step of such an approach would be the knowledge of the prevalence of parasitosis in humans and animals in selected areas. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of Toxoplasma infection in 216 free ranging birds belonging to different genera/species by serology and molecular techniques. Twenty-five out of 216 animals (11.6%) were positive to the immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) with antibody titers ranging from 1/20 to 1/320, and 19 of them (8.8%) also showed a positive PCR for Toxoplasma DNA. The results confirmed the widespread occurrence of Toxoplasma infection in wild birds and serological data were corroborated by molecular results in birds that also had low antibody titers. The knowledge of the wide occurrence of the parasite in game and wild birds should enhance the accurate estimation of the risks in handling, managing, and eating these species with regard to domestic carnivores as well as the impact of viscera and offal in the environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zoonotic Diseases and One Health) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle
Emergence and Spread of Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase Producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) in Pigs and Exposed Workers: A Multicentre Comparative Study between Cameroon and South Africa
Pathogens 2019, 8(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens8010010 - 16 Jan 2019
Abstract
Extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) represent a significant public health concern globally and are recognized by the World Health Organization as pathogens of critical priority. However, the prevalence of ESBL-PE in food animals and humans across the farm-to-plate continuum is yet to be [...] Read more.
Extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) represent a significant public health concern globally and are recognized by the World Health Organization as pathogens of critical priority. However, the prevalence of ESBL-PE in food animals and humans across the farm-to-plate continuum is yet to be elucidated in Sub-Saharan countries including Cameroon and South Africa. This work sought to determine the risk factors, carriage, antimicrobial resistance profiles and genetic relatedness of extended spectrum β-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) amid pigs and abattoir workers in Cameroon and South Africa. ESBL-PE from pooled samples of 432 pigs and nasal and hand swabs of 82 humans were confirmed with VITEK 2 system. Genomic fingerprinting was performed by ERIC-PCR. Logistic regression (univariate and multivariate) analyses were carried out to identify risk factors for human ESBL-PE carriage using a questionnaire survey amongst abattoir workers. ESBL-PE prevalence in animal samples from Cameroon were higher than for South Africa and ESBL-PE carriage was observed in Cameroonian workers only. Nasal ESBL-PE colonization was statistically significantly associated with hand ESBL-PE (21.95% vs. 91.67%; p = 0.000; OR = 39.11; 95% CI 2.02–755.72; p = 0.015). Low level of education, lesser monthly income, previous hospitalization, recent antibiotic use, inadequate handwashing, lack of training and contact with poultry were the risk factors identified. The study highlights the threat posed by ESBL-PE in the food chain and recommends the implementation of effective strategies for antibiotic resistance containment in both countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zoonotic Diseases and One Health) Printed Edition available
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Campylobacter at the Human–Food Interface: The African Perspective
Pathogens 2019, 8(2), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens8020087 - 25 Jun 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The foodborne pathogen Campylobacter is a major cause of human gastroenteritis, accounting for an estimated annual 96 million cases worldwide. Assessment of the true burden of Campylobacter in the African context is handicapped by the under-reporting of diarrhoeal incidents and ineffective monitoring and [...] Read more.
The foodborne pathogen Campylobacter is a major cause of human gastroenteritis, accounting for an estimated annual 96 million cases worldwide. Assessment of the true burden of Campylobacter in the African context is handicapped by the under-reporting of diarrhoeal incidents and ineffective monitoring and surveillance programmes of foodborne illnesses, as well as the minimal attention given to Campylobacter as a causative agent of diarrhoea. The present review of the literature highlights the variability in the reported occurrence of Campylobacter in humans and animal food sources across different countries and regions in Africa. Campylobacter infection is particularly prevalent in the paediatric population and has been isolated from farm animals, particularly poultry, and foods of animal origin. The reported prevalence of Campylobacter in children under the age of five years ranges from 2% in Sudan to 21% in South Africa. In poultry, the prevalence ranges from 14.4% in Ghana to 96% in Algeria. This review also highlights the alarming trend of increased Campylobacter resistance to clinically important antimicrobials, such as ciprofloxacin and erythromycin, in humans and food animals in Africa. This review adds to our understanding of the global epidemiology of Campylobacter at the human–food animal interface, with an emphasis from the African perspective. Interinstitutional and intersectoral collaborations, as well as the adoption of the One Health approach, would be useful in bridging the gaps in the epidemiological knowledge of Campylobacter in Africa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zoonotic Diseases and One Health) Printed Edition available
Open AccessReview
Childhood Diarrhoea in the Eastern Mediterranean Region with Special Emphasis on Non-Typhoidal Salmonella at the Human–Food Interface
Pathogens 2019, 8(2), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens8020060 - 06 May 2019
Abstract
Diarrhoeal disease is still one of the most challenging issues for health in many countries across the Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR), with infectious diarrhoea being an important cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in children under five years of age. However, the understanding [...] Read more.
Diarrhoeal disease is still one of the most challenging issues for health in many countries across the Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR), with infectious diarrhoea being an important cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in children under five years of age. However, the understanding of the aetiological spectrum and the burden of enteric pathogens involved in diarrhoeal disease in the EMR is incomplete. Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS), the focus of this review, is one of the most frequently reported bacterial aetiologies in diarrhoeal disease in the EMR. Strains of NTS with resistance to antimicrobial drugs are increasingly reported in both developed and developing countries. In the EMR, it is now widely accepted that many such resistant strains are zoonotic in origin and acquire their resistance in the food-animal host before onward transmission to humans through the food chain. Here, we review epidemiological and microbiological aspects of diarrhoeal diseases among children in the EMR, with emphasis on the implication and burden of NTS. We collate evidence from studies across the EMR on the zoonotic exposure and antimicrobial resistance in NTS at the interface between human and foods of animal origin. This review adds to our understanding of the global epidemiology of Salmonella with emphasis on the current situation in the EMR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zoonotic Diseases and One Health) Printed Edition available
Open AccessReview
Systematic Review of Important Bacterial Zoonoses in Africa in the Last Decade in Light of the ‘One Health’ Concept
Pathogens 2019, 8(2), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens8020050 - 16 Apr 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Zoonoses present a major public health threat and are estimated to account for a substantial part of the infectious disease burden in low-income countries. The severity of zoonotic diseases is compounded by factors such as poverty, living in close contact with livestock and [...] Read more.
Zoonoses present a major public health threat and are estimated to account for a substantial part of the infectious disease burden in low-income countries. The severity of zoonotic diseases is compounded by factors such as poverty, living in close contact with livestock and wildlife, immunosuppression as well as coinfection with other diseases. The interconnections between humans, animals and the environment are essential to understand the spread and subsequent containment of zoonoses. We searched three scientific databases for articles relevant to the epidemiology of bacterial zoonoses/zoonotic bacterial pathogens, including disease prevalence and control measures in humans and multiple animal species, in various African countries within the period from 2008 to 2018. The review identified 1966 articles, of which 58 studies in 29 countries met the quality criteria for data extraction. The prevalence of brucellosis, leptospirosis, Q fever ranged from 0–40%, 1.1–24% and 0.9–28.2%, respectively, depending on geographical location and even higher in suspected outbreak cases. Risk factors for human zoonotic infection included exposure to livestock and animal slaughters. Dietary factors linked with seropositivity were found to include consumption of raw milk and locally fermented milk products. It was found that zoonoses such as leptospirosis, brucellosis, Q fever and rickettsiosis among others are frequently under/misdiagnosed in febrile patients seeking treatment at healthcare centres, leading to overdiagnoses of more familiar febrile conditions such as malaria and typhoid fever. The interactions at the human–animal interface contribute substantially to zoonotic infections. Seroprevalence of the various zoonoses varies by geographic location and species. There is a need to build laboratory capacity and effective surveillance processes for timely and effective detection and control of zoonoses in Africa. A multifaceted ‘One Health’ approach to tackle zoonoses is critical in the fight against zoonotic diseases. The impacts of zoonoses include: (1) Humans are always in contact with animals including livestock and zoonoses are causing serious life-threatening infections in humans. Almost 75% of the recent major global disease outbreaks have a zoonotic origin. (2) Zoonoses are a global health challenge represented either by well-known or newly emerging zoonotic diseases. (3) Zoonoses are caused by all-known cellular (bacteria, fungi and parasites) and noncellular (viruses or prions) pathogens. (4) There are limited data on zoonotic diseases from Africa. The fact that human health and animal health are inextricably linked, global coordinated and well-established interdisciplinary research efforts are essential to successfully fight and reduce the health burden due to zoonoses. This critically requires integrated data from both humans and animals on zoonotic diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zoonotic Diseases and One Health) Printed Edition available
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