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Special Issue "Precision Nutrition and Metabolic Disease"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 March 2019)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Matthew Cooke

Swinburne University
Website | E-Mail
Interests: obesity; metabolic health; nutrigenomics; exercise; energy balance

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The rising prevalence of obesity and metabolic disease in the form of prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and lipid disorders is a major global health issue. Despite the efforts of lifestyle interventions, i.e. diet, physical activity, smoking, etc., to prevent and manage such diseases, this problem continues to grow at an alarming rate. Tailored nutrition prescription that complements a person's unique genetic profile is a new way to provide specific nutritional advice that can support health maintenance and disease prevention.

Recently, the emergence of precision nutrition offers a different perspective on personalised nutrition to deliver nutritional recommendations that are more comprehensive and fluid based on the ever changing variables in a person’s internal and external environment over their life course. In addition to gene-diet interaction, other factors such as food choices and behaviour, physical activity, the microbiota and the metabolome, as well as the application in clinical practice and commercialisation and feasibility on a population-wide scale are considered within the scope of precision nutrition.

This special feature issue explores precision nutrition and attempts to provide specific nutritional and dietary strategies to prevent or manage obesity and metabolic diseases, as well as complications associated with such diseases. Studies investigating the challenges associated with the concept and its implementation will also be included.

Dr. Matthew Cooke
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Obesity
  • Diabetes
  • NAFLD
  • Hypertension
  • Inflammation
  • Oxidative stress
  • Microbiota
  • Dietary patterns
  • Metabotype/metabonomics/nutrimetabonomics
  • Insulin resistance
  • Nutritional intervention
  • Personalised nutrition
  • Nutrigenetics/Nutrigenomics

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Dietary Patterns in Relation to Components of Dyslipidemia and Fasting Plasma Glucose in Adults with Dyslipidemia and Elevated Fasting Plasma Glucose in Taiwan
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 845; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040845
Received: 19 March 2019 / Revised: 9 April 2019 / Accepted: 10 April 2019 / Published: 14 April 2019
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Abstract
Dietary patterns have been proposed to be related to dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia. This study investigated the correlation of dietary patterns with components of dyslipidemia and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) among young and middle-aged adults (aged between 20 and 50 years) with dyslipidemia and [...] Read more.
Dietary patterns have been proposed to be related to dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia. This study investigated the correlation of dietary patterns with components of dyslipidemia and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) among young and middle-aged adults (aged between 20 and 50 years) with dyslipidemia and abnormal FPG in Taiwan. This cross-sectional study used the database compiled in Taiwan between 2001 to 2010. A total of 13,609 subjects aged between 20 and 50 years were selected. Dyslipidemia was defined primarily according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines with minor modification. Elevated FPG level was defined according to the American Diabetes Association. The factor analysis was conducted to identify three dietary patterns. Higher scores of the meat–convenience dietary pattern (high intake of deep-fried and processed food, sauces, sugar-added beverages, meat and organ meats, instant noodles, rice or flour cooked in oil, and eggs) had no association with components of dyslipidemia and abnormal FPG. Higher scores of the vegetables–fruits–seafood dietary pattern (high intake of vegetables, vegetables with oil or dressing, fruits, seafood, legumes, soy products, and rice or flour products) was inversely associated with hypercholesterolemia and positively associated with hyperglycemia. Higher scores of the dairy–complex carbohydrate dietary pattern (high intake of dairy products, milk, root crops, jam or honey, and whole grains) was inversely correlated with hypertriglycemia and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level. Our results support that the dietary pattern may have a role in the prevention and management of dyslipidemia and abnormal fasting plasma glucose. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Nutrition and Metabolic Disease)
Open AccessArticle
Uroguanylin Improves Leptin Responsiveness in Diet-Induced Obese Mice
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 752; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040752
Received: 7 March 2019 / Revised: 27 March 2019 / Accepted: 27 March 2019 / Published: 30 March 2019
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Abstract
The gastrointestinal-brain axis is a key mediator of the body weight and energy homeostasis regulation. Uroguanylin (UGN) has been recently proposed to be a part of this gut-brain axis regulating food intake, body weight and energy expenditure. Expression of UGN is regulated by [...] Read more.
The gastrointestinal-brain axis is a key mediator of the body weight and energy homeostasis regulation. Uroguanylin (UGN) has been recently proposed to be a part of this gut-brain axis regulating food intake, body weight and energy expenditure. Expression of UGN is regulated by the nutritional status and dependent on leptin levels. However, the exact molecular mechanisms underlying this UGN-leptin metabolic regulation at a hypothalamic level still remains unclear. Using leptin resistant diet-induced obese (DIO) mice, we aimed to determine whether UGN could improve hypothalamic leptin sensitivity. The present work demonstrates that the central co-administration of UGN and leptin potentiates leptin’s ability to decrease the food intake and body weight in DIO mice, and that UGN activates the hypothalamic signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) pathways. At a functional level, the blockade of PI3K, but not STAT3, blunted UGN-mediated leptin responsiveness in DIO mice. Overall, these findings indicate that UGN improves leptin sensitivity in DIO mice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Nutrition and Metabolic Disease)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Precision Nutrition and the Microbiome, Part I: Current State of the Science
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 923; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040923
Received: 21 March 2019 / Revised: 10 April 2019 / Accepted: 17 April 2019 / Published: 24 April 2019
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Abstract
The gut microbiota is a highly complex community which evolves and adapts to its host over a lifetime. It has been described as a virtual organ owing to the myriad of functions it performs, including the production of bioactive metabolites, regulation of immunity, [...] Read more.
The gut microbiota is a highly complex community which evolves and adapts to its host over a lifetime. It has been described as a virtual organ owing to the myriad of functions it performs, including the production of bioactive metabolites, regulation of immunity, energy homeostasis and protection against pathogens. These activities are dependent on the quantity and quality of the microbiota alongside its metabolic potential, which are dictated by a number of factors, including diet and host genetics. In this regard, the gut microbiome is malleable and varies significantly from host to host. These two features render the gut microbiome a candidate ‘organ’ for the possibility of precision microbiomics—the use of the gut microbiome as a biomarker to predict responsiveness to specific dietary constituents to generate precision diets and interventions for optimal health. With this in mind, this two-part review investigates the current state of the science in terms of the influence of diet and specific dietary components on the gut microbiota and subsequent consequences for health status, along with opportunities to modulate the microbiota for improved health and the potential of the microbiome as a biomarker to predict responsiveness to dietary components. In particular, in Part I, we examine the development of the microbiota from birth and its role in health. We investigate the consequences of poor-quality diet in relation to infection and inflammation and discuss diet-derived microbial metabolites which negatively impact health. We look at the role of diet in shaping the microbiome and the influence of specific dietary components, namely protein, fat and carbohydrates, on gut microbiota composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Nutrition and Metabolic Disease)
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Open AccessReview
Protein Supplements and Their Relation with Nutrition, Microbiota Composition and Health: Is More Protein Always Better for Sportspeople?
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 829; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040829
Received: 12 March 2019 / Revised: 5 April 2019 / Accepted: 8 April 2019 / Published: 12 April 2019
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Abstract
Sports nutrition products are developed and targeted mainly for athletes to improve their nutrient intake, performance, and muscle growth. The fastest growing consumer groups for these products are recreational sportspeople and lifestyle users. Although athletes may have elevated physiological protein requirements and they [...] Read more.
Sports nutrition products are developed and targeted mainly for athletes to improve their nutrient intake, performance, and muscle growth. The fastest growing consumer groups for these products are recreational sportspeople and lifestyle users. Although athletes may have elevated physiological protein requirements and they may benefit from dietary supplements, the evidence regarding the role of dietary protein and supplements in the nutrition of recreational sportspeople and sedentary populations is somewhat complex and contradictory. In high-protein diets, more undigested protein-derived constituents end up in the large intestine compared to moderate or low-protein diets, and hence, more bacterial amino acid metabolism takes place in the colon, having both positive and negative systemic and metabolic effects on the host. The aim of the present review is to summarize the impact of the high-protein products and diets on nutrition and health, in sportspeople and in sedentary consumers. We are opening the debate about the current protein intake recommendations, with an emphasis on evidence-based effects on intestinal microbiota and personalized guidelines regarding protein and amino acid supplementation in sportspeople and lifestyle consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Nutrition and Metabolic Disease)
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