Special Issue "HTLV-1 Disease"

A special issue of Pathogens (ISSN 2076-0817). This special issue belongs to the section "Human Pathogens".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 May 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Fabiola Martin
Website
Guest Editor
Senior Clinical Lecturer, University of Queensland, Faculty of Medicine and School of Public Health, Brisbane, Australia
Interests: HTLV; Sexual Health; HIV; HAM/TSP; ATL; Epidemiology; Systematic Reviews; Transmission Prevention Strategies; PEP; PrEP; HTLV Advocacy and Patient Representation
Dr. Chloé Journo
Website
Guest Editor
International Center for Infectiology Research, Lyon, France
Interests: Virology; Cell Biology; Molecular Biology; HTLV; oncoviruses-mediated cell transformation, cell signaling, NF-kB signaling, post-translational modifications, centrosome, protein interaction networks

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Year 2018 was a tumultuous year for people who live with the human oncovirus, HTLV-1. Though the virus was discovered in 1980 by Robert Gallo, people have been suffering from HTLV-1 diseases for thousands of years. However, the discovery of the extraordinarily high prevalence rates as well as the associated morbidity and mortality of this blood borne and sexually transmitted virus amongst one of our culturally richest and oldest living Indigenous ancestral people shocked the scientific and general population world-wide in 2018.

As a result, for the first time in the history of HTLV-1, patient representatives, scientists and clinicians submitted the WHO HTLV-1 Open Letter to Dr.Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, the director general of the World Health Organisation (WHO) to adopt HTLV as a WHO health topic, in order to work towards the eradication of HTLV-1, and to provide information, guidance and technical support to countries and communities, particularly to those most affected by the diseases.

This action resulted in a process of engaging with WHO member-states and WHO, prompting awareness that despite the significant morbidity and mortality caused by HTLV-1, many people worldwide still believe that HTLV-1 is a harmless virus. We know that about 1000 people die every year of Adult T cell Leukemia (ATL) in Japan alone. Now is the time to rephrase the problem at hand: Can one catch Adult T cell Leukemia (ATL) or HTLV-1 associated myelopathy (HAM)? Just as anal, cervical, vulval, penile and laryngeal cancers are caused through the acquisition of human papilloma virus, we believe that one can catch ATL and HAM. Therefore, we propose to consider ATL and HAM as preventable communicable diseases, caused by HTLV-1.

Pursuing research into the fundamental understanding of HTLV-1 biology is vital for the development of effective transmission prevention strategies, treatment and cure.

To this end we wish to dedicate this issue to: pathogenicity, transmission, prevention of HTLV-1.

We invite you to consider contributing to this special HTLV-1 Disease issue by focusing on biomedical discoveries made or unmet basic science needs addressing one or several of the following questions:

  • What is the evidence that HTLV-1 causes morbidity?
  • What is the evidence that HTLV-1 increases mortality?
  • How can we better equip our HTLV-1 transmission prevention and or treatment tool-box?

This special issue is an important step towards the eradication of HTLV-1 by compiling our current basic-science intervention knowledge to inform our readers as well as the participants of the WHO HTLV-1 Global Consultation, who will decide if HTLV should be adopted by the WHO as a Health Topic.

We are looking forward to hearing from you.

Dr. Fabiola Martin
Dr. Chloé Journo
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Human T leukemia virus human T
  • ATL
  • lymphotropic virus
  • myelopathy
  • Tax
  • paraparesis
  • oncovirus
  • HAM/TSP
  • HBZ
  • chronic infection
  • auxiliary proteins
  • inflammation
  • cell transformation
  • immune response
  • virus-host interaction
  • mortality
  • transmission
  • vaccines
  • sexually transmitted infection
  • pre-exposure prophylaxis
  • blood-borne virus
  • post-exposure prophylaxis
  • transfusion
  • clinical trials
  • pathogenicity
  • antiretrovirals
  • leukemia
  • PrEP
  • lymphoma
  • PEP

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Dichotomy in Fatal Outcomes in a Large Cohort of People Living with HTLV-1 in São Paulo, Brazil
Pathogens 2020, 9(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9010025 - 26 Dec 2019
Abstract
Background: Despite its relatively low incidence of associated diseases, Human T-cell Leukemia Virus-1 (HTLV-1) infection was reported to carry a significant risk of mortality in several endemic areas. HTLV-1-associated diseases, adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraperesis (HAM/TSP), as well as [...] Read more.
Background: Despite its relatively low incidence of associated diseases, Human T-cell Leukemia Virus-1 (HTLV-1) infection was reported to carry a significant risk of mortality in several endemic areas. HTLV-1-associated diseases, adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraperesis (HAM/TSP), as well as frequent coinfections with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and Strongyloides stercoralis were associated to increased morbidity and mortality of HTLV-1 infection. Objective: To determine the mortality rate and its associated variables from an open cohort started in July 1997 at the HTLV Clinic, Emilio Ribas Institute (IIER), a major infectious disease hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. Methods: Since inception up to September 2018, we admitted 727 HTLV-1-infected individuals, with a rate of 30–50 new admissions per year. All patient data, including clinical and laboratory data, were regularly updated throughout the 21-year period, using a dedicated REDCap database. The Ethical Board of IIER approved the protocol. Results: During 21 years of clinical care to people living with HTLV-1 in the São Paulo region, we recruited 479 asymptomatic HTLV-1-infected individuals and 248 HAM/TSP patients, of which 632 remained under active follow-up. During a total of 3800 person-years of follow-up (maximum follow-up 21.5 years, mean follow-up 6.0 years), 27 individuals died (median age of 51.5 years), of which 12 were asymptomatic, one ATLL patient and 14 HAM/TSP patients. HAM/TSP diagnosis (but neither age nor gender) was a significant predictor of increased mortality by univariate and multivariate (hazard ratio (HR) 5.03, 95% CI [1.96–12.91], p = 0.001) Cox regression models. Coinfection with HIV/HCV was an independent predictor of increased mortality (HR 15.08; 95% CI [5.50–41.32]; p < 0.001), with AIDS-related infections as a more frequent cause of death in asymptomatics (6/13; p = 0.033). HIV/HCV-negative fatal HAM/TSP cases were all female, with urinary tract infection and decubitus ulcer-associated sepsis as the main cause of death (8/14, p = 0.002). Conclusions: All-cause mortality among people living with HTLV-1 in São Paulo differs between asymptomatic (2.9%) and HAM/TSP patients (7.3%), independent of age and gender. We observe a dichotomy in fatal cases, with HAM/TSP and HIV/HCV coinfection as independent risk factors for death. Our findings reveal an urgent need for public health actions, as the major causes of death, infections secondary to decubitus ulcers, and immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related infections, can be targeted by preventive measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue HTLV-1 Disease)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Neurological Aspects of HIV-1/HTLV-1 and HIV-1/HTLV-2 Coinfection
Pathogens 2020, 9(4), 250; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9040250 (registering DOI) - 28 Mar 2020
Abstract
Simultaneous infection by human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) and human T-lymphotropic viruses (HTLV) are not uncommon since they have similar means of transmission and are simultaneously endemic in many populations. Besides causing severe immune dysfunction, these viruses are neuropathogenic and can cause neurological diseases [...] Read more.
Simultaneous infection by human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) and human T-lymphotropic viruses (HTLV) are not uncommon since they have similar means of transmission and are simultaneously endemic in many populations. Besides causing severe immune dysfunction, these viruses are neuropathogenic and can cause neurological diseases through direct and indirect mechanisms. Many pieces of evidence at present show that coinfection may alter the natural history of general and, more specifically, neurological disorders through different mechanisms. In this review, we summarize the current evidence on the influence of coinfection on the progression and outcome of neurological complications of HTLV-1/2 and HIV-1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue HTLV-1 Disease)
Open AccessReview
NF-κB and MicroRNA Deregulation Mediated by HTLV-1 Tax and HBZ
Pathogens 2019, 8(4), 290; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens8040290 - 10 Dec 2019
Abstract
The risk of developing adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) in individuals infected with human T-cell lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) is about 3–5%. The mechanisms by which the virus triggers this aggressive cancer are still an area of intensive investigation. The viral protein Tax-1, together [...] Read more.
The risk of developing adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) in individuals infected with human T-cell lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) is about 3–5%. The mechanisms by which the virus triggers this aggressive cancer are still an area of intensive investigation. The viral protein Tax-1, together with additional regulatory proteins, in particular HTLV-1 basic leucine zipper factor (HBZ), are recognized as relevant viral factors required for both viral replication and transformation of infected cells. Tax-1 deregulates several cellular pathways affecting the cell cycle, survival, and proliferation. The effects of Tax-1 on the NF-κB pathway have been thoroughly studied. Recent studies also revealed the impact of Tax-1 and HBZ on microRNA expression. In this review, we summarize the recent progress in understanding the contribution of HTLV-1 Tax- and HBZ-mediated deregulation of NF-κB and the microRNA regulatory network to HTLV-1 pathogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue HTLV-1 Disease)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Professor Abelardo Araujo

Neurological aspects of HIV/Human T-lymphotropic virus coinfection

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