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Article

Biflavones from Platonia insignis Mart. Flowers Promote In Vitro Antileishmanial and Immunomodulatory Effects against Internalized Amastigote Forms of Leishmania amazonensis

1
Department of Biophysics and Physiology, Federal University of Piauí, Teresina 64049-550, Brazil
2
Medicinal Plants Research Center, Federal University of Piauí, Teresina 64049-550, Brazil
3
Department of Education, Federal Institute of Maranhão, Bacabal 65080-805, Brazil
4
Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Piauí, Teresina 64049-550, Brazil
5
Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Piauí, Teresina 64049-550, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Abhay Satoskar, Hira L Nakhasi and Shinjiro Hamano
Pathogens 2021, 10(9), 1166; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10091166
Received: 19 July 2021 / Revised: 24 August 2021 / Accepted: 30 August 2021 / Published: 10 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immune Response in Parasite Infections)
Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease that affects millions of people worldwide, making the search essential for more accessible treatments. The species Platonia insignis Mart. (Clusiaceae) has been extensively studied and has gained prominence for its pharmacological potential. The objective of this work was to evaluate the antileishmania activity, cytotoxic effect and activation patterns of macrophages of hydroalcoholic extract (EHPi), ethyl acetate fractions (FAcOEt) and morelloflavone/volkensiflavone mixture (MB) from P. insignis flowers. EHPi, FAcOEt and MB demonstrated concentration-dependent antileishmania activity, with inhibition of parasite growth in all analyzed concentrations. EHPi exhibited maximum effect at 800 μg/mL, while FAcOEt and MB reduced the growth of the parasite by 94.62% at 800 μg/mL. EHPi, FAcOEt and MB showed low cytotoxic effects for macrophages at 81.78, 159.67 and 134.28 μg/mL, respectively. EHPi (11.25 µg/mL), FAcOEt (11.25 and 22.5 µg/mL) and MB (22.5 µg/mL) characterized the increase in lysosomal activity, suggesting a possible modulating effect. These findings open for the application of flowers from a P. insignis flowers and biflavones mixture thereof in the promising treatment of leishmaniasis. View Full-Text
Keywords: antileishmanial activity; cytotoxicity in macrophages; medicinal plants; immunomodulation; natural products; hydroalcoholic extract; ethyl acetate fraction; biflavone mixture; Platonia insignis antileishmanial activity; cytotoxicity in macrophages; medicinal plants; immunomodulation; natural products; hydroalcoholic extract; ethyl acetate fraction; biflavone mixture; Platonia insignis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bezerra, É.A.; Alves, M.M.d.M.; Lima, S.K.R.; Pinheiro, E.E.A.; Amorim, L.V.; Lima Neto, J.d.S.; Carvalho, F.A.d.A.; Citó, A.M.d.G.L.; Arcanjo, D.D.R. Biflavones from Platonia insignis Mart. Flowers Promote In Vitro Antileishmanial and Immunomodulatory Effects against Internalized Amastigote Forms of Leishmania amazonensis. Pathogens 2021, 10, 1166. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10091166

AMA Style

Bezerra ÉA, Alves MMdM, Lima SKR, Pinheiro EEA, Amorim LV, Lima Neto JdS, Carvalho FAdA, Citó AMdGL, Arcanjo DDR. Biflavones from Platonia insignis Mart. Flowers Promote In Vitro Antileishmanial and Immunomodulatory Effects against Internalized Amastigote Forms of Leishmania amazonensis. Pathogens. 2021; 10(9):1166. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10091166

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bezerra, Érika A., Michel M.d.M. Alves, Simone K.R. Lima, Emanuelly E.A. Pinheiro, Layane V. Amorim, José d.S. Lima Neto, Fernando A.d.A. Carvalho, Antônia M.d.G.L. Citó, and Daniel D.R. Arcanjo 2021. "Biflavones from Platonia insignis Mart. Flowers Promote In Vitro Antileishmanial and Immunomodulatory Effects against Internalized Amastigote Forms of Leishmania amazonensis" Pathogens 10, no. 9: 1166. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10091166

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