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Pathogens 2019, 8(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens8010010

Emergence and Spread of Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase Producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) in Pigs and Exposed Workers: A Multicentre Comparative Study between Cameroon and South Africa

1
Antimicrobial Research Unit, School of Health Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4000, South Africa
2
Department of Food Safety and Environmental Microbiology, Centre of Expertise and Biological Diagnostic of Cameroon (CEDBCAM), Yaoundé 8242, Cameroon
3
Department of Clinical Microbiology, Centre of Expertise and Biological Diagnostic of Cameroon (CEDBCAM), Yaoundé 8242, Cameroon
4
Discipline of Microbiology School of Life Sciences, College of Agriculture, Engineering and Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4000, South Africa
5
Biomedical Resource Unit, School of Laboratory Medicine and Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4000, South Africa
6
Centre for Research and Doctoral Training in Life Science, Health and Environment, The Biotechnology Centre, University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé 337, Cameroon
7
Metabiota Inc., Yaoundé 8242, Cameroon
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 December 2018 / Revised: 10 January 2019 / Accepted: 11 January 2019 / Published: 16 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zoonotic Diseases and One Health)
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Abstract

Extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) represent a significant public health concern globally and are recognized by the World Health Organization as pathogens of critical priority. However, the prevalence of ESBL-PE in food animals and humans across the farm-to-plate continuum is yet to be elucidated in Sub-Saharan countries including Cameroon and South Africa. This work sought to determine the risk factors, carriage, antimicrobial resistance profiles and genetic relatedness of extended spectrum β-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) amid pigs and abattoir workers in Cameroon and South Africa. ESBL-PE from pooled samples of 432 pigs and nasal and hand swabs of 82 humans were confirmed with VITEK 2 system. Genomic fingerprinting was performed by ERIC-PCR. Logistic regression (univariate and multivariate) analyses were carried out to identify risk factors for human ESBL-PE carriage using a questionnaire survey amongst abattoir workers. ESBL-PE prevalence in animal samples from Cameroon were higher than for South Africa and ESBL-PE carriage was observed in Cameroonian workers only. Nasal ESBL-PE colonization was statistically significantly associated with hand ESBL-PE (21.95% vs. 91.67%; p = 0.000; OR = 39.11; 95% CI 2.02–755.72; p = 0.015). Low level of education, lesser monthly income, previous hospitalization, recent antibiotic use, inadequate handwashing, lack of training and contact with poultry were the risk factors identified. The study highlights the threat posed by ESBL-PE in the food chain and recommends the implementation of effective strategies for antibiotic resistance containment in both countries. View Full-Text
Keywords: antibiotic resistance; Enterobacteriaceae; ESBL; food chain; one health antibiotic resistance; Enterobacteriaceae; ESBL; food chain; one health
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Founou, L.L.; Founou, R.C.; Ntshobeni, N.; Govinden, U.; Bester, L.A.; Chenia, H.Y.; Djoko, C.F.; Essack, S.Y. Emergence and Spread of Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase Producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) in Pigs and Exposed Workers: A Multicentre Comparative Study between Cameroon and South Africa. Pathogens 2019, 8, 10.

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