Special Issue "Precision Nutrition and Metabolic Disease"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 March 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Matthew Cooke
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Health Science and Biostatistics, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, VIC 3122, Australia
Interests: obesity; metabolic health; fasting, microbiome; performance; recovery; diet and supplementation; ageing
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The rising prevalence of obesity and metabolic disease in the form of prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and lipid disorders is a major global health issue. Despite the efforts of lifestyle interventions, i.e. diet, physical activity, smoking, etc., to prevent and manage such diseases, this problem continues to grow at an alarming rate. Tailored nutrition prescription that complements a person's unique genetic profile is a new way to provide specific nutritional advice that can support health maintenance and disease prevention.

Recently, the emergence of precision nutrition offers a different perspective on personalised nutrition to deliver nutritional recommendations that are more comprehensive and fluid based on the ever changing variables in a person’s internal and external environment over their life course. In addition to gene-diet interaction, other factors such as food choices and behaviour, physical activity, the microbiota and the metabolome, as well as the application in clinical practice and commercialisation and feasibility on a population-wide scale are considered within the scope of precision nutrition.

This special feature issue explores precision nutrition and attempts to provide specific nutritional and dietary strategies to prevent or manage obesity and metabolic diseases, as well as complications associated with such diseases. Studies investigating the challenges associated with the concept and its implementation will also be included.

Dr. Matthew Cooke
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Obesity
  • Diabetes
  • NAFLD
  • Hypertension
  • Inflammation
  • Oxidative stress
  • Microbiota
  • Dietary patterns
  • Metabotype/metabonomics/nutrimetabonomics
  • Insulin resistance
  • Nutritional intervention
  • Personalised nutrition
  • Nutrigenetics/Nutrigenomics

Published Papers (8 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle
Similarities in Metabolic Flexibility and Hunger Hormone Ghrelin Exist between FTO Gene Variants in Response to an Acute Dietary Challenge
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2518; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102518 - 18 Oct 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The rs9939609 polymorphism of the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene has been associated with obesity, and studies have also shown that environmental/lifestyle interaction such as dietary intake might mediate this effect. The current study investigates the postprandial hormonal regulators of hunger and [...] Read more.
The rs9939609 polymorphism of the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene has been associated with obesity, and studies have also shown that environmental/lifestyle interaction such as dietary intake might mediate this effect. The current study investigates the postprandial hormonal regulators of hunger and indirect markers of substrate utilisation and metabolic flexibility following a dietary challenge to determine if suppression of circulating ghrelin levels and/or reduced metabolic flexibility exist between FTO genotypes. One hundred and forty seven healthy, sedentary males and females (29.0 ± 0.7 yrs; 70.2 ± 1.1 kg; 169.1 ± 0.8 cm; 24.5 ± 0.3 kg/m2) complete a single experimental session. Anthropometric measures, circulating levels of active ghrelin, insulin and glucose, and substrate oxidation via indirect calorimetry, are measured pre-prandial and/or post-prandial. The FTO rs9939609 variant is genotyped using a real-time polymerase chain reaction. Metabolic flexibility (∆RER) is similar between FTO genotypes of the rs9939609 (T > A) polymorphism (p > 0.05). No differences in pre-prandial and/or postprandial substrate oxidation, plasma glucose, serum insulin or ghrelin are observed between genotypes (p > 0.05). These observations are independent of body mass index and gender. Altered postprandial responses in hunger hormones and metabolic flexibility may not be a mechanism by which FTO is associated with higher BMI and obesity in healthy, normal-weighted individuals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Nutrition and Metabolic Disease)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Food-Intake Normalization of Dysregulated Fatty Acids in Women with Anorexia Nervosa
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2208; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092208 - 13 Sep 2019
Abstract
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disorder affected by psychological, environmental, and biological factors. Individuals with AN avoid high-fat, high-calorie diets and have shown abnormal metabolism of fatty acids (FAs), which are essential for brain and cognitive/neuropsychiatric health. To clarify the relationship between [...] Read more.
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disorder affected by psychological, environmental, and biological factors. Individuals with AN avoid high-fat, high-calorie diets and have shown abnormal metabolism of fatty acids (FAs), which are essential for brain and cognitive/neuropsychiatric health. To clarify the relationship between FAs and AN, fasting and postprandial plasma FAs in AN patients and age-matched control women were analyzed via mass-spectrometry. Clinical phenotypes were assessed using Becker Anxiety Inventory and Becker Depression Inventory. AN patients and controls exhibited different FA signatures at both fasting and postprandial timepoints. Lauric acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and alpha-linoleic acid (ALA) were higher in AN than in controls (lauric acid: 15,081.6 ± 14,970.2 vs. 8257.4 ± 4740.2 pmol/mL; ALA at fasting: 2217.7 ± 1587.6 vs. 1087.9 ± 821.2 pmol/mL; ALA at postprandial: 1830.9 ± 1115.6 vs. 1159.4 ± 664.7 pmol/mL. EPA: 33,788.3 ± 17,487.5 vs. 22,860.6 ± 12,642.4 pmol/mL; DPA: 32,664.8 ± 16,215.0 vs. 20,969.0 ± 12,350.0 pmol/mL. FDR-adjusted p-values < 0.05). Food intake and AN status modified the correlations of FAs with body mass index (BMI), depression, and anxiety. Desaturases SCD-18 and D6D showed lower activities in AN compared to controls. Altered FA signature, specifically correlations between elevated n-3 FAs and worsened symptoms, illustrate metabolic underpinnings in AN. Future studies should investigate the mechanisms by which FA dysregulation, specifically elevated n-3 FAs, affects AN risk and outcome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Nutrition and Metabolic Disease)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Dietary Patterns in Relation to Components of Dyslipidemia and Fasting Plasma Glucose in Adults with Dyslipidemia and Elevated Fasting Plasma Glucose in Taiwan
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 845; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040845 - 14 Apr 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Dietary patterns have been proposed to be related to dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia. This study investigated the correlation of dietary patterns with components of dyslipidemia and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) among young and middle-aged adults (aged between 20 and 50 years) with dyslipidemia and [...] Read more.
Dietary patterns have been proposed to be related to dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia. This study investigated the correlation of dietary patterns with components of dyslipidemia and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) among young and middle-aged adults (aged between 20 and 50 years) with dyslipidemia and abnormal FPG in Taiwan. This cross-sectional study used the database compiled in Taiwan between 2001 to 2010. A total of 13,609 subjects aged between 20 and 50 years were selected. Dyslipidemia was defined primarily according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines with minor modification. Elevated FPG level was defined according to the American Diabetes Association. The factor analysis was conducted to identify three dietary patterns. Higher scores of the meat–convenience dietary pattern (high intake of deep-fried and processed food, sauces, sugar-added beverages, meat and organ meats, instant noodles, rice or flour cooked in oil, and eggs) had no association with components of dyslipidemia and abnormal FPG. Higher scores of the vegetables–fruits–seafood dietary pattern (high intake of vegetables, vegetables with oil or dressing, fruits, seafood, legumes, soy products, and rice or flour products) was inversely associated with hypercholesterolemia and positively associated with hyperglycemia. Higher scores of the dairy–complex carbohydrate dietary pattern (high intake of dairy products, milk, root crops, jam or honey, and whole grains) was inversely correlated with hypertriglycemia and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level. Our results support that the dietary pattern may have a role in the prevention and management of dyslipidemia and abnormal fasting plasma glucose. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Nutrition and Metabolic Disease)
Open AccessArticle
Uroguanylin Improves Leptin Responsiveness in Diet-Induced Obese Mice
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 752; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040752 - 30 Mar 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The gastrointestinal-brain axis is a key mediator of the body weight and energy homeostasis regulation. Uroguanylin (UGN) has been recently proposed to be a part of this gut-brain axis regulating food intake, body weight and energy expenditure. Expression of UGN is regulated by [...] Read more.
The gastrointestinal-brain axis is a key mediator of the body weight and energy homeostasis regulation. Uroguanylin (UGN) has been recently proposed to be a part of this gut-brain axis regulating food intake, body weight and energy expenditure. Expression of UGN is regulated by the nutritional status and dependent on leptin levels. However, the exact molecular mechanisms underlying this UGN-leptin metabolic regulation at a hypothalamic level still remains unclear. Using leptin resistant diet-induced obese (DIO) mice, we aimed to determine whether UGN could improve hypothalamic leptin sensitivity. The present work demonstrates that the central co-administration of UGN and leptin potentiates leptin’s ability to decrease the food intake and body weight in DIO mice, and that UGN activates the hypothalamic signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) pathways. At a functional level, the blockade of PI3K, but not STAT3, blunted UGN-mediated leptin responsiveness in DIO mice. Overall, these findings indicate that UGN improves leptin sensitivity in DIO mice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Nutrition and Metabolic Disease)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview
The Potential Use of Metabolic Cofactors in Treatment of NAFLD
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1578; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071578 - 12 Jul 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is caused by the imbalance between lipid deposition and lipid removal from the liver, and its global prevalence continues to increase dramatically. NAFLD encompasses a spectrum of pathological conditions including simple steatosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which can [...] Read more.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is caused by the imbalance between lipid deposition and lipid removal from the liver, and its global prevalence continues to increase dramatically. NAFLD encompasses a spectrum of pathological conditions including simple steatosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which can progress to cirrhosis and liver cancer. Even though there is a multi-disciplinary effort for development of a treatment strategy for NAFLD, there is not an approved effective medication available. Single or combined metabolic cofactors can be supplemented to boost the metabolic processes altered in NAFLD. Here, we review the dosage and usage of metabolic cofactors including l-carnitine, Nicotinamide riboside (NR), l-serine, and N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) in human clinical studies to improve the altered biological functions associated with different human diseases. We also discuss the potential use of these substances in treatment of NAFLD and other metabolic diseases including neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases of which pathogenesis is linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Nutrition and Metabolic Disease)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Precision Nutrition and the Microbiome Part II: Potential Opportunities and Pathways to Commercialisation
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1468; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071468 - 27 Jun 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Modulation of the human gut microbiota through probiotics, prebiotics and dietary fibre are recognised strategies to improve health and prevent disease. Yet we are only beginning to understand the impact of these interventions on the gut microbiota and the physiological consequences for the [...] Read more.
Modulation of the human gut microbiota through probiotics, prebiotics and dietary fibre are recognised strategies to improve health and prevent disease. Yet we are only beginning to understand the impact of these interventions on the gut microbiota and the physiological consequences for the human host, thus forging the way towards evidence-based scientific validation. However, in many studies a percentage of participants can be defined as ‘non-responders’ and scientists are beginning to unravel what differentiates these from ‘responders;’ and it is now clear that an individual’s baseline microbiota can influence an individual’s response. Thus, microbiome composition can potentially serve as a biomarker to predict responsiveness to interventions, diets and dietary components enabling greater opportunities for its use towards disease prevention and health promotion. In Part I of this two-part review, we reviewed the current state of the science in terms of the gut microbiota and the role of diet and dietary components in shaping it and subsequent consequences for human health. In Part II, we examine the efficacy of gut-microbiota modulating therapies at different life stages and their potential to aid in the management of undernutrition and overnutrition. Given the significance of an individual’s gut microbiota, we investigate the feasibility of microbiome testing and we discuss guidelines for evaluating the scientific validity of evidence for providing personalised microbiome-based dietary advice. Overall, this review highlights the potential value of the microbiome to prevent disease and maintain or promote health and in doing so, paves the pathway towards commercialisation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Nutrition and Metabolic Disease)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Precision Nutrition and the Microbiome, Part I: Current State of the Science
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 923; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040923 - 24 Apr 2019
Cited by 23
Abstract
The gut microbiota is a highly complex community which evolves and adapts to its host over a lifetime. It has been described as a virtual organ owing to the myriad of functions it performs, including the production of bioactive metabolites, regulation of immunity, [...] Read more.
The gut microbiota is a highly complex community which evolves and adapts to its host over a lifetime. It has been described as a virtual organ owing to the myriad of functions it performs, including the production of bioactive metabolites, regulation of immunity, energy homeostasis and protection against pathogens. These activities are dependent on the quantity and quality of the microbiota alongside its metabolic potential, which are dictated by a number of factors, including diet and host genetics. In this regard, the gut microbiome is malleable and varies significantly from host to host. These two features render the gut microbiome a candidate ‘organ’ for the possibility of precision microbiomics—the use of the gut microbiome as a biomarker to predict responsiveness to specific dietary constituents to generate precision diets and interventions for optimal health. With this in mind, this two-part review investigates the current state of the science in terms of the influence of diet and specific dietary components on the gut microbiota and subsequent consequences for health status, along with opportunities to modulate the microbiota for improved health and the potential of the microbiome as a biomarker to predict responsiveness to dietary components. In particular, in Part I, we examine the development of the microbiota from birth and its role in health. We investigate the consequences of poor-quality diet in relation to infection and inflammation and discuss diet-derived microbial metabolites which negatively impact health. We look at the role of diet in shaping the microbiome and the influence of specific dietary components, namely protein, fat and carbohydrates, on gut microbiota composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Nutrition and Metabolic Disease)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Protein Supplements and Their Relation with Nutrition, Microbiota Composition and Health: Is More Protein Always Better for Sportspeople?
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 829; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040829 - 12 Apr 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
Sports nutrition products are developed and targeted mainly for athletes to improve their nutrient intake, performance, and muscle growth. The fastest growing consumer groups for these products are recreational sportspeople and lifestyle users. Although athletes may have elevated physiological protein requirements and they [...] Read more.
Sports nutrition products are developed and targeted mainly for athletes to improve their nutrient intake, performance, and muscle growth. The fastest growing consumer groups for these products are recreational sportspeople and lifestyle users. Although athletes may have elevated physiological protein requirements and they may benefit from dietary supplements, the evidence regarding the role of dietary protein and supplements in the nutrition of recreational sportspeople and sedentary populations is somewhat complex and contradictory. In high-protein diets, more undigested protein-derived constituents end up in the large intestine compared to moderate or low-protein diets, and hence, more bacterial amino acid metabolism takes place in the colon, having both positive and negative systemic and metabolic effects on the host. The aim of the present review is to summarize the impact of the high-protein products and diets on nutrition and health, in sportspeople and in sedentary consumers. We are opening the debate about the current protein intake recommendations, with an emphasis on evidence-based effects on intestinal microbiota and personalized guidelines regarding protein and amino acid supplementation in sportspeople and lifestyle consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Nutrition and Metabolic Disease)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop