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The Complex Relationship between HTLV-1 and Nonsense-Mediated mRNA Decay (NMD)
Open AccessReview

Antiretroviral Therapy in HTLV-1 Infection: An Updated Overview

IRCCS Centro Neurolesi Bonino-Pulejo, 98123 Messina, Italy
Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, 00133 Rome, Italy
Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical, and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, 98166 Messina, Italy
The Institute of Translational Pharmacology, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), 00133 Rome, Italy
Department of Chemical Science and Technologies, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, 00133 Rome, Italy
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2020, 9(5), 342;
Received: 4 March 2020 / Revised: 26 April 2020 / Accepted: 29 April 2020 / Published: 1 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue HTLV-1 Disease)
The human T cell leukemic/lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), discovered several years ago, is the causative agent for a rapid progressive haematological malignancy, adult T cell leukemia (ATL), for debilitating neurological diseases and for a number of inflammatory based diseases. Although the heterogeneous features of the diseases caused by HTLV-1, a common topic concerning related therapeutic treatments relies on the use of antiretrovirals. This review will compare the different approaches and opinions in this matter, giving a concise overview of preclinical as well as clinical studies covering all the aspects of antiretrovirals in HTLV-1 infection. Studies will be grouped on the basis of the class of antiretroviral, putting together both pre-clinical and clinical results and generally following a chronological order. Analysis of the existing literature highlights that a number of preclinical studies clearly demonstrate that different classes of antiretrovirals, already utilized as anti-HIV agents, are actually capable to efficiently contrast HTLV-1 infection. Nevertheless, the results of most of the clinical studies are generally discouraging on the same point. In conclusion, the design of new antiretrovirals more specifically focused on HTLV-1 targets, and/or the establishment of early treatments with antiretrovirals could hopefully change the perspectives of diseases caused by HTLV-1. View Full-Text
Keywords: HTLV-1; antiretrovirals; HAM/TSP; ATL HTLV-1; antiretrovirals; HAM/TSP; ATL
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Marino-Merlo, F.; Balestrieri, E.; Matteucci, C.; Mastino, A.; Grelli, S.; Macchi, B. Antiretroviral Therapy in HTLV-1 Infection: An Updated Overview. Pathogens 2020, 9, 342.

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