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The Complex Relationship between HTLV-1 and Nonsense-Mediated mRNA Decay (NMD)
Open AccessReview

Antiretroviral Therapy in HTLV-1 Infection: An Updated Overview

1
IRCCS Centro Neurolesi Bonino-Pulejo, 98123 Messina, Italy
2
Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, 00133 Rome, Italy
3
Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical, and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, 98166 Messina, Italy
4
The Institute of Translational Pharmacology, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), 00133 Rome, Italy
5
Department of Chemical Science and Technologies, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, 00133 Rome, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2020, 9(5), 342; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9050342
Received: 4 March 2020 / Revised: 26 April 2020 / Accepted: 29 April 2020 / Published: 1 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue HTLV-1 Disease)
The human T cell leukemic/lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), discovered several years ago, is the causative agent for a rapid progressive haematological malignancy, adult T cell leukemia (ATL), for debilitating neurological diseases and for a number of inflammatory based diseases. Although the heterogeneous features of the diseases caused by HTLV-1, a common topic concerning related therapeutic treatments relies on the use of antiretrovirals. This review will compare the different approaches and opinions in this matter, giving a concise overview of preclinical as well as clinical studies covering all the aspects of antiretrovirals in HTLV-1 infection. Studies will be grouped on the basis of the class of antiretroviral, putting together both pre-clinical and clinical results and generally following a chronological order. Analysis of the existing literature highlights that a number of preclinical studies clearly demonstrate that different classes of antiretrovirals, already utilized as anti-HIV agents, are actually capable to efficiently contrast HTLV-1 infection. Nevertheless, the results of most of the clinical studies are generally discouraging on the same point. In conclusion, the design of new antiretrovirals more specifically focused on HTLV-1 targets, and/or the establishment of early treatments with antiretrovirals could hopefully change the perspectives of diseases caused by HTLV-1. View Full-Text
Keywords: HTLV-1; antiretrovirals; HAM/TSP; ATL HTLV-1; antiretrovirals; HAM/TSP; ATL
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Marino-Merlo, F.; Balestrieri, E.; Matteucci, C.; Mastino, A.; Grelli, S.; Macchi, B. Antiretroviral Therapy in HTLV-1 Infection: An Updated Overview. Pathogens 2020, 9, 342.

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