Special Issue "Dietary Fats and Cardiometabolic Health"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Macronutrients and Human Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 1 October 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Rajiv Chowdhury
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
Interests: global health; diet; nutrients; environmental pullutants; cardiometabolic health; cardiovascular disease

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Despite plenty of recent progress in aetiological understanding and clinical care, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes remain among the top causes of death and disability worldwide. While diet has been described as a mainstay for prevention of these so-called cardiometabolic diseases, fatty acids—a major group of nutritional factors and building block of fats—have been implicated in the past as a key modifiable determinant of these conditions. However, current scientific evidence, primarily based on a large number of epidemiological and interventional studies, are still inconsistent regarding the association of fatty acids with cardiometabolic outcomes and do not entirely explain the complex pathophysiology that links fatty acids to cardiometabolic risk (or benefit). Fatty acids, depending on the level of saturation, have been grouped into “good” or “bad” fats; however, recent evidence shows that the effects of fatty acids on cardiometabolic disease are far more complex than previously viewed and could depend on the food source (e.g., meat vs. dairy products), amount of consumption and substitution by other nutrients (e.g., by carbohydrate vs. protein rich foods), and their effects could differ by sex.

This Special Issue will focus on the role of fat intake and types in the prevention and management of cardiometabolic disease and address the current controversies over the benefits of replacing saturated fatty acids with polyunsaturated fatty acids, increased consumption of fats derived from plants, interactions with different micro- and macro components of diet, the role of sex and whether fatty acids can modify the genetic predisposition to cardiometabolic disease. Other topics of interest include epidemiological and mechanistic studies examining the interaction of fatty acids with epigenetic mechanisms and microbiome in modifying the cardiometabolic risk.

Dr. Rajiv Chowdhury
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Fatty acids
  • Obesity
  • Diabetes
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Cardiovascular risk factors
  • Women’s health

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Effect of the Fat Eaten at Breakfast on Lipid Metabolism: A Crossover Trial in Women with Cardiovascular Risk
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1695; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061695 - 06 Jun 2020
Abstract
Recent studies point out that not only the daily intake of energy and nutrients but the time of day when they are ingested notably regulates lipid metabolism and cardiovascular risk (CVR). Therefore, the aim of the study was to assess if the type [...] Read more.
Recent studies point out that not only the daily intake of energy and nutrients but the time of day when they are ingested notably regulates lipid metabolism and cardiovascular risk (CVR). Therefore, the aim of the study was to assess if the type of fat ingested at breakfast can modify lipid metabolism in women with CVR. A randomized, crossover clinical trial was performed. Sixty volunteers were randomly assigned to a (A) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-rich breakfast, (B) saturated fatty acid (SFA)-rich breakfast, or (C) monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA)-rich breakfast. Plasma lipoprotein and apolipoprotein subfractions were determined. Our data showed that the PUFA-rich breakfast decreased lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)), very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), and intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDL), and increased high-density lipoproteins (HDL). A similar trend was observed for the MUFA-rich breakfast, whereas the SFA-rich breakfast, although it decreased VLDL, also increased IDL and reduced HDL. The PUFA-rich breakfast also decreased β-lipoproteins and apolipoprotein-B. In summary, varying the type of fat eaten at breakfast is enough to significantly modify the lipid metabolism of women with CVR, which can be of great relevance to establish new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of these subjects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fats and Cardiometabolic Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Dairy Consumption and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Overweight or Obesity during Intensive Multidisciplinary Weight Management: A Prospective Observational Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1643; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061643 - 02 Jun 2020
Abstract
Dairy products are integral parts of healthy diets; however, their association with cardiometabolic (CM) health among patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) undergoing weight management is debated. We examined the relationship between dairy consumption and CM biomarkers in 45 subjects with T2D and [...] Read more.
Dairy products are integral parts of healthy diets; however, their association with cardiometabolic (CM) health among patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) undergoing weight management is debated. We examined the relationship between dairy consumption and CM biomarkers in 45 subjects with T2D and obesity (mean age 56 ± 9 yrs, 40% female) enrolled in a 12-week intensive multidisciplinary weight management (IMWM) program. After the IMWM program (intervention phase), subjects were followed for 12 weeks (maintenance phase). We stratified subjects based on initial average dairy consumption into infrequent (IFR), less-frequent (LFR), and frequent (FR) consumers. Outcomes were assessed at baseline, 12, and 24 weeks. There were no differences between tertiles at baseline except for higher total energy intake among FR compared with IFR. HbA1c changes showed no association with dairy consumption at 12 or 24 weeks. FR Females achieved greater weight loss at 12 weeks compared with IFR peers (−4.5 kg; 95%CI: −5.5, −3.5). There was a trend towards lower HDL-C with increasing dairy consumption during the intervention phase. In subjects with T2D and overweight or obesity, dairy consumption during weight management is not associated with HbA1c changes but with lower HDL-C and with higher magnitude of weight loss among females. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fats and Cardiometabolic Health)
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Open AccessArticle
An Approach for Examining the Impact of Food Group-Based Sources of Nutrients on Outcomes with Application to PUFAs and LDL in Youth with Type 1 Diabetes
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 941; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12040941 - 28 Mar 2020
Abstract
Traditionally, nutritional epidemiologists have utilized single nutrient or dietary pattern approaches to examine diet-health relationships. However, the former ignores that nutrients are consumed from foods within dietary patterns, and, conversely, dietary patterns may provide little information on mechanisms of action. Substitution provides a [...] Read more.
Traditionally, nutritional epidemiologists have utilized single nutrient or dietary pattern approaches to examine diet-health relationships. However, the former ignores that nutrients are consumed from foods within dietary patterns, and, conversely, dietary patterns may provide little information on mechanisms of action. Substitution provides a framework for estimating diet-health relationships while holding some nutrient intakes constant. We examined substitution effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the SEARCH Nutrition Ancillary Study in the context of food group source. PUFAs were calculated from fatty acids 18:3, 20:5, and 22:6 (n-3), and 18:2 and 20:4 (n-6) from a food frequency questionnaire, quantified by food group. Models were adjusted for other fat intake, carbohydrates, protein, age, race, gender, and diabetes duration. Participants (n = 1441) were 14 years old on average, 51% female, with type 1 diabetes for 3.6 years. Mean intake of PUFAs was 14.9 g/day, and the highest PUFA sources were nonsolid fats, nuts, grains, red/processed meats, sweets/desserts, and high-fat chicken. PUFAs from nuts were inversely associated with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) (p = 0.03) and PUFAs from high-fat chicken were positively associated with LDL (p < 0.01). Substituting nuts for chicken was associated with −7.4 mg/dL in LDL. These findings illustrate the importance of considering food group-based sources of nutrients when examining diet-health relationships. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fats and Cardiometabolic Health)
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