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Optimal Adherence to a Mediterranean Diet and High Muscular Fitness Are Associated with a Healthier Cardiometabolic Profile in Collegiate Students

1
Centro de Estudios Para la Medición de la Actividad Física CEMA, Escuela de Medicina y Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad del Rosario, Bogotá 111221, Colombia
2
Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Boyacá, Boyacá 150003, Colombia
3
Laboratorio de Ciencias de la Actividad Física, el Deporte y la Salud, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, USACH, Santiago 7500618, Chile
4
Grupo GRINDER, Programa de Educación Física y Deportes, Universidad del Valle, Santiago de Cali 76001, Colombia
5
Grupo Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Salud y Sociedad (GIESS), Institución Universitaria Escuela Nacional del Deporte, Santiago de Cali 76001, Colombia
6
Grupo de Ejercicio Físico y Deportes, Vicerrectoría de Investigaciones, Universidad Manuela Beltrán, Bogotá DC 110231, Colombia
7
Faculty of Health Sciences, Klaipeda University, Klaipeda LT-91274, Lithuania
8
Physical Education, Physiotherapy and Dance, Federal University of the South of Brazil, Porto Alegre 91501-970, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 511; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040511
Received: 30 March 2018 / Revised: 13 April 2018 / Accepted: 17 April 2018 / Published: 20 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Balancing Physical Activity and Nutrition for Human Health)
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Abstract

The aim of the study was to investigate the combined association of adherence to a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) and muscular fitness (MF) with cardiometabolic health in collegiate students. The present cross-sectional analysis consisted of 1248 (714 females) healthy collegiate students (20.1 ± 2.7 years old). Adherence to a MedDiet was assessed by a KIDMED (Mediterranean Diet Quality Index) questionnaire. Standing broad jump, standing vertical jump, and isometric handgrip dynamometry were used as indicators of MF. The cardiometabolic profile was assessed using the following components: triglycerides, blood pressure, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, glucose, and waist circumference. Analysis of covariance shows a significant difference in the cardiometabolic profile of both genders between the high MF/low MedDiet and high MF/optimal MedDiet groups, and the low MF/low MedDiet and low MF/optimal MedDiet groups (p < 0.001). No difference was found on cardiometabolic profile between high MF/optimal MedDiet and high MF/low MedDiet, both in males and females. Additionally, logistic regression shows that both female (odds ratio (OR) = 2.01; 95% confidence interval (CI): (1.8–3.7); p = 0.02) and male (OR = 3.38; 95% CI: (1.9–5.8); p < 0.001) participants in the optimal MedDiet/high MF group had the highest odds of expressing a healthier cardiometabolic profile as compared to those in the low MF/low MedDiet group. In conclusion, a combination of high MF levels and optimal adherence to a MedDiet is associated with a healthier cardiometabolic profile; however, high MF levels seem to circumvent the deleterious effects of having a low adherence to a MedDiet. View Full-Text
Keywords: metabolic syndrome; healthy dietary patterns; muscular strength metabolic syndrome; healthy dietary patterns; muscular strength
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Ramírez-Vélez, R.; Correa-Bautista, J.E.; Ojeda-Pardo, M.L.; Sandoval-Cuellar, C.; García-Hermoso, A.; Carrillo, H.A.; González-Ruíz, K.; Prieto-Benavides, D.H.; Tordecilla-Sanders, A.; Martinkėnas, A.; Agostinis-Sobrinho, C. Optimal Adherence to a Mediterranean Diet and High Muscular Fitness Are Associated with a Healthier Cardiometabolic Profile in Collegiate Students. Nutrients 2018, 10, 511.

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