Special Issue "Effect of Energy Drinks on Physical Performance"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Sports Nutrition".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 September 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Juan J. Salinero
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Performance and Sport Rehabilitation Laboratory, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Toledo, Spain
Interests: energy drinks; caffeine; exercise performance; athletics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The use of caffeine as an ergogenic aid has been widespread in the sports context. There is strong evidence supporting the fact that caffeine, when ingested prior to exercise, and at a moderate dose, can benefit physical performance, as has been recently recognized by the International Olympic Committee in its consensus statement on dietary supplements. In fact, three out of four elite athletes consume this substance to enhance physical performance.

In contrast to caffeine capsules, consumption of caffeinated energy drinks has considerably increased in the last few years, both in athletes and nonathletes. Energy drinks contain caffeine, and other ingredients such as carbohydrates, taurine, vitamins, or other nutrients that could affect physical performance. However, the primary ergogenic nutrients appear to be carbohydrates and/or caffeine.

Nowadays, energy drinks have become the most widely used means of caffeine intake in the sports population. The effects of these energy drinks on physical performance are diverse, and the scientific literature is increasing. The use of caffeinated energy drinks has been found to be effective in significantly changing aerobic and anaerobic performance, the movement patterns of several team sports, and/or aspects of human functioning. In addition, as has been suggested, these beverages merit further study to demonstrate their safety and the potential effects on physical performance.

You are invited to submit proposals for manuscripts that fit the objectives and topics of this Special Issue. The objective of this proposed Special Issue on “Effect of Energy Drinks on Physical Performance” is to publish selected papers about the use of caffeinated energy drinks and their effects on physical performance (including potential side-effects), both in athletes and nonathletes; specifically, papers (reviews and/or clinical or experimental studies) dealing with the role of energy drinks in exercise or sports performance.

Dr. Juan J. Salinero
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Energy drinks
  • Caffeine
  • Physical performance
  • Sports performance
  • Muscular performance
  • Side effects

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Article
The Consumption of Caffeine-Containing Products to Enhance Sports Performance: An Application of an Extended Model of the Theory of Planned Behavior
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 344; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020344 - 24 Jan 2021
Viewed by 952
Abstract
Caffeine is the most-used psychoactive substance in the world. About 80% of the world’s population consumes caffeine every day, including athletes and lifestyle users. Thus, it is important to understand the consumer drivers of caffeine-containing beverages and food. This research study aims to [...] Read more.
Caffeine is the most-used psychoactive substance in the world. About 80% of the world’s population consumes caffeine every day, including athletes and lifestyle users. Thus, it is important to understand the consumer drivers of caffeine-containing beverages and food. This research study aims to explore consumers’ behaviors, perceptions, attitudes, and drivers towards caffeine-containing products to enhance sports performance. The research applies the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) in order to understand consumers’ behavior, extended with utilitarian aspects for a comprehensive understanding of consumers’ behavior and attitudes. We interviewed consumers with the support of Qualtrics online software. The data were then processed with SPSS (statistical analysis software). The data elaboration includes a multivariate linear regression model to analyze the consumers’ intention to consume caffeine to enhance the sports performance, and to explore consumers’ preference of marketing leverages for this product category. The results contribute to an understanding of consumers’ consumption and purchasing behavior towards caffeine, and support the validity of the extended TPB to develop a more comprehensive picture of consumer behavior. Consumers have a positive attitude towards caffeine-containing products to enhance sports performance. The main consumer behavior drivers are subjective norms and utilitarian aspects. The present research results may support companies in the development of caffeine-containing products to enhance sports performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Energy Drinks on Physical Performance)
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Article
Effects of Different Doses of Caffeinated Coffee on Muscular Endurance, Cognitive Performance, and Cardiac Autonomic Modulation in Caffeine Naive Female Athletes
Nutrients 2021, 13(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010002 - 22 Dec 2020
Viewed by 2011
Abstract
Caffeine is widely consumed among elite athletes for its well-known ergogenic properties, and its ability to increase exercise performance. However, studies to date have predominantly focused on the anhydrous form of caffeine in male participants. The aim of the study was to investigate [...] Read more.
Caffeine is widely consumed among elite athletes for its well-known ergogenic properties, and its ability to increase exercise performance. However, studies to date have predominantly focused on the anhydrous form of caffeine in male participants. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of caffeinated coffee ingestion on lower-upper body muscular endurance, cognitive performance, and heart rate variability (HRV) in female athletes. A total of 17 participants (mean ± standard deviation (SD): age = 23 ± 2 years, body mass = 64 ± 4 kg, height = 168 ± 3 cm) in a randomized cross-over design completed three testing sessions, following the ingestion of 3 mg/kg/bm of caffeine (3COF), 6 mg/kg/bm of caffeine (6COF) provided from coffee or decaffeinated coffee (PLA) in 600 mL of hot water. The testing results included: (1) repetition number for muscular endurance performance; (2): reaction time and response accuracy for cognitive performance; (3): HRV parameters, such as standard deviation of normal-to-normal (NN) intervals (SDNN), standard deviation of successive differences (SDSD), root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD), total power (TP), the ratio of low- and high-frequency powers (LF/HF), high-frequency power (HF), normalized HF (HFnu), low-frequency power (LF), and normalized LF (LFnu). A one-way repeated measures ANOVA revealed that 3COF (p = 0.024) and 6COF (p = 0.036) improved lower body muscular endurance in the first set as well as cognitive performance (p = 0.025, p = 0.035 in the post-test, respectively) compared to PLA. However, no differences were detected between trials for upper body muscular endurance (p = 0.07). Lastly, all HRV parameters did not change between trials (p > 0.05). In conclusion, ingesting caffeinated coffee improved lower body muscular endurance and cognitive performance, while not adversely affecting cardiac autonomic function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Energy Drinks on Physical Performance)
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Article
Heart Rate Variability Behavior during Exercise and Short-Term Recovery Following Energy Drink Consumption in Men and Women
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2372; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082372 - 08 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1488
Abstract
This study examined the cardiac autonomic responses, as measured by heart rate variability (HRV), during cycling exercise and short-term rest after energy drink consumption. Seventeen participants (seven males and 10 females; age: 22.8 ± 3.5 years; BMI: 24.3 ± 3.3 kg/m2) [...] Read more.
This study examined the cardiac autonomic responses, as measured by heart rate variability (HRV), during cycling exercise and short-term rest after energy drink consumption. Seventeen participants (seven males and 10 females; age: 22.8 ± 3.5 years; BMI: 24.3 ± 3.3 kg/m2) completed this double-blind, placebo-controlled, counterbalanced crossover design study. Participants received an energy drink formula containing 140 mg of caffeine and a placebo in a randomized order before completing a 10-min steady-state warm up (WUP) and a graded exercise test to exhaustion (GXT) followed by a 15-min short-term rest (STR) period. Heartbeat intervals were recorded using a heart rate monitor. Data were divided into WUP, GXT, and STR phases, and HRV parameters were averaged within each phase. Additionally, root mean square of the standard deviation of R–R intervals (RMSSD) during GXT was analyzed to determine the HRV threshold. Separate two-way (sex (male vs. female) x drink (energy drink vs. placebo)) repeated measures ANOVA were utilized. Significant increases in high frequency (HF) and RMSSD were shown during WUP after energy drink consumption, while interactions between drink and sex were observed for HRV threshold parameters (initial RMSSD and rate of RMSSD decline). No significant differences were noted during STR. Energy drink consumption may influence cardiac autonomic responses during low-intensity exercise, and sex-based differences in response to graded exercise to exhaustion may exist. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Energy Drinks on Physical Performance)
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Review

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Review
Caffeine and Cognitive Functions in Sports: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2021, 13(3), 868; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030868 - 06 Mar 2021
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Abstract
Cognitive functions are essential in any form of exercise. Recently, interest has mounted in addressing the relationship between caffeine intake and cognitive performance during sports practice. This review examines this relationship through a structured search of the databases Medline/PubMed and Web of Science [...] Read more.
Cognitive functions are essential in any form of exercise. Recently, interest has mounted in addressing the relationship between caffeine intake and cognitive performance during sports practice. This review examines this relationship through a structured search of the databases Medline/PubMed and Web of Science for relevant articles published in English from August 1999 to March 2020. The study followed PRISMA guidelines. Inclusion criteria were defined according to the PICOS model. The identified records reported on randomized cross-over studies in which caffeine intake (as drinks, capsules, energy bars, or gum) was compared to an identical placebo situation. There were no filters on participants’ training level, gender, or age. For the systematic review, 13 studies examining the impacts of caffeine on objective measures of cognitive performance or self-reported cognitive performance were selected. Five of these studies were also subjected to meta-analysis. After pooling data in the meta-analysis, the significant impacts of caffeine only emerged on attention, accuracy, and speed. The results of the 13 studies, nevertheless, suggest that the intake of a low/moderate dose of caffeine before and/or during exercise can improve self-reported energy, mood, and cognitive functions, such as attention; it may also improve simple reaction time, choice reaction time, memory, or fatigue, however, this may depend on the research protocols. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Energy Drinks on Physical Performance)
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Review
Energy Drinks and Sports Performance, Cardiovascular Risk, and Genetic Associations; Future Prospects
Nutrients 2021, 13(3), 715; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030715 - 24 Feb 2021
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Abstract
The consumption of energy drinks (e.g., containing caffeine and taurine) has increased over the last decade among adolescents and athletes to enhance their cognitive level and improve intellectual and athletic performance. Numerous studies have shown that drinking moderate doses of such drinks produces [...] Read more.
The consumption of energy drinks (e.g., containing caffeine and taurine) has increased over the last decade among adolescents and athletes to enhance their cognitive level and improve intellectual and athletic performance. Numerous studies have shown that drinking moderate doses of such drinks produces beneficial effects, as they considerably boost the sporting performance of elite athletes in various sports, including both endurance and explosive events. However, apart from their ergogenic effects, the regular consumption of energy drinks also increases blood pressure and consequently incites problems such as hypertension, tachycardia, and nervousness, all of which can lead to cardiovascular disorders. A potential positive correlation between genetics and the moderate consumption of energy drinks and athletic performance has recently been reported; notwithstanding, a better understanding of the genetic variants involved in metabolism is a key area for future research to optimize the dose of energy drink consumed and obtain the maximal ergogenic effect in elite sports. The aim of this literature review, therefore, is to present the results of recent studies, classifying them according to the differences in the associations between energy drinks and: (i) Athletic performance; (ii) cardiovascular risk factors while practicing sports; and (iii) genetic associations and future prospects between the consumption of energy drinks and performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Energy Drinks on Physical Performance)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Author: Juan Del Coso

Topic: Different acute effects of energy drinks in a performance sports classification. A systematic review and practical applications

Author: David Fukuda

Topic: Autonomic Nervous System Behavior during Incremental Exercise and Short-Term Recovery Following Energy-Drink Consumption

Author: Hamdi Chtourou, Khaled Trabelsi and Achraf Ammar 

Topic: The Effect of Energy Drink on the Diurnal Variations of Cognitive Performance and the Psychological and Physiological Responses to Short-Term Maximal Exercise

Topic: The Effect of Energy Drink on the Cognitive Performance and the Psychological and Physiological Responses to Short-Term Maximal Exercise after One Night of Partial Sleep Deprivation

 

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