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Risk Factors for Zoonotic Tuberculosis at the Wildlife–Livestock–Human Interface in South Africa

1
Department of Veterinary Tropical Diseases, Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis Research Programme, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort 0110, Pretoria, South Africa
2
Department of Animal and Wildlife Sciences, Faculty of Natural Resources Management and Agriculture, Midlands State University, P. Bag 9055, Gweru, Midlands 00263, Zimbabwe
3
Research Associate at the National Zoological Gardens of South Africa, Pretoria 0001, South Africa
4
National Health Laboratory Services, Department of Medical Microbiology, Universitas, Bloemfontein 9301, South Africa
5
Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Health Science, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein 9301, South Africa
6
Department of Production Animal Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort 0110, South Africa
7
CIRAD, UMR Animal, Santé, Territoires, Risque et Ecosystèmes (ASTRE), 34398 Montpellier, France
8
ASTRE, Univ Montpellier, CIRAD, INRA, 34398 Montpellier, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2019, 8(3), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens8030101
Received: 29 May 2019 / Revised: 17 June 2019 / Accepted: 21 June 2019 / Published: 14 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zoonotic Diseases and One Health)
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Abstract

A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the risk factors associated with zoonotic tuberculosis in humans and its transmission to people living at the wildlife–livestock–human interface. A questionnaire was administered to collect information on food consumption habits, food handling practices, and knowledge of zoonotic TB. Sputum samples were also collected from 150 individuals that belonged to households of cattle farmers with or without a bTB infected herd. In addition, 30 milk samples and 99 nasal swabs were randomly collected from cattle in bTB infected herds for isolation of Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis). The sputum samples were screened for TB using the GeneXpert test and this was followed by mycobacterial culture and speciation using molecular techniques. No M. bovis was isolated from TB positive sputum samples and only one sample was confirmed as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). M. bovis was isolated from 6.6% (n = 2/30) milk samples and 9% (n = 9/99) of nasal swabs. Ownership of a bTB infected herd and consumption of milk were recognized as highly significant risk factors associated with a history of TB in the household using multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) and logistic regression. The findings from this study have confirmed the potential for zoonotic TB transmission via both unpasteurized milk and aerosol thus, the role of M. bovis in human TB remains a concern for vulnerable communities. View Full-Text
Keywords: bovine tuberculosis (bTB); multiple correspondence analysis (MCA); Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis); risk factors; wildlife–livestock–human interface; zoonotic TB bovine tuberculosis (bTB); multiple correspondence analysis (MCA); Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis); risk factors; wildlife–livestock–human interface; zoonotic TB
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sichewo, P.R.; Michel, A.L.; Musoke, J.; Etter, E.M. Risk Factors for Zoonotic Tuberculosis at the Wildlife–Livestock–Human Interface in South Africa. Pathogens 2019, 8, 101.

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