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Open AccessArticle

Effects of Providing High-Fat versus High-Carbohydrate Meals on Daily and Postprandial Physical Activity and Glucose Patterns: a Randomised Controlled Trial

Exercise and Nutrition Research Program, Mary MacKillop Institute for Health Research, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, 3000 VIC, Australia
Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Diabetes, Center for Human Nutrition, School of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO 80204, USA
Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, 3004 VIC, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 557;
Received: 10 April 2018 / Revised: 25 April 2018 / Accepted: 27 April 2018 / Published: 30 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Balancing Physical Activity and Nutrition for Human Health)
We determined the effects of altering meal timing and diet composition on temporal glucose homeostasis and physical activity measures. Eight sedentary, overweight/obese men (mean ± SD, age: 36 ± 4 years; BMI: 29.8 ± 1.8 kg/m2) completed two × 12-day (12-d) measurement periods, including a 7-d habitual period, and then 5 d of each diet (high-fat diet [HFD]: 67:15:18% fat:carbohydrate:protein versus high-carbohydrate diet [HCD]: 67:15:18% carbohydrate:fat:protein) of three meals/d at ±30 min of 0800 h, 1230 h, and 1800 h, in a randomised order with an 8-d washout. Energy intake (EI), the timing of meal consumption, blood glucose regulation (continuous glucose monitor system (CGMS)), and activity patterns (accelerometer and inclinometer) were assessed across each 12-d period. Meal provision did not alter the patterns of reduced physical activity, and increased sedentary behaviour following dinner, compared with following breakfast and lunch. The HCD increased peak (+1.6 mmol/L, p < 0.001), mean (+0.5 mmol/L, p = 0.001), and total area under the curve (+670 mmol/L/min, p = 0.001), as well as 3-h postprandial meal glucose concentrations (all p < 0.001) compared with the HFD. In overweight/obese males, the provision of meals did not alter physical activity patterns, but did affect glycaemic control. Greater emphasis on meal timing and composition is required in diet and/or behaviour intervention studies to ensure relevance to real-world behaviours. View Full-Text
Keywords: diet; activity; sedentary; glycaemic control diet; activity; sedentary; glycaemic control
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Parr, E.B.; Devlin, B.L.; Callahan, M.J.; Radford, B.E.; Blankenship, J.M.; Dunstan, D.W.; Hawley, J.A. Effects of Providing High-Fat versus High-Carbohydrate Meals on Daily and Postprandial Physical Activity and Glucose Patterns: a Randomised Controlled Trial. Nutrients 2018, 10, 557.

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