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Salivarian Trypanosomes Have Adopted Intricate Host-Pathogen Interaction Mechanisms That Ensure Survival in Plain Sight of the Adaptive Immune System

1
Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Envirinmental Technology and Food Technology, Ghent University Global Campus, Songdomunhwa-Ro 119-5, Yeonsu-Gu, Incheon 406-840, Korea
2
Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Universiteit Gent, Ledeganckstraat 35, 9000 Gent, Belgium
3
Laboratory for Cellular and Molecular Immunology (CMIM), Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussel, Belgium
4
Department of Biomedical Molecular Biology, Universiteit Gent, Technologiepark Zwijnaarde 71, 9052 Gent, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Fabrizio Bruschi
Pathogens 2021, 10(6), 679; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10060679
Received: 29 April 2021 / Revised: 24 May 2021 / Accepted: 28 May 2021 / Published: 31 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immune Response in Parasite Infections)
Salivarian trypanosomes are extracellular parasites affecting humans, livestock and game animals. Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and Trypanosoma brucei gambiense are human infective sub-species of T. brucei causing human African trypanosomiasis (HAT—sleeping sickness). The related T. b. brucei parasite lacks the resistance to survive in human serum, and only inflicts animal infections. Animal trypanosomiasis (AT) is not restricted to Africa, but is present on all continents. T. congolense and T. vivax are the most widespread pathogenic trypanosomes in sub-Saharan Africa. Through mechanical transmission, T. vivax has also been introduced into South America. T. evansi is a unique animal trypanosome that is found in vast territories around the world and can cause atypical human trypanosomiasis (aHT). All salivarian trypanosomes are well adapted to survival inside the host’s immune system. This is not a hostile environment for these parasites, but the place where they thrive. Here we provide an overview of the latest insights into the host-parasite interaction and the unique survival strategies that allow trypanosomes to outsmart the immune system. In addition, we review new developments in treatment and diagnosis as well as the issues that have hampered the development of field-applicable anti-trypanosome vaccines for the implementation of sustainable disease control. View Full-Text
Keywords: trypanosomiasis; adaptive immunity; parasitemia control; infection trypanosomiasis; adaptive immunity; parasitemia control; infection
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MDPI and ACS Style

Magez, S.; Pinto Torres, J.E.; Oh, S.; Radwanska, M. Salivarian Trypanosomes Have Adopted Intricate Host-Pathogen Interaction Mechanisms That Ensure Survival in Plain Sight of the Adaptive Immune System. Pathogens 2021, 10, 679. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10060679

AMA Style

Magez S, Pinto Torres JE, Oh S, Radwanska M. Salivarian Trypanosomes Have Adopted Intricate Host-Pathogen Interaction Mechanisms That Ensure Survival in Plain Sight of the Adaptive Immune System. Pathogens. 2021; 10(6):679. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10060679

Chicago/Turabian Style

Magez, Stefan, Joar E. Pinto Torres, Seoyeon Oh, and Magdalena Radwanska. 2021. "Salivarian Trypanosomes Have Adopted Intricate Host-Pathogen Interaction Mechanisms That Ensure Survival in Plain Sight of the Adaptive Immune System" Pathogens 10, no. 6: 679. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10060679

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